Numbers 11

Numbers 11


NowI when the peopleII complainedIII

Notes on verse 1a

I {untranslated} = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
II “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
III “complained” = anan. 2x in OT – here and in Lamentations 3:39, “Why should any who draw breath complain about the punishment of their sins?” This is to complain, murmur, or mourn.

in the hearingIV of the LordV about their misfortunes,VI

Notes on verse 1b

IV “hearing” = ozen. This is ear, hearing, audience, show. Properly, it is broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape.
V “Lord” = YHVH. Related to {untranslated} in v1. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note I above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
VI “misfortunes” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.

the Lord heardVII it, and his angerVIII was kindled.IX

Notes on verse 1c

VII “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
VIII “anger” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
IX “kindled” = charah. Perhaps related to charar (to be hot, burn, glow, melt, be scorched; figuratively, to incite passion, be angry). This is to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn. Figuratively it is a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy.

Then the fireX of the Lord burnedXI against them and consumedXII some outlying partsXIII of the camp.XIV 

Notes on verse 1d

X “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
XI “burned” = baar. This is to burn, consume, heat, remove. It can also be to consume by a fire or through eating, being brutish or wasting.
XII “consumed” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
XIII “outlying parts” = qatseh. From qatsah (to cut off, cut short; figuratively, to destroy). This is end, brink, border, edge, frontier. It can refer to that which is within set boundaries.
XIV “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.

But the people cried outXV to Moses,XVI and Moses prayedXVII to the Lord, and the fire abated.XVIII 

Notes on verse 2

XV “cried out” = tsaaq. This is to cry out or call together, to shriek. It can mean, by implication, calling for an assembly.
XVI “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
XVII “prayed” = palal. This is to judge for oneself or in an official capacity. It can also mean to pray or make supplication, to entreat.
XVIII “abated” = shaqa. 6x in OT. This is to sink, subside, lower, quench, be overflowed, stop.

So that placeXIX was calledXX Taberah,XXI because the fire of the Lord burned against them.

Notes on verse 3

XIX “place” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
XX “called” = qara + shem. Qara is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth. Shem may be from sim (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
XXI “Taberah” = Taberah. Related to “burned” in v1. 2x in OT. From baar (see note XI above). This is Taberah, meaning “burning,” “figure,” form,” “likeness,” “pattern,” or “similitude.”

The camp followersXXII withXXIII them hadXXIV a strong craving,XXV

Notes on verse 4a

XXII “camp followers” = asaphsuph. 1x in OT. From asaph (to gather, assemble, bring, take away, destroy, or remove) OR from asoph (storehouse, gathering of offerings, threshold); {from asaph (see above)}. This is a group of people mixed up together.
XXIII “with” = qereb. Perhaps from qarab (to come near or approach). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.
XXIV “had” = avah. This is to desire, wish for, crave, lust after, to incline.
XXV “craving” = taavah. Related to “had” in v4. From the same as avah (see note XXIV above). This is what is desirable, a delight, greedy, satisfaction, a charm.

and the IsraelitesXXVI also weptXXVII againXXVIII and said, “If only we had meatXXIX to eat!XXX 

Notes on verse 4b

XXVI “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XXVII “wept” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.
XXVIII “again” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
XXIX “meat” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
XXX “eat” = akal. Same as “consumed” in v1. See note XII above.

We rememberXXXI the fishXXXII we used to eat in EgyptXXXIII for nothing,XXXIV

Notes on verse 5a

XXXI “remember” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
XXXII “fish” = dagah. 15x in OT. From dag (fish, fishing); perhaps from da’ag (to fear, be worried, sorrow, be concerned, be anxious, be sorry). This is fish – perhaps as creatures that move by squirming.
XXXIII “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
XXXIV “for nothing” = chinnam. From chen (grace, favor, kindness, beauty, precious); from chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is out of favor, so it can mean without cost, without payment, nothing, vain, or useless.

the cucumbers,XXXV the melons,XXXVI the leeks,XXXVII the onions,XXXVIII and the garlic,XXXIX 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXV “cucumbers” = qishshuah. 1x in OT. May be from a word that means to be hard. This is a cucumber.
XXXVI “melons” = abattich. 1x in OT. This is watermelon or melon.
XXXVII “leeks” = chatsir. Perhaps from the same as chatsir (village, settlement); from chatser (enclosure or court – a yard that is fenced in. It could also be a village or hamlet that is walled in); from chatsar (to blow a trumpet, trumpeter, to surround); from chatsotsrah (trumpet). This is grass, plant, hay, leeks.
XXXVIII “onions” = batsal. 1x in OT. May be from a word that means to peel. This is an onion.
XXXIX “garlic” = shum. 1x in OT. May be from a word that means to release your breath because of an odor. This is garlic.

