Matthew 26

Matthew 26


When JesusI had finishedII saying all these things,III he said to his disciples,IV 

Notes on verse 1

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “finished” = teleo. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end.
III “things” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
IV “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

“You knowV that after two days the PassoverVI is coming,VII and the Son of ManVIII will be handedIX over to be crucified.”X

Notes on verse 2

V “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
VI “Passover” = pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”
VII “coming” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
VIII “Man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
IX “handed” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
X “crucified” = stauroo. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (to stand, cause to stand). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.

Then the chief priestsXI and the eldersXII of the peopleXIII gatheredXIV in the palaceXV of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas,XVI 

Notes on verse 3

XI “chief priests” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
XII “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
XIII “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
XIV “gathered” = sunago. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
XV “palace” = aule. 12x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a building that has a courtyard within it – an area that has no roof, but does have walls and is open to the air. It could also imply a palace or mansion as larger buildings that would include courtyards.
XVI “Caiaphas” = Kaiaphas. 9x in NT. From Aramaic (as beautiful) OR from kefa (rock, stone) OR from Akkadian kaypha (dell, depression). This is Caiaphas. See

and they conspiredXVII to arrestXVIII Jesus by stealthXIX and killXX him. 5 But they said, “Not during the festival,XXI or there may be a riotXXII among the people.”

Notes on verses 4-5

XVII “conspired” = sumbouleuo. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + bouleuo (to plan, consider, deliberate, advise); {from boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}. This is people who come together to make a plan who are highly motivated to achieve their goals. It can mean deliberate, consult, or give advice.
XVIII “arrest” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
XIX “stealth” = dolos. 11x in NT. From dello (probably to decoy). This is literally bait, but used figuratively for treachery, stealth, guile, or deceit.
XX “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
XXI “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
XXII “riot” = thorubos. 7x in NT. From the same as thoreo (to be troubled, agitated, alarmed, be unsettled, be frightened); from throos (clamor, noise) or from threomai (to wail). This is an uproar, noise, outcry, riot, disturbance, trouble. It can also be used figuratively for a very emotional wailing or hysteria. It is a commotion that leads to panic or terror.

Now while Jesus was at BethanyXXIII in the houseXXIV of SimonXXV the leper,XXVI 

Notes on verse 6

XXIII “Bethany” = Bethania. 12x in NT. From Aramaic beth anya (house of affliction, misery, wretchedness). This is Bethany.
XXIV “house” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
XXV “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
XXVI “leper” = lepros. 9x in NT. From lepis (fish scale, skin flake); from lepo (to peel). This is scaly or leprous. It can also refer to a person with leprosy.

a womanXXVII cameXXVIII to him with an alabaster jarXXIX of very costlyXXX ointment,XXXI

Notes on verse 7a

XXVII “woman” = gune. Related to “coming” in v2. Perhaps from ginomai (see note VII above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XXVIII “came” = proserchomai. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
XXIX “alabaster jar” = alabastron. 4x in NT – all of the anointing at Bethany. Perhaps from Egyptian ꜥj-r-bꜣstjt (“vessel of the Egyptian goddess Bast”) OR related to Arabic عُلْبَة‎ (ʿulba, box, chest); related to Akkadian a-la-mit-tu (palm tree). This is a box or vial of alabaster, generally containing a perfumed ointment. See
XXX “very costly” = barutimos. 1x in NT. From barus (heavy, burdensome; figuratively, violent, oppressive; that which presses down on someone so that they cannot move freely); from the same as baros (weight, burden in a literal or figurative sense; authority); from the same as basis (foot, step, pace) {from baino (to walk to go)}. + time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is very costly, valuable, or precious.
XXXI “ointment” = muron. 14x in NT. This is ointment, perfume, or anointing oil. Probably olive oil mixed with spices and scents such as myrrh.

and she pouredXXXII it on his headXXXIII as he sat at the table.XXXIV 

Notes on verse 7b

XXXII “poured” = katacheo. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + cheo (to pour). This is to pour over or pour down.
XXXIII “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.
XXXIV “sat at the table” = anakeimai. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.

But when the disciples sawXXXV it, they were angryXXXVI and said, “Why this waste?XXXVII 

Notes on verse 8

XXXV “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XXXVI “were angry” = aganakteo. 7x in NT. Perhaps from agan (much) + achthos (grief); {related to agkale (bent arm); from agkos (bend, ache)}. This is being greatly grieved or displeased. Generally translated angry or indignant.
XXXVII “waste” = apoleia. 18x in NT. From apollumi (to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently; to cancel or remove); {from apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination)}. This is destruction, loss, something cut off, ruin, perdition. It can be any kind of loss whether tangible, spiritual, or eternal.

For this ointment couldXXXVIII have been soldXXXIX for a large sum,XL and the money givenXLI to the poor.”XLII 

Notes on verse 9

XXXVIII “could” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
XXXIX “sold” = piprasko. 9x in NT. From pernemi (to sell by export). This is to sell with travel involved. It can also mean to sell into slavery or to be devoted to.
XL “large sum” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XLI “given” = didomi. Related to “handed” in v2. See note IX above.
XLII “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.

