Numbers 32

Numbers 32


Now the ReubenitesI and the GaditesII ownedIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “Reubenites” = ben + Reuben. Literally, “children of Reuben.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Reuben is related to “Reubenites” in v1. From raah (to see, show, stare, think, view; to see in a literal or figurative sense) + ben (see note I above). This is Reuben, meaning “behold a son.”
II “Gadites” = ben + Gad. Literally, “children of Gad.” Ben is the same as “Reubenites” in v1. See note I above. Gad is perhaps from gad (fortune, troop; Gad, the name of a god of Babylon); from gad (fortunate, a troop); from gud (to invade, overcome, attack). This is Gad, one of Jacob’s children, his tribe and the land they settled. It means “fortune” or “fortunate.”
III “owned” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.

a veryIV greatV numberVI of cattle.VII

Notes on verse 1b

IV “very” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
V “great” = atsum. From atsom (to be many or mighty; could also refer to breaking bones). This is mighty or mighty one. It means powerful, which implies large numbers.
VI “number” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
VII “cattle” = miqneh. From qanah (to get, acquire, purchase, move to jealousy, buyer, keep cattle). This is something that is bought, which implies property or possession. However, it is generally used of livestock – cattle, flock, herds.

When they sawVIII that the landIX of JazerX

Notes on verse 1c

VIII “saw” = raah. Related to “Reubenites” in v1. See note I above.
IX “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
X “Jazer” = Yazer. 13x in OT. From azar (to help, protect, support, ally; properly, to surround so as to provide aid). This is Jazer or Yazer, meaning “helpful,” “he shall help,” or “whom the Lord helps.” See

and the land of GileadXI, XII was a good placeXIII for cattle, 

Notes on verse 1d

XI “Gilead” = Gilad. From gala (to lay bare, quarrel, expose) OR from gal’ed (heap of testimony); {from gal (wave, billow, rock pile; something rolled; a spring of water); {from galal (to roll, roll away, wallow, commit, remove; rolling in a literal or figurative sense)} + ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve)}}. This is Gilead, meaning “perpetual fountain” or “heap of testimony.” See
XII {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
XIII “good place” = maqom + maqom. Literally, “the place, a place from cattle.” From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.

the Gadites and the Reubenites cameXIV and spokeXV to Moses,XVI to EleazarXVII the priest,XVIII

Notes on verse 2a

XIV “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XV “spoke” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.
XVI “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
XVII “Eleazar” = Elazar. Related to “Jazer” in v1. From El (God, a god) + azar (see note X above). This is Elezar or Elazar, meaning “God has helped” or “God is helper.”
XVIII “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.

and to the leadersXIX of the congregation,XX saying,XXI 

Notes on verse 2b

XIX “leaders” = nasi. From nasa (to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively; to carry, take, or arise; to bring forth, advance, accept). This is one lifted up or exalter. So, it could be prince, chief, ruler, captain, king, or vapor.
XX “congregation” = edah. Related to “Gilead” in v1. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) OR from ed (see note XI above). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.
XXI “saying” = amar. Same as “spoke” in v2. See note XV above.

“Ataroth,XXII Dibon,XXIII Jazer, Nimrah,XXIV

Notes on verse 3a

XXII “Ataroth” = Ataroth. 4x in OT. From atarah (crown or wreath; figuratively, honor); from atar (to surround or encircle to defend, protect, or attack; to crown in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ataroth, a place meaning “crowns” or “cattle pens.” See
XXIII “Dibon” = Dibon. 11x in OT. Perhaps from dub (to mope, sorrow). This is Dibon, meaning “pining.”
XXIV “Nimrah” = Nimrah. 1x in OT. From the same as namer (leopard) OR from a word meaning to filtrate. This is Nimrah, a place. It comes from root in the sense of liquid dripping that spots or stains. So, it could mean “place of leopard” or “clear water” or “pure water” or “spotted.” See

Heshbon,XXV Elealeh,XXVI Sebam,XXVII

Notes on verse 3b

XXV “Heshbon” = Cheshbon. From chashab (properly, to braid or interpenetrate; literally, to create or to wear; figuratively, plotting – generally in a negative sense; think, consider, or make account of). This is Heshbon or Cheshbon, meaning “library of synthetic wisdom” or “intelligence” or “reason.” See
XXVI “Elealeh” = Elale. Related to “Eleazar” in v2. 5x in OT. From El (see note XVII above) + alah (to go up, climb, to be high; to arise in a literal or figurative sense). This is Elealeh or Elale, a place and name meaning “God ascends” or “God is going up.”
XXVII “Sebam” = Sebam. 6x in OT. Perhaps from basam (spice, balsam tree); from bosem (balsam, spice, perfume, odor; the balsam tree). This is Sebam or Sibmah, a place perhaps meaning “spice.”