but now our strengthXL is dried up,XLI and there is nothingXLII at allXLIII butXLIV this mannaXLV to look at.”XLVI

Notes on verse 6

XL “strength” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
XLI “dried up” = yabesh. 9x in OT. From yabesh (to dry up, be withered, be dry; to be ashamed, confused, or disappointed). This is dry, withered (as for plants), or gone.
XLII “nothing” = ayin. Perhaps from a word that means to be nothing. This means nothing, none, non-existent. It can also simply mean not or are not.
XLIII “at all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XLIV “but” = bilti. From balah (to grow old, wear out, consume, waste, enjoy, fail, decay). This is nothing, not, lest, or except. From its root, it means “a failure of” – used for negative particles.
XLV “manna” = man. 14x in OT. From mah (what, how, how long, why – a question or exclamation). This is manna, literally a whatzit.
XLVI “to look at” = ayin. Literally, “to…our eyes.” This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).

Now the manna was like corianderXLVII seed,XLVIII and its colorXLIX was like the color of gum resin.L 

Notes on verse 7

XLVII “coriander” = gad. 2x in OT– both in reference to manna. Perhaps from gadad (to cut, gather, assemble, crowd; also, to gash as pushing in, to gather military troops). This is coriander, whose seed has furrows.
XLVIII “seed” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
XLIX “color” = ayin. Same as “to look at” in v6. See note XLVI above.
L “gum resin” = bedolach. 2x in OT. Perhaps from badal (to divide, distinguish, select, differ, sever; to divine in a literal or figurative sense) This is likely bdellium, a gum resin, amber. Sometimes it is translated pearl. It may be the root that “bdellium” comes from.

The people went aroundLI and gatheredLII it, groundLIII it in millsLIV or beatLV it in mortars,LVI then boiledLVII it

Notes on verse 8a

LI “went around” = shut. 13x in OT. This is to rove around, push forth, go back and forth. It can also refer to a rower as one who travels around.
LII “gathered” = laqat. This is to pick up, glean, gather.
LIII “ground” = tachan. 8x in OT. This is to grind as in grinding meal. It can also be used euphemistically for infidelity.
LIV “mills” = recheh. 5x in OT. Root might mean to pulverize. This is a hand mill or a millstone.
LV “beat” = duk. 1x in OT. This is to pound or beat.
LVI “mortars” = medokah. Related to “beat” in v8. From the same as duk (see note LV above). This is mortar.
LVII “boiled” = bashal. This is to boil up, roast, or bake. It can also mean ripen, produce, or seethe.

in potsLVIII and madeLIX cakesLX of it, and the taste of it wasLXI like the tasteLXII of cakesLXIII baked with oil.LXIV 

Notes on verse 8b

LVIII “pots” = parur. 3x in OT. From the same as purah (measure, wine press) OR from parar (to break, defeat, frustrate, caste off, clean, cease). This is a pot, pan, or skillet.
LIX “made” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LX “cakes” = uggah. 7x in OT. Perhaps from ug (to gyrate, bake; baking a round cake). This is a bread cake that is round, cooked on the hearth.
LXI “was” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
LXII “taste” = taam. 13x in OT. From taam (to taste, perceive). This is taste, perception, discernment, decree, understanding, sanity.
LXIII “cakes” = lashad. 2x in OT. This is juicy, fresh, moisture. It can be used for a sweet cake or figuratively for vigor.
LXIV “baked with oil” = shemen. From shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat). This is fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume. Used figuratively for fertile, lavish, rich.

When the dewLXV fellLXVI on the camp in the night,LXVII the manna would fall with it.

10 Moses heard the people weeping throughout their families,LXVIII allLXIX at the entrancesLXX of their tents.LXXI

Notes on verses 9-10a

LXV “dew” = tal. Perhaps from talal (to cover, roof, strew). This is dew or mist as something that covers plants.
LXVI “fell” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
LXVII “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
LXVIII “families” = mishpachah. From the same as shiphcah (maid, maidservant); root means to spread out. This is one’s circle of relatives – clan, family, kindred.
LXIX “all” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
LXX “entrances” = pethach. From pathach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense; to open, draw out, let something go free, break forth, to plow, engrave, or carve). This is any kind of opening – a door, entrance, gate.
LXXI “tents” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.