10 But Jesus, awareXLIII of this, said to them, “Why do you troubleXLIV the woman? She has performedXLV a goodXLVI serviceXLVII for me. 

Notes on verse 10

XLIII “aware” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
XLIV “trouble” = kopos. 18x in NT. From kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is trouble, toil, or labor. This is working to the point of exhaustion or weariness. At base, this refers to a blow that lands so swiftly that one is seriously weakened. Figuratively, this is being greatly tired or working to the point of being without strength.
XLV “performed” = ergazomai. Related to “service” in v10. From ergon (see note XLVII below). This is to work, labor, perform, toil.
XLVI “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
XLVII “service” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

11 For you alwaysXLVIII have the poor with you, but you will not always have me. 12 By pouringXLIX this ointment on my bodyL she has prepared me for burial.LI 

Notes on verses 11-12

XLVIII “always” = pantote. From pas (all, every, each) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
XLIX “pouring” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
L “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
LI “burial” = entaphiazo. 2x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + taphos (a burial place such as a grave, sepulcher, or tomb); {from thapto (to bury, hold a funeral)}. This is to prepare a body to be buried, to embalm.

13 TrulyLII I tell you, wherever this good newsLIII is proclaimedLIV in the wholeLV world,LVI what she has done will be told in remembranceLVII of her.”

Notes on verse 13

LII “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
LIII “good news” = euaggelion. Related to “gathered” in v3. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel); {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (see note XIV above)}. This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
LIV “proclaimed” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
LV “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
LVI “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
LVII “remembrance” = mnemosunon. 3x in NT. From the same as mnemoneuo (to remember, recollect; does not necessarily imply remembering something that you forgot – it could be calling something to mind; to punish or rehearse); {from mnemon (mindful) OR from mneme (memory or mention); {from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence) or mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); or form meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); from masso (to knead, squeeze)}}. This is a remembrance, memory, memorial, record. It could also be an offering for remembrance.

14 Then one of the twelve, who was called JudasLVIII Iscariot,LIX wentLX to the chief priests 

Notes on verse 14

LVIII “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
LIX “Iscariot” = Iskariotes. 11x in NT. From Hebrew probably ish (man, husband); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be frail, feeble)} + qirya (city); {Aramaic corresponding to qiryah (city, building); from qarah (to happen, meet, bring about)}. Iscariot means person from Kerioth.
LX “went” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.

15 and said, “What willLXI you give me if I betrayLXII him to you?” They paidLXIII him thirty pieces of silver.LXIV 16 And from that moment he began to lookLXV for an opportunityLXVI to betray him.

Notes on verses 15-16

LXI “will” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
LXII “betray” = paradidomi. Same as “handed” in v2. See note IX above.
LXIII “paid” = histemi. Related to “crucified” in v2. See note X above.
LXIV “pieces of silver” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); from argos (shining). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.
LXV “look” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
LXVI “opportunity” = eukairia. 2x in NT– both when Judas agrees to betray Jesus (Mt 26:16 & Lk 22:6). From eukairos (timely, suitable; sometimes refers to a holiday); {from eu (good, well done, rightly) + kairos (time, season, occasion; the proper time; not chronological time, but spiritually significant time)}. This is a fitting time or convenient one.

17 On the first day of UnleavenedLXVII Bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying, “Where do you wantLXVIII us to make the preparationsLXIX for you to eatLXX the Passover?” 

Notes on verse 17

LXVII “Unleavened” = azumos. 9x in NT. From a (not, without) + zume (yeast in a literal or figurative sense – an influence that grows, but is not easily detected); {perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest)}. This is unleavened – can refer specifically to the Passover meal. Figuratively, it is sincere or not corrupted.
LXVIII “want” = thelo. Same as “will” in v15. See note LXI above.
LXIX “make the preparations” = hetoimazo. From hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge). This is to prepare or provide.
LXX “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.

18 He said, “GoLXXI into the cityLXXII to a certain man,LXXIII and say to him, ‘The TeacherLXXIV says, My timeLXXV is near; I will keep the Passover at your house with my disciples.’” 19 So the disciples did as Jesus had directedLXXVI them, and they prepared the Passover meal.

Notes on verses 18-19

LXXI “go” = hupago. Related to “gathered” n v3 & “good news” in v13. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note XIV above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
LXXII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
LXXIII “certain man” = deina. 1x in NT. Of uncertain origin. This is properly, to so and so – as one says when one relates a story, but doesn’t specifically state the name or when they don’t think the name is relevant.
LXXIV “Teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
LXXV “time” = kairos. Related to “opportunity” in v16. See note LXVI above.
LXXVI “directed” = suntasso. 3x in NT. From sun (with together with) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to direct, arrange, prescribe, or instruct.

20 When it was evening, he took his placeLXXVII with the twelve; 21 and while they were eating,LXXVIII he said, “Truly I tell you, one of you will betray me.” 