Nebo,XXVIII and BeonXXIX— 

Notes on verse 3c

XXVIII “Nebo” = Nebo. 13x in OT. From Akkadian nabu (to prophesy, announce); related to Hebrew nabi (prophet) and nabah (to be important or high). This is Nebo – the name of a city and mountain in Moab. It is also a Babylonian god of wisdom and the god of the scribes. The name likely means foreteller or height. See
XXIX “Beon” = Beon. Related to “Reubenites” and “Reubenites” in v1. 1x in OT. Probably from Beth Baal Meon (Beth-baal-meon, Beth-meon; a place meaning “house of Baal or (the) habitation)); {from bayit (house, court, family, palace, temple); {probably from banah (see note I above)} + Baal (Baal, used for several Canaanite gods; literally, “lord”); {from the same as baal (owner, master, husband); from baal (to marry, have dominion over, to master)}} + maon (dwelling, den, haunt, retreat; can refer to the Tabernacle or Temple; can also be used for homes or animal lairs); from anah (to answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify; to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk; singing, shouting, testifying, etc.)}. This is Beon, a place shortened from Beth-baal-meon, meaning “house of Baal or (the habitation). See

the land that the LordXXX subduedXXXI beforeXXXII the congregation of IsraelXXXIII—is a land for cattle, and your servantsXXXIV have cattle.” 

Notes on verse 4

XXX “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “owned” in v1. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note III above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XXXI “subdued” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
XXXII “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XXXIII “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “Eleazar” in v2 & “Elealeh” in v3. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (see note XVII above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XXXIV “servants” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.

They continued,XXXV “If we have foundXXXVI favorXXXVII in your sight,XXXVIII

Notes on verse 5a

XXXV “continued” = amar. Same as “spoke” in v2. See note XV above.
XXXVI “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
XXXVII “favor” = chen. From chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is grace, favor, kindness, beauty, precious.
XXXVIII “sight” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).

let this land be givenXXXIX to your servants for a possession;XL do not make us crossXLI the Jordan.”XLII

Notes on verse 5b

XXXIX “given” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XL “possession” = achuzzah. From achaz (to grasp, catch, seize, take and hold in possession). This is a possession, particularly used of land.
XLI “cross” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
XLII “Jordan” = Yarden. From yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”

But Moses said to the Gadites and to the Reubenites, “Shall your brothersXLIII goXLIV to warXLV while you sitXLVI here? 

Notes on verse 6

XLIII “brothers” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
XLIV “go” = bo. Same as “came” in v2. See note XIV above.
XLV “war” = milchamah. From lacham (to eat or feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).
XLVI “sit” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.

Why will you discourageXLVII the heartsXLVIII of the IsraelitesXLIX from going overL into the land that the Lord has given them? 

Notes on verse 7

XLVII “discourage” = nu. 8x in OT. This is to hinder, discourage, refuse, break, or disallow.
XLVIII “hearts” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
XLIX “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “Reubenites” in v1. See note I above. Yisrael is the same as “Israel” in v4. See note XXXIII above. 
L “going over” = abar. Same as “cross” in v5. See note XLI above.

Your fathersLI didLII this,LIII when I sentLIV them from Kadesh-barneaLV to see the land. 

Notes on verse 8

LI “fathers” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
LII “did” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LIII “this” = koh. Perhaps from ki (that, for when, certainly) + hu (he, she, it). This is like this, thus, here, now.
LIV “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
LV “Kadesh-barnea” = Qadesh Barnea. 10x in OT. From Qadesh (Kadesh, a place whose name means “sacred” or “sanctuary”); {related to qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.)} + perhaps related to Aramaic bar (son literal or figurative, age); {corresponding to Hebrew ben (see note I above)} + related to nua (to waver in a literal or figurative sense; to tremble, quiver, totter; a fugitive). This is Kadesh-barnea or Qadesh Barnea, meaning “a place in the desert” or “sacred desert of wandering” or “holy purifying staggerings” or “holy purifying wanderings.” See

When they went upLVI to the WadiLVII EshcolLVIII and saw the land, they discouraged the hearts of the Israelites fromLIX going into the land that the Lord had given them. 