Then the LordLXXII became veryLXXIII angry,LXXIV and Moses was displeased.LXXV 

Notes on verse 10b

LXXII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to {untranslated} and “Lord” in v1. From the same as YHVH (see note V above). It has the same meaning as “Lord,” but with a different vowel pointing.
LXXIII “very” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
LXXIV “became…angry” = charah + aph. Charah is the same as “kindled” in v1. See note IX above. Aph is the same as “anger” in v1. See note VIII above.
LXXV “Moses was displeased” = ayin + Mosheh + ra’. Literally, “the eyes of Moses distress.” Ayin is the same as “to look at” in v6. See note XLVI above. Mosheh is the same as “Moses” in v2. See note XVI above. Ra’ is the same as “misfortunes” in v1. See note VI above.

11 So Moses said to the Lord,LXXVI “Why have you treated your servantLXXVII so badly?LXXVIII Why have I not foundLXXIX favorLXXX in your sight,LXXXI

Notes on verse 11a

LXXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
LXXVII “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
LXXVIII “treated…so badly” = ra’a’. Related to “misfortunes” in v1. See note VI above.
LXXIX “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
LXXX “favor” = chen. Related to “for nothing” in v5. See note XXXIV above.
LXXXI “sight” = ayin. Same as “to look at” in v6. See note XLVI above.

that you layLXXXII the burdenLXXXIII of allLXXXIV this people on me? 12 Did I conceiveLXXXV all this people? Did I give birthLXXXVI to them,

Notes on verses 11b-12a

LXXXII “lay” = sim. Related to “called” in v3. See note XX above.
LXXXIII “burden” = massa. From nasa (to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively; to carry, take, or arise; to bring forth, advance, accept). This is burden, bearing, load, utterance, tribute, prophecy, desire, song.
LXXXIV “all” = kol. Same as “at all” in v6. See note XLIII above.
LXXXV “conceive” = harah. This is to conceive or be pregnant – it can be literal or figurative.
LXXXVI “give birth” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.

that you should say to me, ‘CarryLXXXVII them in your bosomLXXXVIII as a wet nurseLXXXIX carries a nursing child,XC

Notes on verse 12b

LXXXVII “carry” = nasa. Related to “burden” in v11. See note LXXXIII above.
LXXXVIII “bosom” = cheq. Root may mean to enclose. This is bosom in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be arms, lap, or midst. It can also be care or cherish.
LXXXIX “nurse” = aman. This is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. It can mean to support as in being a nurse. This is where the word “amen” comes from.
XC “nursing child” = yanaq. This is to suckle or to nurse. In a causative sense, it can mean to give milk. So, this word can be used for a nursing mother or for her suckling child.

to the landXCI that you promised on oathXCII to their ancestors’?XCIII 13 Where am I to get meat to giveXCIV to all this people? For they come weeping to me, saying, ‘Give us meat to eat!’ 

Notes on verses 12c-13

XCI “land” = adamah. From the same as adam (man, humankind); perhaps from ‘adom (to be red). This is ground, earth, soil as red, or land.
XCII “promised on oath” = shaba. Perhaps from sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant. Properly, it can mean to be complete. This is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times.
XCIII “ancestors” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XCIV “give” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.

14 I am not ableXCV to carry all this people alone,XCVI for they are too heavyXCVII for me. 

Notes on verse 14

XCV “am…able” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
XCVI “alone” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.
XCVII “too heavy” = kabed. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is heavy, grievous, sore. It can also be weighty in the sense of gravitas. The word for “glory” in Hebrew comes from this root (kabod).

15 If this is the wayXCVIII you are going to treatXCIX me, put me to deathC at onceCI—if I have found favor in your sight—and do not let me seeCII my misery.”CIII

Notes on verse 15

XCVIII “this is the way” = kakah. From koh (like this, thus, here, now) + ki (that, for when, certainly) + hu (he, she, it). This is even so, like this, thus.
XCIX “treat” = asah. Same as “made” in v8. See note LIX above.
C “put…to death” = haragharag. This is to strike with deadly intent so it can be kill, destroy, murder, or put to death. The word is repeated twice – the second time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CI {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
CII “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
CIII “misery” = ra’. Same as “misfortunes” in v1. See note VI above.

