Matthew 9:35-10:23

Matthew 9:35-10:23
Proper 6A


9:35 Then JesusA went aboutB all the citiesC and villages,D teachingE in their synagogues,F

Notes on verse 9:35a

A “Jesus” = iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
B “went about” = periago. 6x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go). This is to lead around, compass, go about.
C “cities” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
D “villages” = kome. This is a village as contrasted with a city that has a wall.
E “teaching” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
F “synagogues” = sunagoge. Related to “went about” in v9:35. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note B above). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.

and proclaimingG the good newsH of the kingdom,I and curingJ every diseaseK and every sickness.L 

Notes on verse 9:35b

G “proclaiming” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
H “good news” = euangelion. Related to “went about” and “synagogues” in v9:35. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (see note B above)}. This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
I “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
J “curing” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.
K “disease” = nosos. 11x in NT. This refers to a disease that is chronic and enduring. It can also be used for a moral failing.
L “sickness” = malakia. 3x in NT. From malakos (soft, delicate). This is softness, weakness, or illness. It is some kind of condition that leaves the sufferer feeling weaker. It can also be a disabling condition.

36 When he sawM the crowds, he had compassionN for them, because they were harassedO and helpless,P like sheepQ without a shepherd.R 

Notes on verse 9:36

M “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
N “had compassion” = splagchnizomai. 12x in NT – 8x of Jesus having compassion on people or crowds. From splanxnon (inner organs, entrails; seen as the root of emotions). This is moved to compassion from deep within oneself – visceral empathy or sympathy, being deeply moved.
O “harassed” = skullo. 4x in NT. This is to skin or flay. Figuratively, it can be to distress, annoy, or harass.
P “helpless” = rhipto. 7x in NT. Perhaps related to rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is to cast, toss fling, or disperse. It is a quick toss in contrast to another word ballo, intentional hurling, and teino (stretching outward).
Q “sheep” = probaton. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (to walk, to go)}}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
R “shepherd” = poimen. 18x in NT. This is shepherd or pastor – one who protects. It is also used figuratively to mean ruler. 

37 Then he said to his disciples,S “TheT harvestU is plentiful, but the laborersV are few; 38 therefore askW the LordX of the harvest to send outY laborers into his harvest.”

Notes on verses 9:37-38

S “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
T {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
U “harvest” = therismos. 13x in NT. 13x in NT. From therizo (to reap, gather, harvest); from theros (summer; the heat, which implies summer); from thero (to heat). This is harvesting or reaping. By implication, it is the crop that was harvested.
V “laborers” = ergates. 16x in NT. From ergazomai (to work, labor); {from ergon (word, task, action, employment)}. This is a field laborer – later used to refer to workers in general. It can also be used figuratively for teachers.
W “ask” = deomai. From deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited) This is having an urgent need because one is missing or needing something so it is an earnest appeal or pressing request.
X “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
Y “send out” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.

10:1 Then Jesus summonedZ his twelve disciples and gave them authorityAA over uncleanBB spirits,CC to cast them out,DD and to cure every disease and every sickness. 

Notes on verse 10:1

Z “summoned” = proskaleo. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to oneself, summon.
AA “authority” = exousia. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
BB “unclean” = akathartos. From a (not, without) + kathairo (to cleanse or purify by purging out unwanted elements); {from katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying)}. This is unclean or impure, whether a thing or a person. It is something that is not mixed with something that would taint. This is unclean in a ritual or moral sense. It can also mean demonic or foul.
CC “spirits” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
DD “cast…out” = ekballo. Same as “send out” in v9:38. See note Y above.