Notes on verse 9

LVI “went up” = alah. Related to “Elealeh” in v3. See note XXVI above.
LVII “Wadi” = nachal. From nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water.
LVIII “Eshcol” = Eshkol. 6x in OT. From the same as eshkol (cluster – as a bunch of fruit like grapes); perhaps from eshek (a gathered bunch; can be a testicle or stone). This is Eshkol or Eshcol. This is a person and a place in Hebron, perhaps meaning “cluster.
LIX “from” = bilti. From balah (to grow old, wear out, consume, waste, enjoy, fail, decay). This is nothing, not, lest, or except. From its root, it means “a failure of” – used for negative particles.

10 The Lord’s angerLX was kindledLXI on that day,LXII and he swore,LXIII saying, 

Notes on verse 10

LX “anger” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
LXI “kindled” = charah. Perhaps related to charar (to be hot, burn, glow, melt, be scorched; figuratively, to incite passion, be angry). This is to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn. Figuratively it is a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy.
LXII “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
LXIII “swore” = shaba. Perhaps from sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant. Properly, it can mean to be complete. This is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times.

11 ‘Surely none of the peopleLXIV who came upLXV out of Egypt,LXVI from twentyLXVII yearsLXVIII oldLXIX and up,LXX

Notes on verse 11a

LXIV “people” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
LXV “came up” = alah. Same as “went up” in v9. See note LVI above.
LXVI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
LXVII “twenty” = esrim. From the same as eser (ten, tenth). This is twenty or twentieth.
LXVIII “years” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
LXIX “old” = ben. Same as “Reubenites” in v1. See note I above.
LXX “up” = maal. Related to “Elealeh” in v3 & “went up” in v9. From alah (see note XXVI above). This is the upper part, forward, high above, upwards, greater, heaven, or exceedingly.

shall see the landLXXI that I swore to give to Abraham,LXXII to Isaac,LXXIII and to Jacob,LXXIV because they have not unreservedlyLXXV followedLXXVI me— 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXI “land” = adamah. From the same as adam (man, humankind); perhaps from ‘adom (to be red). This is ground, earth, soil as red, or land.
LXXII “Abraham” = Abraham. Related to “fathers” in v8. See note LI above.
LXXIII “Isaac” = Yitschaq. From tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). This is Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
LXXIV “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
LXXV “unreservedly” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVI “followed” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.

12 noneLXXVII except CalebLXXVIII sonLXXIX of JephunnehLXXX

Notes on verse 12a

LXXVII “none” = bilti. Same as “from” in v9. See note LIX above.
LXXVIII “Caleb” = Kaleb. From the same as keleb (a dog, male prostitute; perhaps from a word meaning to yelp or attack). This is Caleb or Kaleb, meaning “dog” or “unsophisticated servant.” See
LXXIX “son” = ben. Same as “Reubenites” in v1. See note I above.
LXXX “Jephunneh” = Yephunneh. Related to “before” in v4. 16x in OT. From panah (see note XXXII above). This is Jephunneh or Yephunneh, meaning “he will be prepared” or “he will turn to” or “he will face” or “he will be beheld.” See

the KenizziteLXXXI and JoshuaLXXXII son of Nun,LXXXIII for they have unreservedly followed the Lord.’ 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXXI “Kenizzite” = Qenizzi. 4x in OT. From Qenaz (Kenaz; the name of several people). Root may mean to hunt. This is the Kenizzites, perhaps meaning “hunter” or “trapper.” See
LXXXII “Joshua” = Yehoshua. Related to “owned” in v1 & “Lord” in v4. From YHVH (see note XXX above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Joshua, Jeshua, or Yehoshua, which means “the Lord is salvation.”
LXXXIII “Nun” = Nun. From nun (to propagate, continue, resprout, be perpetual). This is Nun or Non, meaning “perpetuity.”

13 And the Lord’s anger was kindled against Israel, and he made them wanderLXXXIV in the wildernessLXXXV for fortyLXXXVI years,

Notes on verse 13a

LXXXIV “wander” = nua. Related to “Kadesh-barnea” in v8. See note LV above.
LXXXV “wilderness” = midbar. From dabar (to speak, command, declare). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
LXXXVI “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.

until allLXXXVII the generationLXXXVIII that had done evilLXXXIX in the sight of the Lord had disappeared.XC 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXXVII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
LXXXVIII “generation” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.
LXXXIX “evil” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
XC “disappeared” = tamam. This is to finish or accomplish. It is to make perfect, demonstrate that you are upright, consume or cease. It is to complete in a literal or figurative sense, positive or negative.

