Matthew 9

Matthew 9


And after getting into a boatI he crossedII the sea and came to his ownIII town.IV

Notes on verse 1

I “boat” = ploion. From pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow). This is a boat, ship, or vessel.
II “crossed” = diaperao. 6x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + peran (over, beyond, across); {akin to pera (on the far side); perhaps from periro (to pierce)}. This is to cross or sail over entirely.
III “his own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
IV “town” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.

AndV just then some people were carryingVI a paralyzed manVII lyingVIII on a bed.IX

Notes on verse 2a

V {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
VI “carrying” = prosphero. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
VII “paralyzed man” = paralutikos. 10x in NT. From paraluo (to release on the side, weaken, disable, relax, paralyze); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld)}. This is someone who is paralyzed. This is where the word “paralyze” comes from.
VIII “lying” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
IX “bed” = kline. 9x in NT. From klino (to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear; to bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee). This is couch, bed, mat. Either a couch laid on to eat or for sleeping.

When JesusX sawXI their faith,XII he said to the paralytic,

Notes on verse 2b

X “Jesus” = iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XI “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XII “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

“Take heart,XIII son;XIV your sinsXV are forgiven.”XVI 

Notes on verse 2c

XIII “take heart” = tharseo. 7x in NT. From tharsos (courage, confidence, boldness); from thrasus (bold, daring). This is to have courage or good cheer, to be bold or confident.
XIV “son” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
XV “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
XVI “forgiven” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.

ThenXVII some of the scribesXVIII said to themselves, “This man is blaspheming.”XIX 

Notes on verse 3

XVII {untranslated} = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note V above.
XVIII “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
XIX “blaspheming” = blasphemeo. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.

But Jesus, perceivingXX their thoughts,XXI said, “Why do you thinkXXII evilXXIII in your hearts?XXIV 

Notes on verse 4

XX “perceiving” = eido. Related to {untranslated} in v2. See note V above.
XXI “thoughts” = enthumesis. 4x in NT. From enthumeomai (to think, reflect on, ponder, meditate on; also, passionate mindset, inspirited, moved by a strong impulse); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is pondering, thoughts, reflection, or deliberation. It focuses on a passionate impulse that impels the thought process.
XXII “think” = enthumeomai. Related to “thoughts” in v4. 3x in NT. See note XXI above.
XXIII “evil” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
XXIV “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

For which is easier,XXV to say, ‘Your sins are forgiven,’ or to say, ‘Stand upXXVI and walk’?XXVII 

Notes on verse 5

XXV “easier” = eukopoteros. 7x in NT. From eukopos (easy); {from eu (good, well, well done) + kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); {from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn)}}. This is easier, better for labor.
XXVI “stand up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XXVII “walk” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.

But so that you may knowXXVIII that the SonXXIX of ManXXX has authorityXXXI on earth to forgive sins”—he then said to the paralytic—“Stand up, takeXXXII your bed and goXXXIII to your home.”XXXIV 

Notes on verse 6

XXVIII “know” = eido. Same as “perceiving” in v4. See note XX above.
XXIX “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XXX “Man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XXXI “authority” = exousia. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
XXXII “take” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
XXXIII “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
XXXIV “home” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.

And he stood up and went to his home. When the crowds saw it, they were filled with awe,XXXV and they glorifiedXXXVI God,XXXVII who had given such authority to human beings.XXXVIII

Notes on verses 7-8

XXXV “filled with awe” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
XXXVI “glorified” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
XXXVII “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XXXVIII “human beings” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v6. See note XXX above.

As Jesus was walking along,XXXIX he saw a man called MatthewXL sitting at the tax booth;XLI and he said to him, “FollowXLII me.” And he got upXLIII and followed him.