16 So the LordCIV said to Moses, “GatherCV for me seventyCVI of theCVII eldersCVIII of Israel,

Notes on verse 16a

CIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CV “gather” = asaph. Related to “camp followers” in v4. See note XXII above.
CVI “seventy” = shibim. Related to “promised on oath” in v12. From sheba (see note XCII above). This is seventy.
CVII {untranslated} = ish. Same as “all” in v10. See note LXIX above.
CVIII “elders” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.

whom you knowCIX to be the elders of the people and officersCX over them; bringCXI them to the tent of meetingCXII and have them take their placeCXIII there with you. 

Notes on verse 16b

CIX “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
CX “officers” = shoter. The root may mean write. This is perhaps originally a scribe and so it was used more broadly for an official, officer, ruler, overseer, or magistrate.
CXI “bring” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CXII “meeting” = moed. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.
CXIII “take…place” = yatsab. This is to set oneself, take a stand, remain, continue, to station or set something in place.

17 I will come downCXIV and speakCXV with you there, and I will takeCXVI some of the spiritCXVII that is on you and putCXVIII it on them, and they shall bearCXIX the burden of the people along with you so that you will not bear it all by yourself. 

Notes on verse 17

CXIV “come down” = yarad. Same as “fell” in v9. See note LXVI above.
CXV “speak” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
CXVI “take” = atsal. 5x in OT. From the etsel (nearby, toward, joining). This is to reserve, refuse, join, separate, keep.
CXVII “spirit” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.
CXVIII “put” = sim. Same as “lay” in v11. See note LXXXII above.
CXIX “bear” = nasa. Same as “carry” in v12. See note LXXXVII above.

18 And say to the people, ‘ConsecrateCXX yourselves for tomorrow,CXXI and you shall eat meat, for you have wailedCXXII in the hearing of the Lord, saying, “If only we had meat to eat! Surely it was betterCXXIII for us in Egypt.” Therefore the Lord will give you meat, and you shall eat. 

Notes on verse 18

CXX “consecrate” = qadash. From qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy). This is set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified. This is something or someone that is set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean.
CXXI “tomorrow” = machar. Perhaps from achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is tomorrow or later. It is some kind of deferred time, so it could also mean indefinitely or refer to the time to come.
CXXII “wailed” = bakah. Same as “wept” in v4. See note XXVII above.
CXXIII “better” = tob. This is to be good, go well, please.

19 You shall eat not only oneCXXIV day,CXXV or two days, or fiveCXXVI days, or tenCXXVII days, or twentyCXXVIII days, 

Notes on verse 19

CXXIV “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
CXXV “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CXXVI “five” = chamesh. This is five.
CXXVII “ten” = eser. Perhaps from asar (to tithe, render a tenth of). This is ten or -teen. While 7 is symbolically the number of perfection, ten is also symbolically a number of perfection (but to a lesser degree than 7 is).
CXXVIII “twenty” = esrim. Related to “ten” in v19. From the same as eser (see note CXXVII above). This is twenty or twentieth.

20 but for a wholeCXXIX month,CXXX until it comes outCXXXI of your nostrilsCXXXII and becomesCXXXIII loathsomeCXXXIV to you—

Notes on verse 20a

CXXIX “whole” = yom. Same as “day” in v19. See note CXXV above.
CXXX “month” = chodesh. From chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.
CXXXI “comes out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXII “nostrils” = aph. Same as “anger” in v1. See note VIII above.
CXXXIII “becomes” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CXXXIV “loathsome” = zara. 1x in OT. From zur (loathsome, offensive) OR from zur (to come from somewhere else – a stranger; to stop for lodging; figuratively, to profane or commit adultery). This is something that is loathsome, disgust.

becauseCXXXV you have rejected the LordCXXXVI who is amongCXXXVII you and have wailed beforeCXXXVIII him, saying, “Why did we ever leaveCXXXIX Egypt?”’” 

Notes on verse 20b

CXXXV “because” = yaan. From anah (to answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify; to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk; singing, shouting, testifying, etc.). This is because, since, for the sake of, giving a reason.
CXXXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CXXXVII “among” = qereb. Same as “among” in v4. See note XXIII above.
CXXXVIII “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
CXXXIX “leave” = yatsa. Same as “comes out” in v20. See note CXXXI above.