These are the namesEE of the twelve apostles:FF first, Simon,GG also known as Peter,HH

Notes on verse 10:2a

EE “names” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
FF “apostles” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for)}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
GG “Simon” = simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
HH “Peter” = petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.

and his brotherII Andrew;JJ JamesKK son of Zebedee,LL and his brother John;MM 

Notes on verse 10:2b

II “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
JJ “Andrew” = andreas. 13x in NT. From aner (man, male, sir, husband). This is Andrew, meaning manly.
KK “James” = iakobos. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
LL “Zebedee” = zebedaios. 12x in NT. From Hebrew zebadyah (Zebadiah, “The Lord has bestowed”); {from Zabad (to bestow, confer, endure) + Yah (God, the Lord; a shortening of the sacred name of the God of Israel); {from YHVH (the holy name of the God of Israel, generally designated Lord; the self-existent and eternal one; the tetragrammaton); from havah (to become); or from hayah (to be become, happen)}}. This is Zebedee, meaning “the Lord has bestowed.”
MM “John” = ioannes. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel); {from havah (to become); from hayah (to be, exist, happen)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John.

3 PhilipNN and Bartholomew;OO ThomasPP and MatthewQQ the tax collector;RR James son of Alphaeus,SS and Thaddaeus;TT 

Notes on verse 10:3

NN “Philip” = philippos. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse). This is Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses.
OO “Bartholomew” = bartholomaios. 4x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son, age); {Aramaic corresponding to ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children)} + Talmay (Talmay, meaning “plowman” or “ridged”); {from the same as telem (furrow or ridge; root may mean to accumulate)}. This is Bartholomew, meaning “son of Tolmai.”
PP “Thomas” = thomas. 11x in NT. From Hebrew toam (twin). This is Thomas, meaning twin.
QQ “Matthew” = maththaios. 5x in NT. From maththaios (Matthew); from Hebrew mattityahu (Matthew, “gift of the Lord”); {from mattanah (gift, offering of sacrifice, present, bribe); {from mattan (gift, reward, to give); from natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively)} + YHVH (the holy name of the God of Israel, generally designated Lord; the self-existent and eternal one; the tetragrammaton); {from havah (to become); or from hayah (to be become, happen)}}. This is Matthew or Matthaeus, meaning “give of the Lord” or “given of the Lord.” See
RR “tax collector” = telones. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is tax collector, one who worked for the Romans taking taxes from Jews. It also meant the toll house. Literally, this is “paying at the end.”
SS “Alphaeus” = alphaios. 5x in NT. From Hebrew halap (to exchange, renew, traverse). This is Alphaeus, which shares a root with Clopas. It means “traverse” or “exchange.” See
TT “Thaddaeus” = thaddaios. 2x in NT. Perhaps from Aramaic taddai (perhaps breasts or large-hearted). This is Thaddaeus, perhaps meaning “courageous heart.” See &

4 Simon the Cananaean,UU and JudasVV Iscariot,WW the one who betrayedXX him.

Notes on verse 10:4

UU “Cananaen” = kananaios. 2x in NT. From Aramaic qanaan (jealous); from Hebrew qanna (jealous); from the same as qinah (zeal, jealousy, envy, anger, rivalry); from qanah (to be zealous or to provoke to jealousy). This is Cananaean, meaning Zealot, zealous, or Canaanite.
VV “Judas” = ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
WW “Iscariot” = iskariotes. 11x in NT. From Hebrew probably ish (man, husband); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be frail, feeble)} + qirya (city); {Aramaic corresponding to qiryah (city, building); from qarah (to happen, meet, bring about)}. Iscariot means person from Kerioth.
XX “betrayed” = paradidomi. Related to “gave” in v10:1. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

5 These twelve Jesus sent outYY with the following instructions:ZZ “Go nowhere amongAAA the Gentiles,BBB and enter no town of the Samaritans,CCC 

Notes on verse 10:5

YY “sent out” = apostello. Related to “apostles” in v10:2. See note FF above. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
ZZ “instructions” = paraggello. Related to “went about” and “synagogues” and “good news” in v9:35. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (see note B above)}. This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
AAA “among” = eis + hodos. Literally “into way.” Hodos is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
BBB “Gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
CCC “Samaritans” = samarites. 9x in NT. From samareia (Samaria, the city and its region); from Hebrew Shomron (capital of the northern kingdom of Israel); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaritan.