Notes on verse 9

XXXIX “walking along” = parago. Related to “go” in v6. 11x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + ago (see note XXXIII above). This is to lead near or by, to pass by, go along, be a passer-by.
XL “Matthew” = matthaios. Related to “Jesus” in v2. 5x in NT. From maththaios (Matthew); from Hebrew mattityahu (Matthew, “gift of the Lord”); {from mattanah (gift, offering of sacrifice, present, bribe); {from mattan (gift, reward, to give); from natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively)} + YHVH (see note X above)}. This is Matthew or Matthaeus, meaning “give of the Lord” or “given of the Lord.” See
XLI “tax booth” = telonion. 3x in NT. From telones (tax collector, one who worked for the Romans taking taxes from Jews; also the toll house; literally, “paying at the end”); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)} + oneomai (to buy); {from onos (a price or sum)}. This is a tax booth, toll house.
XLII “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
XLIII “got up” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.

10 And as he sat at dinnerXLIV in the house,XLV, XLVI many tax collectorsXLVII and sinnersXLVIII came and were sitting withXLIX him and his disciples.L 

Notes on verse 10

XLIV “sat at dinner” = anakeimai. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.
XLV “house” = oikia. Related to “home” in v6. From oikos (see note XXXIV above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
XLVI {untranslated} = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note V above.
XLVII “tax collectors” = telones. Related to “tax booth” in v9. See note XLI above.
XLVIII “sinners” = hamartolos. Related to “sins” in v2. From hamartano (see note XV above). This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.
XLIX “sitting with” = sunanakeimai. Related to “sat at dinner” in v10. 7x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + anakeimai (see note XLIV above). This is to recline as in recline at a dinner table for a meal with others. It can also refer to the table or the dinner guest.
L “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

11 When the PhariseesLI saw this, they said to his disciples, “Why does your teacherLII eatLIII with tax collectors and sinners?” 

Notes on verse 11

LI “Pharisees” = pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religion engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
LII “teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
LIII “eat” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.

12 But when he heardLIV this, he said, “Those who are wellLV have no needLVI of a physician,LVII but those who are sick.LVIII 

Notes on verse 12

LIV “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LV “are well” = ischuo. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance). This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.
LVI “need” = chreia. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.
LVII “physician” = iatros. 7x in NT. From iaomai (to heal, particularly from a physical illness, or a spiritual difficulty; to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense). This is healer i.e. physician.
LVIII “sick” = kakos. 16x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is wrongly, badly, cruelly, with bad motives, misery connected to affliction. It can be physically badly or morally badly, i.e. evilly.

13 GoLIX and learnLX what this means, ‘I desireLXI mercy,LXII not sacrifice.’LXIII For I have come to callLXIV not the righteousLXV but sinners.”

Notes on verse 13

LIX “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
LX “learn” = manthano. Related to “disciples” in v10. See note L above.
LXI “desire” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
LXII “mercy” = eleos. This is mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion, whether from humans or from God. This is mercy, generally understood in action by word or deed. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is related to this word.
LXIII “sacrifice” = thusia. Related to “thoughts” and “think” in v4. From thuo (see note XXI above). This is a sacrifice or offering. It can refer to the act of sacrifice or the thig being sacrificed. Also, this is sacrifice in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIV “call” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
LXV “righteous” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.

14 Then the disciples of JohnLXVI came to him, saying, “Why do we and the Pharisees fastLXVII often, but your disciples do not fast?” 

15 And Jesus said to them, “The wedding guestsLXVIII cannot mournLXIX as long as the bridegroomLXX is with them, can they? The days will come when the bridegroom is taken awayLXXI from them, and then they will fast. 