14 And nowXCI you, a broodXCII of sinners,XCIII have risenXCIV

Notes on verse 14a

XCI “now” = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note XII above.
XCII “brood” = tarbuth. 2x in OT. From rabah (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is increase, brood, or progeny.
XCIII “sinners” = enosh + chatta. Literally, “sinful men.” Enosh is related to “people” in v11. See note LXIV above. Chatta is 19x in OT. From chata (to miss, sin, carry blame, lack). This is sinful or sinner. It is a criminal or someone who is seen as guilty.
XCIV “risen” = qum. Related to “good place” in v1. See note XIII above.

in place ofXCV your fathers, to increaseXCVI the Lord’sXCVII fierceXCVIII anger against Israel! 

Notes on verse 14b

XCV “in place of” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
XCVI “increase” = saphah. This is to capture, sweep away, scrape, remove, heap up, scatter, ruin, or perish.
XCVII “Lord’s” = YHVH. Related to “owned” in v1 & “Lord” in v4 & “Joshua” in v12. From the same as YHVH (see note XXX above). It has a different vowel pointing, but the same meaning as Lord.
XCVIII “fierce” = charon. Related to “kindled” in v10. From charah (see note LXI above). This is burning anger, fierceness, or wrathfulness.

15 If you turn awayXCIX from following him, he will againC abandonCI them in the wilderness, and you will destroyCII all this people.”CIII

Notes on verse 15

XCIX “turn away” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
C “again” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
CI “abandon” = yanach. Perhaps from the same as nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is to lay down, let alone, pacify, cast down, or deposit. It can also mean to allow something or someone to stay.
CII “destroy” = shachath. This is to go to ruin, perish, decay, batter, cast off, lose, one who destroys. This can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
CIII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

16 Then they came upCIV to him and said, “We will buildCV sheepfoldsCVI here

Notes on verse 16a

CIV “came up” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
CV “build” = banah. Related to “Reubenites” and “Reubenites” in v1 & “Beon” in v3. See note I above.
CVI “sheepfolds” = gederah + tson. Literally, “walls for sheep.” Gederah is 10x in OT. From gadar (to build a wall or wall off, mason, repair, hedge, enclose; to wall in or wall around). This is a wall, hedge, or enclosure. It is often used for a sheepfold. Tson is a flock of sheep and goats.

for our flocksCVII and townsCVIII for our little ones,CIX 17 but we will take up armsCX as a vanguardCXI beforeCXII the Israelites, until we have broughtCXIII them to their place.

Notes on verses 16b-17a

CVII “flocks” = miqneh. Same as “cattle” in v1. See note VII above.
CVIII “towns” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
CIX “little ones” = taph. From taphaph (walking along with small, tripping steps like children do). This is little ones, children, families.
CX “take up arms” = chalats. This is to pull off, withdraw, arm, loose, depart, deliver, prepare for a battle, strengthen.
CXI “vanguard” = chush. This is to hurry, be eager.
CXII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v4. See note XXXI above.
CXIII “brought” = bo. Same as “came” in v2. See note XIV above.

Meanwhile our little ones will stayCXIV in the fortifiedCXV towns becauseCXVI of the inhabitantsCXVII of the land.CXVIII 

Notes on verse 17b

CXIV “stay” = yashab. Same as “sit” in v6. See note XLVI above.
CXV “fortified” = mibtsar. From batsar (to enclose, wall up, or make something inaccessible, impenetrable, isolated to fortify, something mighty, to gather grapes). This is fortification, castle, besiege, or defender.
CXVI “because” = paneh. Same as “before” in v4. See note XXXI above.
CXVII “inhabitants” = yashab. Same as “sit” in v6. See note XLVI above.
CXVIII “land” = erets. Same as “land” in v1. See note IX above.

18 We will not returnCXIX to our homesCXX until allCXXI the Israelites have obtainedCXXII their inheritance.CXXIII 

Notes on verse 18

CXIX “return” = shub. Same as “turn away” in v15. See note XCIX above.
CXX “homes” = bayit. Related to “Reubenites” and “Reubenites” in v1 & “Beon” in v3 & “build” in v16. See note XXIX above.
CXXI “all” = ish. Same as “people” in v11. See note LXIV above.
CXXII “obtained” = nachal. Related to “Wadi” in v9. See note LVII above.
CXXIII “inheritance” = nachalah. Related to “Wadi” in v9 & “obtained” in v18. Related to nachal (see note LVII above). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.