but goDDD ratherEEE to the lostFFF sheep of the houseGGG of Israel.HHH 

Notes on verse 10:6

DDD “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
EEE “rather” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
FFF “lost” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
GGG “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
HHH “Israel” = israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

7 As you go, proclaim the good news, ‘The kingdom of heavenIII has come near.’JJJ 8 Cure the sick,KKK raiseLLL the dead,

Notes on verses 10:7-8a

III “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
JJJ “come near” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.
KKK “sick” = astheneo. From asthenes (not having strength or weak in a moral sense; sick); {from a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is sick, feeble, languishing, impotent. Can also refer to moral weakness.
LLL “raise” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.

cleanseMMM the lepers,NNN cast out demons.OOO You received without payment;PPP give without payment. 

Notes on verse 10:8b

MMM “cleanse” = katharizo. Related to “unclean” in v10:1. From katharos (see note BB above) This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.
NNN “lepers” = lepros. 9x in NT. From lepis (fish scale, skin flake); from lepo (to peel). This is scaly or leprous. It can also refer to a person with leprosy.
OOO “demons” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.
PPP “without payment” = dorean. Related to “gave” in v10:1 & “betrayed” in v10:4. 9x in NT. From dorea (free gift given voluntarily and not received by merit or entitlement; emphasizes the benevolence of the giver); from doron (gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily); from didomi (see note XX above). This is freely, for nothing, in vain, or without being paid. It is something given as a gift – unearned, undeserved.

Take no gold,QQQ or silver,RRR or copperSSS in your belts,TTT 

Notes on verse 10:9

QQQ “gold” = chrusos. 10x in NT. 10x in NT. Perhaps from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is gold or something made of gold. It is symbolic of purchasing power.
RRR “silver” = arguros. 5x in NT. From argos (shining).This is silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver.
SSS “copper” = chalkos. 5x in NT. Perhaps from chalao (let down, slacken, loosen). This is copper or bronze. Can also mean things made of brass – money, instruments.
TTT “belts” = zone. 8x in NT. From zonnumi (to gird up – to tighten the belt so one can work or move quickly). This is belt, sash, waistband – the place where one puts the purse.

10 no bagUUU for your journey,VVV or two tunics,WWW or sandals,XXX or a staff;YYY for laborers deserveZZZ their food.AAAA 

Notes on verse 10:10

UUU “bag” = pera. 6x in NT. This is a sack or bag for carrying food and money.
VVV “journey” = hodos. Same as “among” in v10:5. See note AAA.
WWW “tunics” = chiton. 11x in NT. From a Semitic language – see Hebrew kethoneth (tunic). Root means to cover. This is the garment worn beneath the cloak or robe – the one that is closest to the skin.
XXX “sandals” = humpodema. Related to “ask” in v9:38. 10x in NT. From hupodeo (to bind under, put on one’s feet); {from hupo (by, under, subordinate to) + deo (see note W above)}. Literally, something bound underneath – a sandal.
YYY “staff” = rhabdos. Related to “helpless” in v9:36. 12x in NT. See note P above.
ZZZ “deserve” = axios. Related to “went about” and “synagogues” and “good news” in v9:35 & “instruction” in v10:5. From ago (see note B above). This is worthy – corresponding to a given weight or worth, deserving, suitable, comparable. It is a due reward.
AAAA “food” = trophe. 16x in NT. Perhaps from trepho (to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse; properly, to enlarge through proper nourishment). This is nourishment in a literal or figurative sense. By implication, it can be ration or wages.

11 Whatever town or village you enter, find outBBBB who in it is worthy,CCCC and stayDDDD there until you leave. 12 As you enter the house,EEEE greetFFFF it. 