Notes on verses 14-15

LXVI “John” = ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v2 & “Matthew” in v9. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note X above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status)}. This is John.
LXVII “fast” = nesteuo. Related to “eat” in v11. From ne (not, without) + esthio (see note LIII above)}. This is to fast, not eat food, to make a religious fast.
LXVIII “wedding guests” = huios + ho + numphon. Literally “the sons of the bridal chamber.” Huios is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship. Numphon is 3x in NT. From numphe (bride, daughter-in-law, young wife, or young woman); perhaps from nupto (to put on a veil as a bride does – in Latin nupto means simple to marry). This is the bridal chamber, wedding hall, or bridegroom. This is the same root that “nymphomaniac” comes from.
LXIX “mourn” = pentheo. 10x in NT. From penthos (mourning, sorrow, sadness, grief); perhaps from pascho (to be acted on for good or ill; often used for negative treatment; properly, feeling strong emotions – especially suffering; can also be the ability to feel suffering). This is used for grieving a death, but also figuratively for loss of hope or end of a relationship. This is embodied grief that is readily apparent. This is grief as a feeling or the act of grieving.
LXX “bridegroom” = numphios. Related to “wedding” in v15. 16x in NT. From numphe (see note LXVIII above). This is bridegroom in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXI “taken away” = apairo. Related to “take” in v6. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + airo (see note XXXII above). This is to take away, lift off, be withdrawn.

16 No one sewsLXXII a pieceLXXIII of unshrunkLXXIV clothLXXV on an oldLXXVI cloak,LXXVII

Notes on verse 16a

LXXII “sews” = epiballo. Related to “lying” in v2. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + ballo (see note VIII above). This is to sew, put, arrest, lay hands on, waves crashing, break down in emotion, or ownership.
LXXIII “piece” = epiblema. Related to “lying” in v2 & “sews” in v16. 4x in NT. From epiballo (see note LXXII above). This is a piece of cloth or patch.
LXXIV “unshrunk” = agnaphos. 2x in NT. From a (not, without) + gnapheus (launderer, cleaner of cloth, fuller); {from knapto (to card wool)} This is uncarded i.e. new cloth made of wool.
LXXV “cloth” = rhakos. 2x in NT. Perhaps from rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is a rag or remnant torn from cloth.
LXXVI “old” = palaios. 19x in NT. From palai (former, of old); probably from palin (back, again, further). This is old, ancient, or worn out.
LXXVII “cloak” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.

 for the patchLXXVIII pulls awayLXXIX from the cloak, and a worseLXXX tearLXXXI is made.LXXXII 

Notes on verse 16b

LXXVIII “patch” = pleroma. 18x in NT. From pleroo (to fill, make full or complete; properly, filling something up to the maximum extent or induvial capacity; used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill); from pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is fullness, supply, completion, superabundance, or multitude.
LXXIX “pulls away” = airo. Same as “take” in v6. See note XXXII above.
LXXX “worse” = cheiron. Related to “sick” in v12. 11x in NT. A comparative for kakos (see note LVIII above). This is worse, more evil – worse in a physical, mental, or ethical sense.
LXXXI “tear” = schisma. 8x in NT. From schizo (to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense). This is a split or a tear. Figuratively, it can refer to a schism, division, or dissension. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).
LXXXII “made” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another. This is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.

17 Neither is newLXXXIII wineLXXXIV putLXXXV into old wineskins;LXXXVI

Notes on verse 17a

LXXXIII “new” = neos. This is young, new, fresh, or youthful. This is brand new as opposed to novel (which is kainos in Greek).
LXXXIV “wine” = oinos. Perhaps from Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is wine. It is where the word “oenophile” comes from.
LXXXV “put” = ballo. Same as “lying” in v2. See note VIII above.
LXXXVI “wineskins” = askos. 12x in NT. Perhaps from the same as askeo (to exercise, train, strive); probably from the same as skeuos (tool, container, property, goods). This is leather, wineskin, a leather bag for a bottle.

otherwise, the skins burst,LXXXVII and the wine is spilled,LXXXVIII and the skins are destroyed;LXXXIX but new wine is put into freshXC wineskins, and so both are preserved.”XCI

Notes on verse 17b

LXXXVII “burst” = rhegnumi. Perhaps related to “cloth” in v16. 7x in NT. See note LXXV above.
LXXXVIII “spilled” = ekcheo. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (to pour). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.
LXXXIX “destroyed” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
XC “fresh” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
XCI “preserved” = suntereo. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + tereo (to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve; figuratively, spiritual watchfulness; guarding something from being lost or harmed; fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining; figuratively can mean to remain unmarried.); { teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy)}. This is to keep close, preserve, remember and obey, treasure.