21 But Moses said, “The people I am withCXL number sixCXLI hundredCXLII thousandCXLIII on foot,CXLIV and you say, ‘I will give them meat, that they may eat for a whole month’! 

Notes on verse 21

CXL “with” = qereb. Same as “among” in v4. See note XXIII above.
CXLI “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.
CXLII “hundred” = meah. This is hundred or some number times one hundred (i.e. hundredfold or the base of two hundred, three hundred, etc.).
CXLIII “thousand” = eleph. Perhaps from the same as eleph (herd, cattle); from alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is thousand.
CXLIV “on foot” = ragli. 12x in OT. From the same as regel (foot, endurance, or journey; a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey; can euphemistically mean private parts). This is on foot or a soldier (as one who goes on foot).

22 Are there enough flocksCXLV and herdsCXLVI to slaughterCXLVII for them? AreCXLVIII there enoughCXLIX fishCL in the seaCLI to catchCLII for them?”

Notes on verse 22

CXLV “flocks” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
CXLVI “herds” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
CXLVII “slaughter” = shachat. This is to slaughter, slay, or beat. It can be slaying for a sacrifice or in a massacre.
CXLVIII “are” = asaph. Same as “gather” in v16. See note CV above.
CXLIX {untranslated} = kol. Same as “at all” in v6. See note XLIII above.
CL “fish” = dag. Related to “fish” in v5. 19x in OT. See note XXXII above.
CLI “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.
CLII “catch” = matsa. Same as “found” in v11. See note LXXIX above.

 23 The LordCLIII said to Moses, “Is the Lord’sCLIV powerCLV limited?CLVI Now you shall see whether my wordCLVII will come trueCLVIII for you or not.”

Notes on verse 23

CLIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CLIV “Lord’s” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CLV “power” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CLVI “limited” = qatsar. This is to cut down, be short, reap, curtail. It is used especially for harvesting grass or grain. Figuratively, it can mean to be discouraged or grieve.
CLVII “word” = dabar. Related to “speak” in v17. From dabar (see note CXV above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
CLVIII “come true” = qarah. This is to encounter, usually unintentionally. It can also mean to happen or to lay wood for a floor or roof.

24 So Moses went outCLIX and toldCLX the people the words of the Lord,CLXI and he gatheredCLXII seventy of theCLXIII elders of the people and placedCLXIV them all aroundCLXV the tent. 

Notes on verse 24

CLIX “went out” = yatsa. Same as “comes out” in v20. See note CXXXI above.
CLX “told” = dabar. Same as “speak” in v17. See note CXV above.
CLXI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CLXII “gathered” = asaph. Same as “gather” in v16. See note CV above.
CLXIII {untranslated} = enosh. Related to “all” in v10. See note LXIX above.
CLXIV “placed” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
CLXV “all around” = sabib. From sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.

25 Then the LordCLXVI came down in the cloudCLXVII and spoke to him and tookCLXVIII some of the spirit that was on him and putCLXIX it on the seventyCLXX elders,

Notes on verse 25a

CLXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CLXVII “cloud” = anan. May be from anan (cover, cloud over; figuratively, acting in a secret way, practicing magic or soothsaying). This is a cloud as something that covers the sky.
CLXVIII “took” = atsal. Same as “take” in v17. See note CXVI above.
CLXIX “put” = natan. Same as “give” in v13. See note XCIV above.
CLXX {untranslated} = ish. Same as “all” in v10. See note LXIX above.

andCLXXI when the spirit restedCLXXII upon them, they prophesied.CLXXIII But they did not do so again.CLXXIV

Notes on verse 25b

CLXXI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CLXXII “rested” = nuach. This is to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait. It is rest and so implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense. This is perhaps the root verb of the name “Noah.”
CLXXIII “prophesied” = naba. Related to nabi (prophet, prophecy, speaker; someone inspired). This is to prophesy. It can also refer to an ecstatic state – raving. It is associated with speech, song, teachings, and predictions.
CLXXIV “do…again” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.

26 TwoCLXXV menCLXXVI remainedCLXXVII in the camp,

Notes on verse 26a

CLXXV “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
CLXXVI “men” = ish. Same as “all” in v10. See note LXIX above.
CLXXVII “remained” = shaar. Properly, this is swelling up i.e. being left over, a remnant, remaining, being redundant.

one namedCLXXVIII EldadCLXXIX and the otherCLXXX named Medad,CLXXXI and the spirit rested on them; they were among those registered,CLXXXII but they had not gone out to the tent, so they prophesied in the camp. 