22 And they became greatlyLXXIX distressedLXXX and beganLXXXI to say to him one after another, “Surely not I, Lord?”LXXXII 

Notes on verses 20-22

LXXVII “took his place” = anakeimai. Same as “sat at the table” in v7. See note XXXIV above.
LXXVIII “eating” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.
LXXIX “greatly” = sphodra. 11x in NT. From sphodros (exceeding, very much, all out, violent). This is exceedingly, greatly, deeply. This is going all out, with total effort, done to the fullest extent.
LXXX “distressed” = lupeo. From lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.
LXXXI “began” = archomai. Related to “chief priests” in v3. From archo (see note XI above). This is to begin or rule.
LXXXII “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

23 He answered, “The one who has dippedLXXXIII his handLXXXIV into the bowlLXXXV with me will betray me. 

Notes on verse 23

LXXXIII “dipped” = embapto. 2x in NT– both of the disciple who betrays Jesus in Mt 26:23 & Mk 14:20. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + bapto (to dip, dye, fully cover with liquid). This is to dip into, to touch liquid. This shares a root with “baptize.”
LXXXIV “hand” = cheir. Related to “poured” in v7. Perhaps from cheimon (winter, storm); from the same as cheimazo (be storm-tossed, exposed to the winter chill); from cheo (see note XXXII above); from chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn)}. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
LXXXV “bowl” = trublion. 2x in NT – both in this and the parallel in Mark 14. This is bowl, deep dish, or platter.

24 LXXXVIThe Son of Man goes as it is written of him, but woeLXXXVII to that oneLXXXVIII by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been betterLXXXIX for that one not to have been born.”XC 

Notes on verse 24

LXXXVI {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
LXXXVII “woe” = ouai. This is alas or woe to show grief or to denounce something.
LXXXVIII “one” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v2. See note VIII above.
LXXXIX “better” = kalos. Same as “good” in v10. See note XLVI above.
XC “born” = gennao. Related to “coming” in v2 & “woman” in v7. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note VII above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.

25 Judas, who betrayed him, said, “Surely not I, Rabbi?”XCI

He replied, “You have said so.”

26 While they were eating,XCII Jesus took a loaf of bread,XCIII and after blessingXCIV it he brokeXCV it, gave it to the disciples, and said, “Take, eat;XCVI this is my body.” 

Notes on verses 25-26

XCI “Rabbi” = Rhabbi. 15x in NT – 8x in the Gospel of John. From Hebrew rab (chief); from rabab (to be many, increase, multiply). This is a title of respect for a teacher-scholar. Literally, it means great one or honorable sir. It can also be understood as my master or my teacher.
XCII “eating” = esthio. Same as “eating” in v21. See note LXXVIII above.
XCIII “bread” = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
XCIV “blessing” = eulogeo. Related to “things” in v1. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (see note III above). Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
XCV “broke” = klao. 14x in NT. This is to break, to break in pieces as one breaks bread.
XCVI “eat” = phago. Same as “eat” in v17. See note LXX above.

27 Then he took a cup,XCVII and after giving thanksXCVIII he gave it to them, saying, “DrinkXCIX from it, all of you; 

Notes on verse 27

XCVII “cup” = poterion. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is a drinking vessel. Figuratively, it can refer to one’s lot, to fate, or to what God has in store for you.
XCVIII “giving thanks” = eucharisteo. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards)}. This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.
XCIX “drink” = pino. Related to “cup” in v27. See note XCVII above.

28 for this is my bloodC of the covenant,CI which is poured outCII for many for the forgivenessCIII of sins.CIV 

Notes on verse 28

C “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
CI “covenant” = diatheke. From diatithemi (to place separately – to make a will or covenant; this is arranging ahead of time how things will be accomplished); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is a will, covenant, contract, or agreement.
CII “poured out” = ekcheo. Related to “poured” in v7 & “hand” in v23. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (see note XXXII above). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.
CIII “forgiveness” = aphesis. 17x in NT. 17x in NT. From aphiemi (to sent away, release, abandon, lay aside, forgive); {from apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send, to go)}. This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.
CIV “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

29 I tell you, I will never again drink of this fruitCV of the vineCVI until that day when I drink it newCVII with you in my Father’s kingdom.”CVIII

30 When they had sung the hymn,CIX they went out to the Mount of Olives.

Notes on verses 29-30

CV “fruit” = gennema. Related to “coming” in v2 & “woman” in v7 & “born” in v24. 8x in NT. From gennao (see note XC above). This is offspring, child, fruit, brood, or produce in a literal or figurative sense.
CVI “vine” = ampelos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from the base of amphoteros (both, all); {from amphi (around) + halon (the threshing floor where grain is rolled to separate from the chaff); {from halos (threshing floor); probably from helisso (to roll up, coil, wrap)}}. This is vine or grapevine as that which coils around.
CVII “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
CVIII “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “very costly” in v7. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (see note XXX above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CIX “sung the hymn” = humneo. 4x in NT. From humno (hymn, song to praise God, religious ode; also used in other faiths as songs that celebrated their gods, heroes, etc); from hudeo (to celebrate). This is singing a hymn or religious ode, to praise or celebrate God.