18 While he was saying these things to them, suddenlyXCII a leader of the synagogueXCIII came in and knelt beforeXCIV him, saying, “My daughter has just died;XCV but come and lay your handXCVI on her, and she will live.” 

Notes on verse 18

XCII “suddenly” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XCIII “leader of the synagogue” = archon. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
XCIV “knelt before” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.
XCV “died” = teleutao. Related to “tax booth” in v9 & “tax collectors” in v10. 13x in NT. From teleute (end, finishing, consummation; can also be used for death); from teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); from telos (see note XLI above). This is to complete or come to the end/end goal. It can also mean to finish life or to meet one’s ultimate fate in heaven or hell.
XCVI “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.

19 And Jesus got up and followed him, with his disciples. 20 Then suddenly a womanXCVII who had been suffering from hemorrhagesXCVIII for twelve years came up behind him and touchedXCIX the fringeC of his cloak, 21 for she said to herself, “If I only touch his cloak, I will be made well.”CI 

22 Jesus turned,CII and seeing her he said, “Take heart, daughter; your faith has made you well.” And instantlyCIII the woman was made well. 

Notes on verses 19-22

XCVII “woman” = gune. Related to “made” in v16. Perhaps from ginomai (see note LXXXII above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XCVIII “been suffering from hemorrhages” = haimorroeo. 1x in NT. From haima (blood in a literal sense as bloodshed; figuratively, wine or kinship) + rheo (to flow, overflow). This is to flow blood, a disease involving flowing blood, a hemorrhage.
XCIX “touched” = haptomai. From hapto (to touch, handle, kindle, lay hold of). This is a touch that has an impact on what is being touched – it has an influence on the recipient so that the recipient is changed.
C “fringe” = kraspedon. 5x in NT. This is a border – a fringe, edge, or tassel.
CI “be made well” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
CII “turned” = strepho. From trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn). This is to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one.
CIII “instantly” = apo + ho + hora + ekeinos. Literally “from that very hour.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.

23 When Jesus came to the leader’s house and saw the flute playersCIV and the crowd making a commotion,CV 24 he said, “Go away; for the girlCVI is not deadCVII but sleeping.”CVIII And they laughed atCIX him. 

Notes on verses 23-24

CIV “flute players” = auletes. 2x in NT. From auleo (to play a flute or pipe); from aulos (pipe or flute); from aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a piper or flautist.
CV “making a commotion” = thorubeo. 5x in NT. From thorubos (an uproar, noise, outcry, riot, disturbance, trouble; figuratively, a very emotional wailing or hysteria; a commotion that leads to panic or terror); from the same as thoreo (to be troubled, agitated, alarmed, be unsettled, be frightened); from throos (clamor, noise) or from threomai (to wail). This is to disturb, agitate, cause tumult, trouble, create panic.
CVI “girl” = korasion. 8x in NT – 4x of the girl restored to life & 4x of Salome. From kore (maiden). This is a little girl or maiden.
CVII “is…dead” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
CVIII “sleeping” = katheudo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + heudo (to sleep). This is to settle down to rest, to sleep, fall asleep in a literal or figurative sense.
CIX “laughed at” = katagelao. 3x in NT – all in this and parallel passages. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + gelao (to laugh or smile because of joy or being satisfied). This is to deride ridicule, or laugh at.

25 But when the crowd had been put outside,CX he went in and tookCXI her by the hand, and the girl got up. 26 And the reportCXII of this spread throughoutCXIII that district.