Notes on verse 26b

CLXXVIII “named” = shem. Same as “called” in v3. See note XX above.
CLXXIX “Eldad” = Eldad. Related to “Israelites” in v4. 2x in OT. From El (God, a god) + dod (beloved, love, uncle). This is Eldad, meaning “God has loved.”
CLXXX “other” = sheni. Related to “two” in v26. See note CLXXV above.
CLXXXI “Medad” = Medad. Related to “Eldad” in v26. 2x in OT. From the same as yadid (lovely, amiable, beloved); from the same as dod (see note CLXXIX above). This is Medad, meaning “affectionate.”
CLXXXII “registered” = kathab. This is to inscribe, write, record, or decree.

27 And a young manCLXXXIII ranCLXXXIV and toldCLXXXV Moses, “Eldad and Medad are prophesying in the camp.” 

Notes on verse 27

CLXXXIII “young man” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
CLXXXIV “ran” = ruts. This is to run or rush, divide quickly, bring swiftly. It can also refer to a footman or guard.
CLXXXV “told” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.

28 And JoshuaCLXXXVI sonCLXXXVII of Nun,CLXXXVIII the assistantCLXXXIX of Moses,

Notes on verse 28a

CLXXXVI “Joshua” = Yehoshua. Related to {untranslated} and “Lord” in v1 & “Lord” in v10. From YHVH (see note V above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Joshua, Jeshua, or Yehoshua, which means “the Lord is salvation.”
CLXXXVII “son” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v4. See note XXVI above.
CLXXXVIII “Nun” = Nun. From nun (to propagate, continue, resprout, be perpetual). This is Nun or Non, meaning “perpetuity.”
CLXXXIX “assistant” = sharath. This is ministering, serving, or waiting on. It can refer to one offering service as a worshipper or one serving as a servant.

one of his chosen men,CXC said,CXCI “My lordCXCII Moses, stopCXCIII them!” 

Notes on verse 28b

CXC “chosen men” = bechurim. 3x in OT. From bachur (choice, chosen, selected; a youth or young man); from bachar (to choose, appoint, try, excellent). This is youth or the time of young manhood.
CXCI “said” = anah. Related to “because” in v20. See note CXXXV above.
CXCII “lord” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
CXCIII “stop” = kala. 18x in OT. This is to stop in the sense of holding back or restraining. It could be keep, refuse, forbid, or to prohibit by word.

29 But Moses said to him, “Are you jealousCXCIV for my sake? Would thatCXCV allCXCVI the Lord’sCXCVII people

Notes on verse 29a

CXCIV “are…jealous” = qanah. From qinah (zeal, jealousy). This is to be zealous or to provoke to jealousy.
CXCV “would that” = natan. Same as “give” in v13. See note XCIV above.
CXCVI “all” = kol. Same as “at all” in v6. See note XLIII above.
CXCVII “Lord’s” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.

were prophetsCXCVIII and that the LordCXCIX would putCC his spirit on them!” 30 And Moses and the elders of Israel returnedCCI to the camp.

Notes on verses 29b-30

CXCVIII “prophets” = nabi. Related to “prophesied” in v25. See note CLXXIII above.
CXCIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CC “put” = natan. Same as “give” in v13. See note XCIV above.
CCI “returned” = asaph. Same as “gather” in v16. See note CV above.

31 Then a windCCII went outCCIII from the Lord,CCIV and it broughtCCV quailsCCVI from the sea

Notes on verse 31a

CCII “wind” = ruach. Same as “spirit” in v17. See note CXVII above.
CCIII “went out” = nasa. This is properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes. This would imply striking tents in order to start a journey. So this could be bring, pullout, set out, journey, or cause to go away.
CCIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CCV “brought” = guz. 2x in OT. This is to cut off, pass quickly, bring.
CCVI “quails” = selav. 4x in OT– all in reference to the quails in the wilderness wanderings. Perhaps related to Arabic (“to be fat”) OR related to shalah (to be quiet, safe, tranquil; can imply success or happiness; could also mean to deceive or be negligent). This is a quail as a slow-moving bird. See

and let them fallCCVII beside the camp, about a day’s journeyCCVIII on this sideCCIX