19 We will not inheritCXXIV with them on the other sideCXXV of the Jordan and beyond,CXXVI because our inheritance has come to us on this sideCXXVII of the Jordan to the east.”CXXVIII

Notes on verse 19

CXXIV “inherit” = nachal. Same as “inherit” in v18. See note CXXII above.
CXXV “other side” = eber. Related to “cross” in v5. From abar (see note XLI above). This is the place across or beyond, by, from, other, the opposite side, against, over. It often refers to the other side of the Jordan river or toward the east.
CXXVI “beyond” = haleah. 16x in OT. This is beyond, far away, to this point, back, forward.
CXXVII “this side” = eber. Same as “other side” in v19. See note CXXV above.
CXXVIII “east” = mizrach. From zarach (to rise, shine, or dawn; can also describe symptoms of leprosy). This is the east as the place where the sun rises. It can also refer to the sunrise itself.

20 So Moses said to them, “If you do thisCXXIX—if you take up arms to go beforeCXXX the LordCXXXI for the war 21 and allCXXXII those of you who bear armsCXXXIII

Notes on verses 20-21a

CXXIX {untranslated} = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v13. From dabar (see note LXXXV above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
CXXX “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v4. See note XXXI above.
CXXXI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXX above.
CXXXII “all” = kol. Same as “all” in v13. See note LXXXVII above.
CXXXIII “bear arms” = chalats. Same as “take up arms” in v17. See note CX above.

cross the Jordan beforeCXXXIV the Lord,CXXXV until he has driven outCXXXVI his enemiesCXXXVII from beforeCXXXVIII him 

Notes on verse 21b

CXXXIV “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v4. See note XXXI above.
CXXXV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXX above.
CXXXVI “driven out” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.
CXXXVII “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.
CXXXVIII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v4. See note XXXI above.

22 and the landCXXXIX is subduedCXL beforeCXLI the LordCXLII— then after thatCXLIII you may return and beCXLIV free

Notes on verse 22a

CXXXIX “land” = erets. Same as “land” in v1. See note IX above.
CXL “subdued” = kabash. 14x in OT. This is to subdue, tread down, trample, disregard, violate, assault, or conquer.
CXLI “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v4. See note XXXI above.
CXLII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXX above.
CXLIII “after that” = achar. Same as “followed” in v11. See note LXXVI above.
CXLIV “be” = hayah. Same as “owned” in v1. See note III above.

of obligationCXLV to the LordCXLVI and to Israel, and this landCXLVII shall be your possession beforeCXLVIII the Lord.CXLIX 

Notes on verse 22b

CXLV “free of obligation” = naqiy. From naqah (to be empty, cleanse, acquit; to be clean in a literal or figurative sense). This is blameless, innocent, free from punishment, or clear.
CXLVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXX above.
CXLVII “land” = erets. Same as “land” in v1. See note IX above.
CXLVIII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v4. See note XXXI above.
CXLIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXX above.

23 But if you do not do this,CL CLIyou have sinnedCLII

Notes on verse 23a

CL “this” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
CLI {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note XII above.
CLII “sinned” = chata. Related to “sinners” in v14. See note XCIII above.

against the Lord,CLIII and be sureCLIV your sinCLV will find you out. 

Notes on verse 23b

CLIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXX above.
CLIV “be sure” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
CLV “sin” = chatta’ah. Related to “sinners” in v14 & “sinned” in v23. From chata (see note XCIII above). This is sin itself as well as punishment for sin. It is sometimes used specifically to refer to sin that is habitual.

24 Build towns for your little ones and foldsCLVI for your flocks,CLVII but do what you have promised.”CLVIII

25 Then the Gadites and the Reubenites said to Moses, “Your servants will do as my lordCLIX commands.CLX 

Notes on verses 24-25

CLVI “folds” = gederah. Same as “sheepfolds” in v16. See note CVI above.
CLVII “flocks” = tsoneh. Related to “sheepfolds” in v16. 2x in OT. Perhaps from tson (see note CVI above). This is flocks or sheep.
CLVIII “promised” = yatsa + peh. Literally, “what has proceeded out of your mouth.” Yatsa is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense. Peh is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
CLIX “lord” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
CLX “commands” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).