Notes on verses 25-26

CX “put outside” = ekballo. Related to “lying” in x2 & “sews” and “piece” in v16. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (see note VIII above). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
CXI “took” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
CXII “report” = pheme. Related to “blaspheming” in v3. 2x in NT. From phemi (see note XIX above). This is a report, news, rumor, or fame. It can also be a saying.
CXIII “throughout” = eis + holos. Literally “into the whole.” Holos is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”

27 As Jesus went onCXIV from there, two blindCXV men followed him, crying loudly,CXVI “Have mercyCXVII on us, Son of David!”CXVIII 

Notes on verse 27

CXIV “went on” = parago. Same as “walking along” in v9. See note XXXIX above.
CXV “blind” = tuphlos. Derivation unclear. Perhaps from tuphoo (to be conceited, foolish, puffed up, haughty; properly, to blow smoke; figuratively being muddled or cloudy in mind; poor judgment that harms spiritual clarity; also, being covered with smoke – so filled with pride); from tuphos (smoke, vanity, arrogance); from tupho (to raise smoke, smolder, slowly consume without flame). This is blind or a blind person – perhaps in the sense of smoke making things opaque and impossible to see. This is blind literally or figuratively.
CXVI “crying loudly” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
CXVII “have mercy” = eleeo. Related to “mercy” in v13. From eleos (see note LXII above). This is to have pity on, show mercy to, be compassionate; often used for God’s grace. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is from this root verb.
CXVIII “David” = dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”

28 When he entered the house, the blind men came to him; and Jesus said to them, “Do you believeCXIX that I am ableCXX to do this?”

They said to him, “Yes, Lord.”CXXI 

29 Then he touched their eyesCXXII and said, “According to your faith let it be doneCXXIII to you.” 

Notes on verses 28-29

CXIX “believe” = pisteuo. Related to “faith” in v2. From pistis (see note XII above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CXX “am able” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
CXXI “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
CXXII “eyes” = ophthalmos. From optanomai (to appear, be seen by). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
CXXIII “be done” = ginomai. Same as “made” in v16. See note LXXXII above.

30 And their eyes were opened. Then Jesus sternly orderedCXXIV them, “See that no one knowsCXXV of this.” 31 But they went away and spread the newsCXXVI about him throughout that district.

Notes on verses 30-31

CXXIV “sternly ordered” = embrimaomai. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + brimaomai (snorting due to anger). This is affected by anger, stern admonishment, scolding, or being deeply moved. It is snorting displeasure or anger or roaring from rage. It can also mean to blame, sigh or murmur against someone.
CXXV “knows” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience
CXXVI “spread the news” = diaphemizo. Related to “blaspheming” in v3 & “report” in v26. 3x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + phemizo (to spread a message); {from phemi (see note XIX above)}. This is to report, spread news widely or commonly.

32 After they had gone away,CXXVII aCXXVIII demoniacCXXIX who was muteCXXX was broughtCXXXI to him. 

Notes on verse 32

CXXVII {untranslated} = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note V above.
CXXVIII {untranslated} = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v6. See note XXX above.
CXXIX “demoniac” = daimonizomai. 13x in NT. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is being demon-possessed or under an evil spirit’s power. This root is where the word “demon” comes from.
CXXX “mute” = kophos. Perhaps related to “easier” in v5. 14x in NT. Perhaps from kopto (see note XXV above). This is deaf or mute. It can also mean dull in the sense of blunt.
CXXXI “brought” = prosphero. Same as “carrying” in v2. See note VI above.

33 And when the demonCXXXII had been cast out, the one who had been mute spoke; and the crowds were amazedCXXXIII and said, “Never has anything like this been seenCXXXIV in Israel.”CXXXV 

34 But the Pharisees said, “By the rulerCXXXVI of the demons he casts out the demons.”

Notes on verses 33-34

CXXXII “demon” = daimonion. Related to “demoniac” in v32. See note CXXIX above.
CXXXIII “amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
CXXXIV “seen” = phaino. This is to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear. This is show in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXV “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.
CXXXVI “ruler” = archon. Same as “leader of the synagogue” in v18. See note XCIII above.