31 Then Jesus said to them, “You will all become desertersCX because of me this night; for it is written,

‘I will strikeCXI the shepherd,CXII
    and the sheepCXIII of the flockCXIV will be scattered.’CXV

Notes on verse 31

CX “become deserters” = skandalizo. From skandalon (the bait or portion of the trap that closes down on the victim – the trap’s trigger; a stumbling block, offense, or cause for error; something that sets into motion a negative cause and effect; something that causes one to stumble); perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is to put a stumbling block in someone’s way. Figuratively, causing someone to sin or preventing them from good action. It can also mean to shock or offend. Literally, this is falling into a trap or tripping someone up. So, here, enticing someone to sin or apostasy.
CXI “strike” = patasso. 10x in NT. Perhaps from paio (to strike, hit, sting). This can be strike or hit in a gentle sense like tapping someone on the side (Acts 12:7) or the beating of the heart. It can also be violent as in the disciples striking with the sword when Jesus is arrested (Mt 26:31 & Mk 22:49-50). It can also refer to slaying or death (Acts 7:24; Acts 12:23).
CXII “shepherd” = poimen. 18x in NT. This is shepherd or pastor – one who protects. It is also used figuratively to mean ruler. 
CXIII “sheep” = probaton. Related to “very costly” in v7 & “kingdom” in v29. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (see note XXX above); {from baino (to walk, to go)}}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
CXIV “flock” = poimne. Related to “shepherd” in v31. 5x in NT. Probably from poimen (see note CXII above). This is flock or fold in a literal or figurative sense – usually sheep or goats.
CXV “scattered” = diaskorpizo. 9x in NT. From dia (through, on account of, across, thoroughly) + skorpizo (to scatter, distribute, dissipate, waste). This is to separate or disperse. Figuratively, it can be squander or waste.

32 But after I am raised up,CXVI I will go aheadCXVII of you to Galilee.”CXVIII 

33 PeterCXIX said to him, “Though all become deserters because of you, I will never desert you.” 

Notes on verses 32-33

CXVI “raised up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
CXVII “go ahead” = proago. Related to “gathered” in v3 & “good news” in v13 & “go” in v18. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note XIV above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
CXVIII “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
CXIX “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.

34 Jesus saidCXX to him, “Truly I tell you, this very night, before the cockCXXI crows,CXXII you will denyCXXIII me three times.” 

35 Peter said to him, “Even though I mustCXXIV dieCXXV with you, I will not deny you.” And so said all the disciples.

Notes on verses 34-35

CXX “said” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.
CXXI “cock” = alektor. 12x in NT. Perhaps from aleko (to ward off). This is a cock or rooster.
CXXII “crows” = phoneo. Related to “said” in v34. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi (see note CXX above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It refers to making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
CXXIII “deny” = aparneomai. 11x in NT – 8x of Peter’s denial of Jesus, 2x “let them deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me” (Mt 16:24 & Mk 8:34), 1x “whoever denies me before others will be denied before the angels of God” (Lk 12:9). From apo (from, away from) + arneomai (to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict); {from a (not) + rheo (say, speak of)}. This is a strong denial or rejection – utter denial, disowning, or repudiation.
CXXIV “must” = deo. To tie, bind, compel, put in chains. This is to bind in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean declaring something unlawful.
CXXV “die” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.

36 Then Jesus went with them to a placeCXXVI called Gethsemane;CXXVII and he said to his disciples, “SitCXXVIII here while I go over there and pray.”CXXIX 

Notes on verse 36

CXXVI “place” = chorion. Related to “hand” in v23. 10x in NT. From chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); perhaps from chasma (see note LXXIV above). This is a place, possession, piece of property, or field.
CXXVII “Gethsemane” = Gethsemani. 2x in NT. From Hebrew gath (wine press); {perhaps from nagan (to strike a stringed instrument, to pluck or play it)} + shemen (fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume; figurative for fertile, lavish, rich); {from shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat)}. This is Gethsemane, meaning oil-press, an olive orchard.
CXXVIII “sit” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
CXXIX “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.

37 He took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee,CXXX and began to be grievedCXXXI and agitated.CXXXII 

Notes on verse 37

CXXX “Zebedee” = Zebedaios. Related to “Jesus” in v1. 12x in NT. From Hebrew zebadyah (Zebadiah, “The Lord has bestowed”); {from Zabad (to bestow, confer, endure) + Yah (God, the Lord; a shortening of the sacred name of the God of Israel); {from YHVH (see note I above)}. This is Zebedee, meaning “the Lord has bestowed.”
CXXXI “grieved” = lupeo. Same as “distressed” in v22. See note LXXX above.
CXXXII “agitated” = ademoneo. 3x in NT. Perhaps from adeo (to be full to the point of loathing). This is being distressed, troubled, fearful, lacking courage.

38 Then he said to them, “ICXXXIII am deeply grieved,CXXXIV even to death;CXXXV remainCXXXVI here, and stay awakeCXXXVII with me.” 