26 Our little ones, our wives,CLXI our flocks,CLXII and allCLXIII our livestockCLXIV shall remainCLXV there in the towns of Gilead, 

Notes on verse 26

CLXI “wives” = ishshah. Related to “people” in v11 & “sinners” in v14. From ish (see note LXIV above). This is woman, wife, or female.
CLXII “flocks” = miqneh. Same as “cattle” in v1. See note VII above.
CLXIII “all” = kol. Same as “all” in v13. See note LXXXVII above.
CLXIV “livestock” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
CLXV “remain” = hayah. Same as “owned” in v1. See note III above.

27 but your servants will cross over, everyoneCLXVI armedCLXVII for war,CLXVIII

Notes on verse 27a

CLXVI “everyone” = kol. Same as “all” in v13. See note LXXXVII above.
CLXVII “armed” = chalats. Same as “take up arms” in v17. See note CX above.
CLXVIII “war” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.

to do battleCLXIX forCLXX the Lord,CLXXI just as my lordCLXXII orders.”CLXXIII

Notes on verse 27b

CLXIX “battle” = milchamah. Same as “war” in v6. See note XLV above.
CLXX “for” = paneh. Same as “before” in v4. See note XXXI above.
CLXXI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXX above.
CLXXII “lord” = adon. Same as “lord” in v25. See note CLIX above.
CLXXIII “orders” = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v13 & {untranslated} in v20. See note LXXXV above.

28 So Moses gave commandCLXXIV concerning them to Eleazar the priest, to Joshua son of Nun, and to the headsCLXXV of the ancestralCLXXVI houses of the Israelite tribes.CLXXVII 

Notes on verse 28

CLXXIV “gave command” = tsavah. Same as “commands” in v25. See note CLX above.
CLXXV “heads” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
CLXXVI “ancestral” = ab. Same as “fathers” in v8. See note LI above.
CLXXVII “tribes” = matteh. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).

29 And Moses said to them, “If the Gadites and the Reubenites, everyone armed for battle beforeCLXXVIII the Lord,CLXXIX will cross over the Jordan with you and the landCLXXX shall be subduedCLXXXI beforeCLXXXII you, then you shall give them the landCLXXXIII of Gilead for a possession, 

Notes on verse 29

CLXXVIII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v4. See note XXXI above.
CLXXIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXX above.
CLXXX “land” = erets. Same as “land” in v1. See note IX above.
CLXXXI “subdued” = kabash. Same as “subdued” in v22. See note CXL above.
CLXXXII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v4. See note XXXI above.
CLXXXIII “land” = erets. Same as “land” in v1. See note IX above.

30 but if they will not cross over with you armed, they shall have possessionsCLXXXIV amongCLXXXV you in the landCLXXXVI of Canaan.”CLXXXVII 

Notes on verse 30

CLXXXIV “have possessions” = achaz. Related to “possession” in v5. See note XL above.
CLXXXV “among” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
CLXXXVI “land” = erets. Same as “land” in v1. See note IX above.
CLXXXVII “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See

31 The Gadites and the Reubenites answered,CLXXXVIII saying, “As the LordCLXXXIX has spokenCXC to your servants, soCXCI we will do. 32 We will cross over armed beforeCXCII the LordCXCIII into the landCXCIV of Canaan, but the possession of our inheritance shall remain with us on this side of the Jordan.”

Notes on verses 31-32

CLXXXVIII “answered” = anah. Related to “Beon” in v3. See note XXIX above.
CLXXXIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXX above.
CXC “spoken” = dabar. Same as “orders” in v27. See note CLXXIII above.
CXCI “so” = ken. Same as “this” in v23. See note CL above.
CXCII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v4. See note XXXI above.
CXCIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXX above.
CXCIV “land” = erets. Same as “land” in v1. See note IX above.