35 Then Jesus went aboutCXXXVII all the cities and villages,CXXXVIII teachingCXXXIX in their synagogues,CXL

Notes on verse 35a

CXXXVII “went about” = periago. Related to “go” in v6 & “walking along” in v9. 6x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ago (see note XXXIII above). This is to lead around, compass, go about.
CXXXVIII “villages” = kome. Related to “sat at dinner” and “sitting with” in v10. Perhaps from keimai (see note XLIV above).
CXXXIX “teaching” = didasko. Related to “teacher” in v11. See note LII above.
CXL “synagogues” = sunagoge. Related to “go” in v6 & “walking along” in v9 & “went about” in v35. From sunago (to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain; assembly); {from sun (with, together with) + ago (see note XXXIII above)}. Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.

and proclaimingCXLI the good newsCXLII of the kingdom,CXLIII and curingCXLIV every diseaseCXLV and every sickness.CXLVI 

Notes on verse 35b

CXLI “proclaiming” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
CXLII “good news” = euaggelion. Related to “go” in v6 & “walking along” in v9 & “went about” and “synagogues” in v35. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel); {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (see note XXXIII above)}. This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
CXLIII “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CXLIV “curing” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.
CXLV “disease” = nosos. 11x in NT. This refers to a disease that is chronic and enduring. It can also be used for a moral failing.
CXLVI “sickness” = malakia. 3x in NT. From malakos (soft, delicate). This is softness, weakness, or illness. It is some kind of condition that leaves the sufferer feeling weaker. It can also be a disabling condition.

36 When he saw the crowds, he had compassionCXLVII for them, because they were harassedCXLVIII and helpless,CXLIX like sheepCL without a shepherd.CLI 

Notes on verse 36

CXLVII “had compassion” = splagchnizomai. 12x in NT– 8x of Jesus having compassion on people or crowds. From splanxnon (inner organs, entrails; seen as the root of emotions). This is moved to compassion from deep within oneself – visceral empathy or sympathy, being deeply moved.
CXLVIII “harassed” = skullo. 4x in NT. This is to skin or flay. Figuratively, it can be to distress, annoy, or harass.
CXLIX “helpless” = rhipto. 7x in NT. Perhaps related to rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is to cast, toss fling, or disperse. It is a quick toss in contrast to another word ballo, intentional hurling, and teino (stretching outward).
CL “sheep” = probaton. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (to walk, to go)}}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
CLI “shepherd” = poimen. 18x in NT. This is shepherd or pastor – one who protects. It is also used figuratively to mean ruler. 

37 Then he said to his disciples, “TheCLII harvestCLIII is plentiful, but the laborersCLIV are few; 38 therefore askCLV the Lord of the harvest to send outCLVI laborers into his harvest.”

Notes on verses 37-38

CLII {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
CLIII “harvest” = therismos. Perhaps related to “curing” in v35. 13x in NT. From therizo (to reap, gather, harvest); from theros (see note CXLIV above). This is harvesting or reaping. By implication, it is the crop that was harvested.
CLIV “laborers” = ergates. 16x in NT. From ergazomai (to work, labor); {from ergon (word, task, action, employment)}. This is a field laborer – later used to refer to workers in general. It can also be used figuratively for teachers.
CLV “ask” = deomai. From deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited) This is having an urgent need because one is missing or needing something so it is an earnest appeal or pressing request.
CLVI “send out” = ekballo. Same as “put outside” in v25. See note CX above.

Image credit: “The Daughter of Jairus” by Annemiek Punt in the Nieuewe Kerk in Delft, Netherlands, 2006.

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