Notes on verse 38

CXXXIII “I” = psuche + ego. Literally “my soul.” Psuche is from psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CXXXIV “deeply grieved” = perilupos. Related to “distressed” in v22. 5x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + lupe (see note LXXX above). This is consumed in sorrow, very sad or grieved.
CXXXV “death” = thanatos. Related to “die” in v5. From thnesko (see note CXXV above). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CXXXVI “remain” = meno. Related to “remembrance” in v13. See note LVII above.
CXXXVII “stay awake” = gregoreo. Related to “raised up” in v32. From egeiro (see note CXVI above). This is to be or stay awake, watch. Figuratively, it can be alertness or vigilance.

39 And going a little farther, he threw himselfCXXXVIII on the ground and prayed, “My Father, if it is possible,CXXXIX let this cup pass from me; yet not what I want but what you want.” 

40 Then he came to the disciples and foundCXL them sleeping;CXLI and he said to Peter, “So, couldCXLII you not stay awake with me one hour?CXLIII 

Notes on verses 39-40

CXXXVIII “himself” = prosopon + autos. Literally “his face.” Related to “Man” in v2 & “saw” in v8. Prosopon is from pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note VIII above). This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
CXXXIX “possible” = dunatos. Related to “could” in v9. From dunamai (see note XXXVIII above). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
CXL “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CXLI “sleeping” = katheudo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + heudo (to sleep). This is to settle down to rest, to sleep, fall asleep in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLII “could” = ischuo. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance). This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLIII “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.

41 Stay awake and pray that you may not come into the time of trial;CXLIV the spiritCXLV indeedCXLVI is willing,CXLVII but the fleshCXLVIII is weak.”CXLIX 

Notes on verse 41

CXLIV “time of trial” = peirasmos. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.
CXLV “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CXLVI “indeed” = men. Same as {untranslated} in v24. See note LXXXVI above.
CXLVII “willing” = prothumos. 3x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + thumos (passion, actions that stem from passion or impulse; can be rage, indignation); {from thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general)}. This is willing, eager, ready, enthusiastic, free from resistance. It can also be predisposed, willing, or generous from one’s own impulse.
CXLVIII “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
CXLIX “weak” = asthenes. From a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}. This is without strength so weak, sick, helpless, frail, feeble. It can also be unimpressive or impotent. It can be used for physical or moral weakness.

42 Again he went away for the second time and prayed, “My Father, if this cannot pass unless I drink it, your willCL be done.”CLI 43 Again he came and found them sleeping, for their eyesCLII were heavy.CLIII 

Notes on verses 42-43

CL “will” = thelema. Related to “will” in v15. From thelo (see note LXI above). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
CLI “be done” = ginomai. Same as “coming” in v2. See note VII above.
CLII “eyes” = opthalmos. From optanomai (to appear, be seen by). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
CLIII “heavy” = bareo. Related to “very costly” in v7 & “kingdom” in v29 & “sheep” in v31. 6x in NT. From barus (see note XXX above). This is heavy, press, weigh down, or burden.

44 So leavingCLIV them again, he went away and prayed for the third time, saying the same words.CLV 45 Then he came to the disciples and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and taking your rest?CLVI See,CLVII the hour is at hand,CLVIII and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.CLIX 

Notes on verses 44-45

CLIV “leaving” = aphiemi. Related to “forgiveness” in v28. See note CIII above.
CLV “words” = logos. Same as “things” in v1. See note III above.
CLVI “taking your rest” = anapauo. 12x in NT– including Matthew 11:28 “come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest.” From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + pauo (to stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, come to an end). This is a break from work, which implies being refreshed. It denotes that rest that one gets once a necessary task is finished.
CLVII “see” = idou. Related to “know” in v2. From eido (see note V above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CLVIII “is at hand” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.
CLIX “sinners” = hamartolos. Related to “sins” in v28. From hamartano (see note CIV above). This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.

46 Get up,CLX let us be going.CLXI See, my betrayerCLXII is at hand.”

Notes on verse 46

CLX “get up” = egeiro. Same as “raised up” in v32. See note CXVI above.
CLXI “going” = ago. Related to “gathered” in v3 & “good news” in v13 & “go” in v18 & “go ahead” in v32. See note XIV above.
CLXII “betrayer” = paradidomi. Same as “handed” in v2. See note IX above.

47 While he was still speaking,CLXIII Judas, one of the twelve, arrived; with him was a large crowd with swordsCLXIV and clubs,CLXV from the chief priests and the elders of the people. 48 Now the betrayer had given them a sign,CLXVI saying, “The one I will kissCLXVII is the man; arrest him.” 

Notes on verses 47-48

CLXIII {untranslated} = idou. Same as “see” in v45. See note CLVII above.
CLXIV “swords” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.
CLXV “clubs” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.
CLXVI “sign” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
CLXVII “kiss” = phileo. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person). This is friendship love and fondness with personal attachment.

49 At onceCLXVIII he came up to Jesus and said, “Greetings,CLXIX Rabbi!” and kissedCLXX him. 

Notes on verse 49

CLXVIII “at once” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked). This is directly, soon, at once.
CLXIX “greetings” = chairo. Related to “giving thanks” in v27. See note XCVIII above.
CLXX “kissed” = kataphileo. Related to “kiss” in v48. 6x in NT– 2x of Judas’s betrayal, 2x of the woman who washes Jesus’s feet and kisses them (Lk 7:38, 45), 1x when the father kisses the prodigal son (Lk 15:20), and 1x when Paul kisses the Ephesian elders goodbye (Acts 20:37). From kata (down, against, according to) + phileo (see note CLXVII above). This is kissing with great emotion or kissing repeatedly, earnestly, affectionately.