33 Moses gave to them—to the Gadites and to the Reubenites and to the halfCXCV-tribeCXCVI of ManassehCXCVII son of JosephCXCVIII

Notes on verse 33a

CXCV “half” = chatsi. From chatsah (to halve, divide, reach, participate). This is half, middle, midnight, midst.
CXCVI “tribe” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.
CXCVII “Manasseh” = Menashsheh. From nashah (to forget, neglect, remove, deprive). This is Manasseh, literally “causing to forget.” It is Manasseh, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
CXCVIII “Joseph” = Yoseph. Related to “again” in v15. From yasaph (see note C above). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”

the kingdomCXCIX of KingCC SihonCCI of the AmoritesCCII and the kingdom of King OgCCIII of Bashan,CCIV

Notes on verse 33b

CXCIX “kingdom” = mamlakah. From the same as melek (king, royal). This is kingdom, dominion, sovereignty, rule. It can also refer to the realm.
CC “King” = melek. Related to “kingdom” in v33. See note CXCIX above.
CCI “Sihon” = Sichon. Perhaps from the same a ssuach (Suach, a name); from the same as suchah (something swept away, refuse). This is Sihon or Sichon, a name perhaps meaning “tempestuous.”
CCII “Amorites” = Emori. Related to “spoke” in v2. From amar (see note XV above). This is Amorite or Emori, perhaps meaning talkers.
CCIII “Og” = Og. From the same as uggah (bread cake, round ash cake); from ug (to gyrate, bake; baking a round cake). This is Og, a name perhaps meaning “round.”
CCIV “Bashan” = Bashan. Bashan is a place whose name may mean “smooth.”

the landCCV and its towns, with the territoriesCCVI of the surrounding towns.CCVII 

Notes on verse 33c

CCV “land” = erets. Same as “land” in v1. See note IX above.
CCVI “territories” = gebulah. 10x in OT. From gebul (boundary, limit, coast, space; properly, a line that is twisted, which implies a boundary and, by extension, the boundaries of a territory or other enclosed space); perhaps from gabal (to border, twist like rope). This is boundary, place, territory, landmark, or coast.
CCVII “surrounding towns” = erets + sabib. Literally, “of the land around.” Erets is the same as “land” in v1. See note IX above. Sabib is from sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.

34 And the Gadites rebuiltCCVIII Dibon, Ataroth, Aroer,CCIX 35 Atroth-shophan,CCX Jazer, Jogbehah,CCXI 

Notes on verses 34-35

CCVIII “rebuilt” = banah. Same as “build” in v16. See note CV above.
CCIX “Aroer” = Aroer. 16x in OT. From the same as aroer (shrub or tree; may be a juniper); from arar (to strip, make bare, destroy). This is Aroer, a city whose name means “accumulation” or “stripped” or “heath.” See
CCX “Atroth-shophan” = Atroth Shophan. Related to “Ataroth” in v3. 1x in OT. From Ataroth (see note XXII above) + akin to saphan (to cover, reserve, hide, roof, treasure) or shapan (rock badger). This is Atroth-shophan, a place whose name means “hidden,” “crowns of Shophan,” “hidden crowns,” “surrounded by rock baders,” or “surveillance.” See &
CCXI “Jogbehah” = Yogbehah. 2x in OT. From gabah (to be tall, high, exalted, proud, haughty) OR gabahh (to soar or be lofty; to be high or lift up; figuratively, to be exalted or proud). This is Jogbehah or Yogbehah, a place whose name may mean “exlated” or “lofty” or “hillock.” See

36 Beth-nimrah,CCXII and Beth-haran,CCXIII fortified cities,CCXIV and folds for sheep.CCXV 

Notes on verse 36

CCXII “Beth-nimrah” = Beth Nimrah. Related to “Reubenites” and “Reubenites” in v1 & “Beon” in v3 & “build” in v16 & “homes” in v18 & to “Nimrah” in v3. 2x in OT. From bayit (see note XXIX above) + namer (see note XXIV above). This is Beth-nimrah or Beth Nimrah, meaning “place of a leopard” or “house of the leopard” or “house of pure water.” See
CCXIII “Beth-haran” = Beth Haran. Related to “Reubenites” and “Reubenites” in v1 & “Beon” in v3 & “build” in v16 & “homes” in v18 & “Beth-nimrah” in v36 & to “Abraham” in v11. 1x in OT. From the same as Beth Haram (Beth-haram; pleace meaning “house of the height”); {from bayit (see note XXIX above) + perhaps rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense) OR bayit (see note XXIX above) + har (mountain, hill); {from harar (mountain, hill)}}. This is Beth-haran, meaning “house of the lofty” or “mountain house.” See
CCXIV “cities” = iyr. Same as “towns” in v16. See note CVIII above.
CCXV “sheep” = tson. Same as “sheepfolds” in v16. See note CVI above.