Notes on verse 31b

CCVII “fall” = natash. Properly, this is to beat or pound as when something is beaten in order to expand or disperse. It can be leave, abandon, allow, neglect, spread, fall, or thrust out.
CCVIII “journey” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
CCIX “on this side” = koh. Related to “this is the way” in v15. See note XCVIII above.

and a day’s journey on the other side,CCX all around the camp, about two cubitsCCXI deep on theCCXII ground.CCXIII 

Notes on verse 31c

CCX “on the other side” = koh. Same as “on this side” in v31. See note CCIX above.
CCXI “cubits” = ammah. From the same as em (mother). This is a cubit, post, threshold, pivot. It is mother as the basic measure (the length of the forearm). It is also mother as the which bonds an entryway i.e. the base of the door.
CCXII {untranslated} = paneh. Same as “before” in v20. See note CXXXVIII above.
CCXIII “ground” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

32 So the people workedCCXIV allCCXV that day and night and allCCXVI the nextCCXVII day gatheringCCXVIII the quails;

Notes on verse 32a

CCXIV “worked” = qum. Related to “place” in v3. See note XIX above.
CCXV “all” = kol. Same as “at all” in v6. See note XLIII above.
CCXVI “all” = kol. Same as “at all” in v6. See note XLIII above.
CCXVII “next” = mochorath. Related to “tomorrow” in v18. From the same as machar (see note CXXI above). This is tomorrow, next morning.
CCXVIII “gathering” = asaph. Same as “gather” in v16. See note CV above.

the leastCCXIX anyone gatheredCCXX was ten homers,CCXXI and they spread them outCCXXII for themselves all around the camp. 

Notes on verse 32b

CCXIX “least” = maat. This is diminished, decreased, reduced, insignificant. It is a broad sense of being small or becoming small. Figuratively, this can mean ineffective.
CCXX “gathered” = asaph. Same as “gather” in v16. See note CV above.
CCXXI “homers” = chomer. From chamar (to boil up, ferment, be red befoul, trouble, daub). This is something that bubbles up like sea foam, mire, clay, a heap. It is also cement, mortar and a dry measure.
CCXXII “spread…out” = shatach+ shatach. 6x in OT. This is to expand, spread out, scatter. The word is repeated twice – the second time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

33 But while the meat was still betweenCCXXIII their teeth,CCXXIV beforeCCXXV it was consumed,CCXXVI the anger of the LordCCXXVII was kindled against the people,

Notes on verse 33a

CCXXIII “between” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
CCXXIV “teeth” = shen. From shanan (to sharpen, point, pierce; figuratively to teach). This is a tooth, ivory, something sharp, or, figuratively, a cliff.
CCXXV “before” = terem. May come from a word that means to interrupt. This is not yet or before.
CCXXVI “consumed” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
CCXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.

and the LordCCXXVIII struckCCXXIX the people with a very greatCCXXX plague.CCXXXI 

Notes on verse 33b

CCXXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note V above.
CCXXIX “struck” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
CCXXX “great” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
CCXXXI “plague” = makkah. Related to “struck” in v33. From nakah (see note CCXXIX above). This is a wound, injury, blow. Figuratively, it could be disaster, slaughter, or pestilence.

34 So that place was called Kibroth-hattaavah,CCXXXII because there they buriedCCXXXIII the people who had the craving. 35 From Kibroth-hattaavah the people journeyedCCXXXIV to Hazeroth.CCXXXV, CCXXXVI

Notes on verses 34-35

CCXXXII “Kibroth-hattaavah” = Qibroth Hattaavah. Related to “had” and “craving” in v4. 5x in OT. From qeber (a place where one is buried; a grave or tomb); {from qabar (to bury)} + taavah (see note XXV above). This is Kibroth-hattaavah or Qibroth Hattaavah, meaning “the graves of desire” or “graves of the longing.”
CCXXXIII “buried” = qabar. Related to “Kibroth-hattaavah” in v34. See note CCXXXII above.
CCXXXIV “journeyed” = nasa. Same as “went out” in v31. See note CCIII above.
CCXXXV “Hazeroth” = Chatseroth.  6x in OT. From chatser (settlement, village). This is Hazeroth or Chatseroth, meaning “yard.”
CCXXXVI {untranslated} = hayah + Chatseroth. Hayah is the same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above. Chatseroth is the same as “Hazeroth” in v35. See note CCXXXV above.

Image credit: “Miracle of Quail” – Miniature 39 103r, from between 1350 and 1375.

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