50 Jesus said to him, “Friend,CLXXI do what you are here to do.” Then they came and laidCLXXII hands on Jesus and arrested him. 51 Suddenly,CLXXIII one of those with Jesus putCLXXIV his hand on his sword, drewCLXXV it,

Notes on verses 50-51a

CLXXI “friend” = hetairos. 3x in NT. From etes (cousin or member of one’s clan). This is a friend, companion, comrade. It is a friend like one’s own family.
CLXXII “laid” = epiballo. Related to “pouring” in v12. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + ballo (see note XLIX above). This is to put, place, arrest, strike upon, stretch forth, cast over.
CLXXIII “suddenly” = idou. Same as “see” in v45. See note CLVII above.
CLXXIV “put” = ekteino. 16x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to stretch out, reach, lay hands on. Can also be used for casting an anchor.
CLXXV “drew” = apospao. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + spao (to pull or draw like one draws a sword). This is to draw forth, part, draw away, pull out a sword. Figuratively, to withdraw or retire.

and struck the slaveCLXXVI of the high priest, cutting offCLXXVII his ear.CLXXVIII 

Notes on verse 51b

CLXXVI “slave” = doulos. Related to “must” in v35. Perhaps from deo (see note CXXIV above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
CLXXVII “cutting off” = aphaireo. Related to “bread” in v26. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer); perhaps related to airo (see note XCIII above). This is to remove or cut off in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXVIII “ear” = otion. 5x in NT. From ous (ear; figuratively, hearing). This is ear or it might refer to the earlobe.

52 Then Jesus said to him, “Put your sword backCLXXIX into its place;CLXXX for all who take the sword will perishCLXXXI by the sword. 

Notes on verse 52

CLXXIX “put…back” = apostrepho. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn away from so it could be to leave, to reject, remove, or even desert. It places a focus on one’s personal commitment to this turning back and rejecting.
CLXXX “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
CLXXXI “perish” = apollumi. Related to “waste” in v8. See note XXXVII above.

53 Do you thinkCLXXXII that I cannot appealCLXXXIII to my Father, and he will at once sendCLXXXIV me more than twelve legionsCLXXXV of angels?CLXXXVI 

Notes on verse 53

CLXXXII “think” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
CLXXXIII “appeal” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
CLXXXIV “send” = paristemi. Related to “crucified” in v2 & “paid” in v15. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note X above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
CLXXXV “legions” = legion. 4x in NT. From Latin legio (legion); from lego (to choose, collect, gather). This is a division in the army of Rome, which would have had around 6,000 infantry and also included cavalry on top of that. In scripture, often used figuratively for a large number.
CLXXXVI “angels” = aggelos. Related to “gathered” in v3 & “good news” in v13 & “go” in v18 & “go ahead” in v32 & “going” in v46. Probably from ago (see note XIV above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.

54 But how then would the scripturesCLXXXVII be fulfilled,CLXXXVIII which say it must happenCLXXXIX in this way?” 

Notes on verse 54

CLXXXVII “scriptures” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
CLXXXVIII “be fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
CLXXXIX “happen” = ginomai. Same as “coming” in v2. See note VII above.

55 At that hour Jesus said to the crowds, “Have you come out with swords and clubs to arrestCXC me as though I were a bandit?CXCI Day after day I satCXCII in the templeCXCIII teaching,CXCIV and you did not arrest me. 

Notes on verse 55

CXC “arrest” = sullambano. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arrest or take hold of someone.
CXCI “bandit” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barrabas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.
CXCII “sat” = kathezomai. Related to “sit” in v36. 7x in NT. See note CXXVIII above.
CXCIII “temple” = hieron. Related to “chief priests” in v3. From hieros (see note XI above). This is the word for temple.
CXCIV “teaching” = didasko. Related to “teacher” in v18. See note LXXIV above.

56 But allCXCV this has taken place, so that the scriptures of the prophetsCXCVI may be fulfilled.” Then all the disciples desertedCXCVII him and fled.CXCVIII

Notes on verse 56

CXCV “all” = holos. Same as “whole” in v13. See note LV above.
CXCVI “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “said” in v34 & “crows” in v34. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note CXX above). This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CXCVII “deserted” = aphiemi. Same as “leaving” in v44. See note CLIV above.
CXCVIII “fled” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.