37 And the Reubenites rebuilt Heshbon, Elealeh, Kiriathaim,CCXVI 38 Nebo, and Baal-meonCCXVII (some namesCCXVIII being changed),CCXIX and Sibmah, and they gaveCCXX names to the towns that they rebuilt. 

Notes on verses 37-38

CCXVI “Kiriathaim” = Qiryathayim. 7x in OT. From qarah (to happen, meet, bring about) OR from qiryah (city, building); {from qarah (see note CCXVI above)}. This is Kiriathaim, a place that may mean “double city.”
CCXVII “Baal-meon” = Baal Meon. Related to “Beon” in v3 & to “Beon” in v3& to “Beon” in v3 & “answered” in v31. 3x in OT. See note XXIX above.
CCXVIII “names” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
CCXIX “changed” = sabab. Related to “surrounding” in v33. See note CCVII above.
CCXX “gave” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.

39 The descendantsCCXXI of MachirCCXXII son of Manasseh wentCCXXIII to Gilead,

Notes on verse 39a

CCXXI “descendants” = ben. Same as “Reubenites” in v1. See note I above.
CCXXII “Machir” = Makir. From makar (to sell – could be commerce/trade, a daughter to be married, someone into slavery; figuratively, to surrender). This is Machir or Makir, it is a name meaning “salesman.”
CCXXIII “went” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.

capturedCCXXIV it, and dispossessedCCXXV the Amorites who were there, 40 so Moses gaveCCXXVI Gilead to Machir son of Manasseh, and he settledCCXXVII there. 41 JairCCXXVIII son of Manasseh wentCCXXIX

Notes on verses 39b-41a

CCXXIV “captured” = lakad. This is to capture, seize, or imprison. It is to catch something in a snare or net or trap. It can also mean to occupy of select something by casting lots.
CCXXV “dispossessed” = yarash. Same as “driven out” in v21. See note CXXXVI above.
CCXXVI “gave” = natan. Same as “given” in v5. See note XXXIX above.
CCXXVII “settled” = yashab. Same as “sit” in v6. See note XLVI above.
CCXXVIII “Jair” = Yair. 9x in OT. From or (to be or become light). This is Jair or Yair, meaning “enlightens” or “enlightener” or “he will diffuse light” or “one giving light.” See
CCXXIX “went” = halak. Same as “went” in v39. See note CCXXIII above.

and captured their villagesCCXXX and renamedCCXXXI them Havvoth-jair.CCXXXII 

Notes on verse 41b

CCXXX “villages” = chavvah. 4x in OT. Perhaps from the same as Chavvah (Eve or Chavvah, a name meaning “life” or “life-giver); from chavah (show, tell, live, declare). This is a place of living. So, it is a village of tents or a settlement.
CCXXXI “renamed” = qara. Same as “gave” in v38. See note CCXX above.
CCXXXII “Havvoth-jair” = Chavvoth Yair. Related to “villages” in v41 & to “Jair” in v41 & to “towns” in v16. 3x in OT. From chavvah (see note CCXXX above) + Yaor (Yaor or Jair, a name meaning “wooded”); {from ur (awake, rouse self) or the same as ya’ar (honeycomb, forest, thicket)}. This is Havvoth-jair or Chavvoth Yair, it is a region whose name means “tent villages of Jair” or “hamlets of Jair” or “villages of the enlightener.” See &

42 And NobahCCXXXIII wentCCXXXIV and captured KenathCCXXXV and its villagesCCXXXVI and renamed it Nobah after himself.CCXXXVII

Notes on verse 42

CCXXXIII “Nobah” = Nobach. 3x in OT. From nabach (to bark like a dog). This is Nobah or Nobach, a place and a name meaning “bark” or “barking.”
CCXXXIV “went” = halak. Same as “went” in v39. See note CCXXIII above.
CCXXXV “Kenath” = Qenath. Related to “cattle” in v1. 2x in OT. Perhaps from qaneh (reed, branch, measuring rod); perhaps from qanah (see note VII above). This is Kenath or Qenath, a place whose name means “possession” or “acquisition” or “branches” or “stalks.” See
CCXXXVI “villages” = bat. Related to “Reubenites” and “Reubenites” in v1 & “Beon” in v3 & “build” in v16 & “homes” in v18 & “Beth-nimrah” and “Beth-haran” in v36. From ben (see note I above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXXXVII “himself” = shem. Same as “names” in v38. See note CCXVIII above.

Image credit: “Book of Numbers in Pictures – Part 2” by Wong Chim Yuen,

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