Notes on verses 10:11-12

BBBB “find out” = exetazo. 3x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + etazo (to examine). This is to examine by asking many questions – in a precise and thorough way.
CCCC “worthy” = axios. Same as “deserve” in v10:10. See note ZZZ above.
DDDD “stay” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
EEEE “house” = oikia. Related to “house” in v10:6. From oikos (see note GGG above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
FFFF “greet” = aspazomai. Perhaps from a (with, together with) + a form of spao (to draw, draw out, pull). This is to welcome, salute, or greet. It can also be to embrace or acclaim.

13 IfGGGG the house is worthy, let your peaceHHHH come upon it; but if it is not worthy, let your peace returnIIII to you. 14 If anyone will not welcomeJJJJ you or listenKKKK to your words,LLLL shake off the dustMMMM from your feet as you leave that house or town. 

Notes on verses 10:13-14

GGGG {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v9:37. See note T above.
HHHH “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
IIII “return” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
JJJJ “welcome” = dechomai. This is to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome. It is to receive in a literal or figurative sense.
KKKK “listen” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LLLL “words” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
MMMM “dust” = koniortos. 5x in NT. From the same as koniao (to whitewash, plaster); {from konia (dust, lime) + ornumi (to stir up)}. This is dust or powder as blown around.

15 TrulyNNNN I tell you, it will be more tolerableOOOO for the land of SodomPPPP and GomorrahQQQQ on the day of judgmentRRRR than for that town.

Notes on verse 10:15

NNNN “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
OOOO “more tolerable” = anektoteros. 6x in NT. From anektos (bearable, tolerable); from anecho (to endure, bear with, tolerate, persist, put up with); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + echo (to have, hold, possess)}. This is more tolerable or endurable.
PPPP “Sodom” = sodoma. 10x in NT. From Hebrew sedom (Sodom, the Canaanite city; root may mean scorch; perhaps this was a volcanic or coal rich area). This is Sodom.
QQQQ “Gomorrah” = gomorra. 5x in NT. From Hebrew amorah (Amorah, Gomorrah; a ruined heap); from amar (to bind sheaves, heap; discipline as piling on blows). This is Gomorrah.
RRRR “judgment” = krisis. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is a judging or a sentence. It is often used of God’s judgment, but can also be any accusation or condemnation. This is where the word “crisis” comes from.

16 “See,SSSS I am sending you out like sheep into the midst of wolves;TTTT so beUUUU wiseVVVV as serpentsWWWW and innocentXXXX as doves.YYYY 

Notes on verse 10:16

SSSS “see” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
TTTT “wolves” = lukos. 6x in NT. Perhaps related to leukos (bright, white); from luke (light). This is wolf or maybe jackal. Figuratively, it means cruel, greedy, or destructive.
UUUU “be” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another. This is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
VVVV “wise” = phronimos. 14x in NT. From phroneo (to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action); from phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is wise in a practical sense, prudent, or sensible. It is savvy, rooted in our own point of view, thoughtful. It can also mean conceited.
WWWW “serpents” = ophis. 14x in NT. Perhaps from optanomai (to be seen, to gaze at something with eyes wide open, to see something remarkable). This is snake or serpent, often used of the devil. It is the snake as a type that is sly or cunning – someone malicious.
XXXX “innocent” = akeraios. 3x in NT. From a (not, without) + kerannumi (to mix, mingle); {from kerao (to mix)}. This is pure, simple, innocent, sincere, unmixed. It is not touched by sinful motives.
YYYY “doves” = peristera. 10x in NT. Dove or pigeon.