57 Those who had arrested Jesus tookCXCIX him to Caiaphas the high priest, in whose house the scribesCC and the elders had gathered. 58 But Peter was followingCCI him at a distance, as far as the courtyardCCII of the high priest; and going inside, he satCCIII with the guardsCCIV in order to see how this would end.CCV 

Notes on verses 57-58

CXCIX “took” = apago. Related to “gathered” in v3 & “good news” in v13 & “go” in v18 & “go ahead” in v32 & “going” in v46 & “angels” in v53. 16x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ago (see note XIV above). This is to lead away, take away, or bring. Figuratively, it can refer to being led astray or put to death.
CC “scribes” = grammateus. Related to “scriptures” in v54. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (see note CLXXXVII above). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
CCI “following” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
CCII “courtyard” = aule. Same as “palace” in v3. See note XV above.
CCIII “sat” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
CCIV “guards” = huperetes. From huper (by, under, subordinate to another) + eresso (to row). This is originally a rower or someone who crewed a boat on the lower deck. It came to mean underling, servant, or attendant. It is also used in the New Testament of disciples under the gospel.
CCV “end” = telos. Related to “finished” in v1. See note II above.

59 Now the chief priests and the whole councilCCVI were looking for false testimonyCCVII against Jesus so that they might put him to death,CCVIII 60 but they found none, though many false witnessesCCIX came forward. At last two came forward 

Notes on verses 59-60

CCVI “council” = sunedrion. From sun (with, together with) + hedra (convening, siting together, being firm and faithful); {from aphedron (seat, well-seated; figuratively, this is firm in purpose, steadfast); from hedra (a seat)}. This is Sanhedrin – literally a sitting together. It was the high court for Jews and had 71 members. This term could also mean council or meeting place and was used for the lower courts that were throughout the land and had 23 members.
CCVII “false testimony” = pseudomarturia. 2x in NT. From pseudomartus (false witness); {from pseudes (false, lying, wicked); {from pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify)}} + martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is false testimony or false witness.
CCVIII “put…to death” = thanatoo. Related to “die” in v35 & “death” in v38. 11x in NT. From thanatos (see note CXXXV above). This is to put to death or kill in a literal or figurative sense.
CCIX “false witnesses” = pseudomartus. Related to “false testimony” in v59. 2x in NT. From pseudes (see note CCVII above) + martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is a false witness – someone whose testimony is untrue.

61 and said, “This fellow said, ‘I am ableCCX to destroyCCXI the templeCCXII of GodCCXIII and to buildCCXIV it in three days.’” 

Notes on verse 61

CCX “am able” = dunamai. Same as “could” in v9. See note XXXVIII above.
CCXI “destroy” = kataluo. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
CCXII “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
CCXIII “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
CCXIV “build” = oikodomeo. Related to “house” in v6. From oikos (see note XXIV above) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.

62 The high priest stood upCCXV and said, “Have you no answer? What is it that they testify againstCCXVI you?” 

63 But Jesus was silent.CCXVII Then the high priest said to him, “I put you under oath before the living God, tell us if you are the Messiah,CCXVIII the Son of God.” 

Notes on verses 62-63

CCXV “stood up” = anistemi. Related to “crucified” in v2 & “paid” in v15 & “send” n v53. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note X above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CCXVI “testify against” = katamartureo. Related to “false testimony” in v59 & “false witness” in v60. 3x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + martureo (to testify, give evidence; testify in a literal or figurative sense); {from martus (see note CCVII above)}. This is testify or bear witness against.
CCXVII “was silent” = siopao. 10x in NT. From siope (silence or muteness). This is to be silent whether by choice or not. Figuratively, this is being calm as water, keeping one’s peace.
CCXVIII “Messiah” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

64 Jesus said to him, “You have said so. But I tell you,

From now on you will see the Son of Man
    seated at the right handCCXIX of PowerCCXX
    and coming on the cloudsCCXXI of heaven.”CCXXII

Notes on verse 64

CCXIX “right hand” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
CCXX “Power” = dunamis. Related to “could” in v9 & “possible” in v39. From dunamai (see note XXXVIII above). From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
CCXXI “clouds” = nephele. From nephos (cloud; figurative for a great crowd or multitude). This is cloud or cloudiness.
CCXXII “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

65 Then the high priest toreCCXXIII his clothesCCXXIV and said, “He has blasphemed!CCXV

Notes on verse 65a

CCXXIII “tore” = diarresso. 5x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is to tear apart or burst.
CCXXIV “clothes” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
CCXXV “blasphemed” = blasphemeo. Related to “said” and “crows” in v34 & “prophets” in v56. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (see note CXX above)}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.

Why do we still needCCXXVI witnesses?CCXXVII, CCXVIII You have now heardCCXXIX his blasphemy.CCXXX 66 What is your verdict?”CCXXXI

Notes on verses 65b-66a

CCXXVI “need” = chreia. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.
CCXXVII “witnesses” = martus. Related to “false testimony” in v59 & “false witness” in v60 & “testify against” in v62. See note CCVII above.
CCXXVIII {untranslated} = idou. Same as “see” in v45. See note CLVII above.
CCXXIX “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CCXXX “blasphemy” = blasphemia. Related to “said” and “crows” in v34 & “prophets” in v56 & “blasphemed” in v65. 18x in NT. From perhaps blapto (see note CCXXV above) + pheme (see note CCXXV above). This is slander, blasphemy, or abusive language. It is calling something wrong that is right or calling something right that is wrong – mis-identifying what is good and bad. This is particularly used for vilifying God. This is where the word “blasphemy” comes from.
CCXXXI “verdict” = dokeo. Same as “think” in v53. See note CLXXXII above.