17 BewareZZZZ of them,AAAAA for they will hand you overBBBBB to councilsCCCCC and flogDDDDD you in their synagogues; 

Notes on verse 10:17

ZZZZ “beware” = prosecho. From pros (at, toward) + echo (have, hold, possess). This is have towards, which is to say to give something your complete attention, beware, be cautious, hold to, turn to.
AAAAA “them” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
BBBBB “hand…over” = paradidomi. Same as “betrayed” in v10:4. See note XX above.
CCCCC “councils” = sunedrion. From sun (with, together with) + hedra (convening, siting together, being firm and faithful); {from aphedron (seat, well-seated; figuratively, this is firm in purpose, steadfast); from hedra (a seat)}. This is Sanhedrin – literally a sitting together. It was the high court for Jews and had 71 members. This term could also mean council or meeting place and was used for the lower courts that were throughout the land and had 23 members.
DDDDD “flog” = mastigoo. 7x in NT. From mastix (a whip that had leather straps with metal bits sewn onto them; figurative for great pain, suffering, disease, or plague; a Roman whip used on criminals, the flagellum); probably from massaomai (to chew, gnaw, consume); from masso (to handle, squeeze). This is to flog or whip someone – the victim being strapped to a pole. Used figuratively for being chastised.

18 and you will be draggedEEEEE before governorsFFFFF and kings because of me, as a testimonyGGGGG to them and the Gentiles. 19 When they hand you over, do not worryHHHHH about how you are to speak or what you are to say; for what you are to say will be given to you at that time;IIIII 20 for it is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you. 

Notes on verses 10:18-20

EEEEE “dragged” = ago. Related to “went about” and “synagogues” and “good news” in v9:35 & “instruction in v10:5 & “deserve” in v10:10 & “governors” in v10:18. See note B above.
FFFFF “governors” = hegemon. Related to “went about” and “synagogues” and “good news” in v9:35 & “instruction in v10:5 & “deserve” in v10:10. From hegeaomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); from ago (see note B above). This is a leader in general, but also specifically a governor or commander. This is where “hegemony” comes from.
GGGGG “testimony” = marturion. 19x in NT. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is something that counts as evidence whether a witness, testimony, or other proof.
HHHHH “worry” = merimnao. 19x in NT. From merimna (care, worry, anxiety; being separated from the whole); from merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment). This is to be anxious, distracted, or care for. It is being pulled in different directions – usually a negative.
IIIII “time” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.

21 Brother will betray brother to death, and a father his child,JJJJJ and children will riseKKKKK against parentsLLLLL and have them put to death; 22 and you will be hatedMMMMM by all because of my name. But the one who enduresNNNNN to the endOOOOO will be saved.PPPPP 

Notes on verses 10:21-22

JJJJJ “child” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
KKKKK “rise” = epanistemi. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); {from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is stand up or rise against – used figuratively for attacking.
LLLLL “parents” = goneus. Related to “be” in v10:16. From ginomai (see note above). This is begetter – so father or parent.
MMMMM “hated” = miseo. From misos (hatred). This word is used in two ways in the New Testament. One has to do with how we prioritize. In order to prioritize something the highest, it means we have to rank other things lower. We cannot have 10 number one priorities. So, the nine that are not number 1, we love less or we value them lower. We make a moral choice the springs from our values about where we put our time, efforts, energy, etc. The other way is detesting or hatred as we normally think of it. This sense has a particular affinity with persecuting the one we hate.
NNNNN “endures” = hupomeno. Related to “stay” in v10:11. 17x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + meno (see note DDDD above). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, enduring trials, and waiting in hope.
OOOOO “end” = telos. Related to “tax collector” in v10:3. See note RR above.
PPPPP “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

23 When they persecuteQQQQQ you in one town, flee to the next; for truly I tell you, you will not have gone throughRRRRR all the towns of Israel before the Son of Man comes.

Notes on verse 10:23

QQQQQ “persecute” = dioko. From dio (put to flight). This is chase or pursue in an aggressive fashion. By implication, it is persecute. It can also be used positively for eagerly pursuing something.
RRRRR “gone through” = teleo. Related to “tax collector” in v10:3 & “end” in v10:22. From telos (see note RR above).

Image credit: a Roman sandal from around AD 200 at the German Shoe Museum in Hauenstein, Germany.

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