They answered, “He deservesCCXXXII death.” 67 Then they spat in his face and struckCCXXXIII him; and some slappedCCXXXIV him, 68 saying, “ProphesyCCXXXV to us, you Messiah! Who is it that struckCCXXXVI you?”

Notes on verses 66b-68

CCXXXII “deserves” = enochos. 10x in NT. From enochos (to hold in, ensnare, be angry at); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + echo (to have, hold, possess)}. This is bound by, liable to, deserving, guilty, subject, in danger of.
CCXXXIII “struck” = kolaphizo. 5x in NT. From kolaphos (to hit with a fist); from the base of kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked). This is to punch – literally to hit with knuckles. It can also more generally mean violent mistreatment.
CCXXXIV “slapped” = rhapizo. 2x in NT– in the turn the other cheek teaching (Mt 5:39) and when Jesus is before he High Priest during Holy Week (Mt 26:67). From the root rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is to hit with a rod or to slap.
CCXXXV “prophesy” = propheteuo. Related to “said” and “crows” in v34 & “prophets” in v56 & “blasphemed” and “blasphemy” in v65. From prophetes (see note CXCVI above). This is to prophesy, foretell, or tell forth.
CCXXXVI “struck” = paio. Perhaps related to “strike” in v31. 5x in NT. See note CXI above.

69 Now Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard. A servant-girlCCXXXVII came to him and said, “You also were with Jesus the Galilean.”CCXXXVIII 

70 But he deniedCCXXXIX it before all of them, saying, “I do not know what you are talking about.” 

Notes on verses 69-70

CCXXXVII “servant-girl” = paidiske. Perhaps related to “strike” in v31 & “struck” in v68. From pais (child, boy, male slave, servant or female; a child as one who needs discipline, development, training, etc.); perhaps from paio (see note CXI above). This could be a young girl in general, a female servant, or a female slave.
CCXXXVIII “Galilean” = Galilaios. Related to “Galilee” in v32. 11x in NT. From galilaia (see note CXVIII above). This is Galilean.
CCXXXIX “denied” = arneomai. Related to “deny” in v34. See note CXXIII above.

71 When he went out to the porch,CCXL anotherCCXLI servant-girl saw him, and she said to the bystanders, “This man was with Jesus of Nazareth.”CCXLII 

72 Again he denied it with an oath,CCXLIII “I do not know the man.” 

Notes on verses 71-72

CCXL “porch” = pulon. 18x in NT. From pule (gate, large entrance to a city or a fortress; often used for an exit way; often figurative for authority and power). This is a porch, gateway, or vestibule. It is a passageway from the street through the house to the courtyard.
CCXLI “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
CCXLII “Nazareth” = Nazoraios. 13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
CCXLIII “oath” = horkos. 10x in NT. Related to erkos (fence, enclosure); perhaps related to horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary). This is an oath or vow. It is something with limits, done for a sacred purpose.

73 After a little while the bystanders came up and said to Peter, “CertainlyCCXLIV you are also one of them, for your accentCCXLV betraysCCXLVI you.” 

74 Then he began to curse,CCXLVII and he swore an oath, “I do not know the man!” At that moment the cock crowed. 

Notes on verses 73-74

CCXLIV “certainly” = alethos. 18x in NT. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
CCXLV “accent” = lalia. 4x in NT. From laleo (to talk, say, preach); from lalos (talkative). This is talk, saying, the way one talks, a dialect.
CCXLVI “betrays” = delos. Literally “your accent makes you clear.” 3x in NT. This is unmistakable, clear, manifest.
CCXLVII “curse” = katanathematizo. Related to “covenant” in v28. 1x in NT. From katathematizo (to curse vehemently); from katathema (to curse); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + anathematize (to curse, devote something to destruction, to declare that something is anathema; to declare something under a punishable if broken vow); {from anathema (properly, something laid up i.e. a votive offering, something dedicated to God; can also be a curse or that which is cursed); from anatithemi (to lay up, set up, declare); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + tithemi (see note CI above)}}}. This is to curse emphatically or to call down evils – to devote to destruction.

75 Then Peter rememberedCCXLVIII whatCCXLIX Jesus had said: “Before the cock crows, you will deny me three times.” And he went out and weptCCL bitterly.CCLI

Notes on verse 75

CCXLVIII “remembered” = mimnesko. Related to “remembrance” in v13 & “remain” in v38. See note LVII above.
CCXLIX “what” = rhema. Related to “deny” in v34 & “denied” in v70. From rheo (see note CXXIII above). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
CCL “wept” = klaio. This is to weep, lament, or sob. It is weeping aloud.
CCLI “bitterly” = pikros. 2x in NT– both in Peter’s denial of Jesus (Mt 26:75 & Lk 22:62). From pirkos (bitter, sharp, malignant; acrid or pungent in a literal or figurative sense); perhaps from pegnumi (to fasten, to set up a tent). This is bitterly, which can be used figuratively to mean violently.

Image credit: “Mary Magdalene Anointing the Feet of Christ” at the Holy Cross Abbey in Lower Austria by Giovanni Giulianni, 18th century.

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