Psalm 68

Psalm 68


To the leader.I Of David.II A Psalm.III A Song.IV

Notes on superscript

I “leader” = natsach. Properly, something that glitters from a distance. So, something that stands out, excels, has status/standing (such as a chief musician or superintendent of Temple services). This can also mean to be permanent or enduring.
II “David” = David. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
III “Psalm” = mizmor. From zamar (making music; used specially of music to worship God; music with singing, singing praise, singing psalms); may be from zamar (to trim or prune). This is a melody or a psalm.
IV “song” = shir. From shir (to sing, a person who sings). This is a song or singer.

Let GodV rise up,VI let his enemiesVII be scattered;VIII

Notes on verse 1a

V “God” = Elohim.
VI “rise up” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
VII “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.
VIII “be scattered” = puts. This is to dash in pieces, scatter, disperse, drive.

    let those who hateIX him fleeX beforeXI him.

Notes on verse 1b

IX “hate” = sane. This is an enemy or foe. It is one that is hated with a personal hatred.
X “flee” = nus. This is to flee, vanish away, hide, escape, be displayed.
XI “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

As smokeXII is driven away,XIII so drive them away;
    as wax meltsXIV beforeXV the fire,XVI

Notes on verse 2a

XII “smoke” = ashan. Perhaps from ashan (to smoke or burn in a literal or figurative sense; to be angry). This is smoke, vapor, dust, or anger.
XIII “driven away” = nadaph. 9x in OT. This is to drive away, flee, rout, toss about, disperse.
XIV “melts” = masas. This is to melt, discourage, faint. It can be to deteriorate from a sickness or weaken because of sleepiness or an emotional response.
XV “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note XI above.
XVI “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.

    let the wickedXVII perishXVIII beforeXIX God.

Notes on verse 2b

XVII “wicked” = rasha. This is morally wrong so it refers to someone who is actively bad as wicked, criminal, an evil person, offender, condemned, or ungodly.
XVIII “let…perish” = abad. To wander off, lose self. This implies to perish, destroy, die, vanish, or be broken or corrupt.
XIX “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note XI above.

But let the righteousXX be joyful;XXI
    let them exultXXII beforeXXIII God;
    let them be jubilantXXIV with joy.XXV

Notes on verse 3

XX “righteous” = tsaddiq. From the same as tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, just cause, vindication; that which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense; abstractly equity; figuratively prosperity). This is just, innocent, righteous, righteous one, or lawful.
XXI “be joyful” = samach. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to brighten up in a literal or figurative sense.
XXII “exult” = alats. 8x in OT. This is to jump for joy, rejoice, triumph, or exult.
XXIII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note XI above.
XXIV “be jubilant” = sus. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to be bright or cheerful.
XXV “joy” = simchah. Related to “be joyful” in v3. From samach (see note XXI above). This is joy, rejoicing, pleasure, or glee.

SingXXVI to God, sing praisesXXVII to his name;XXVIII

Notes on verse 4a

XXVI “sing” = shir. Related to “song” in superscript. See note IV above.
XXVII “sing praises” = zamar. Related to “psalm” in superscript. See note III above.
XXVIII “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.

    lift up a songXXIX to him who ridesXXX upon the cloudsXXXI

Notes on verse 4b

XXIX “lift up a song” = salal. 12x in OT. This is to lift up, pile, build, make plain, extol, exalt.
XXX “rides” = rakab. This is to ride an animal or in some vehicle. It can also mean bringing on a horse.
XXXI “clouds” = arabah. From the same as arab (desert plateau, Arabia) OR from arab (to become evening); {from ereb (evening) or from arab (to exchange, give or take on pledge, braid, intermix)}. This is a desert valley or plain, wilderness. Also, the name of a place Arabah.

his name is the LordXXXII
    be exultantXXXIII beforeXXXIV him.

Notes on verse 4c

XXXII “Lord” = Yah. From YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}. This is Lord or God – a shortened form of God’s most holy name.
XXXIII “be exultant” = alaz. 16x in OT. This is to jump for joy, rejoice, triumph, or be jubilant.
XXXIV “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note XI above.

5 FatherXXXV of orphansXXXVI and protectorXXXVII of widowsXXXVIII
    is God in his holyXXXIX habitation.XL

Notes on verse 5

XXXV “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXVI “orphans” = yathom. This is a child without a father or more generally a person who is bereaved.
XXXVII “protector” = dayyan. 2x in OT. From din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, quarrel, plead). This is a judge or advocate.
XXXVIII “widows” = almanah. Related to alman (widowed); from alam (to be silent, bound). This is a widow or a house that is desolate.
XXXIX “holy” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.
XL “habitation” = maon. 17x in OT. From anah (to answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify; to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk; singing, shouting, testifying, etc.) OR from the same as onah (marriage, living together, marital duty). This is dwelling, den, haunt, retreat. It can refer to the Tabernacle or Temple. It can also be used for homes or animal lairs.

God gives the desolateXLI a homeXLII to live in;XLIII

Notes on verse 6a

XLI “desolate” = yachid. 12x in OT. From yachad (to join, be united). This is united, sole, solitary, only, or desolate. It can also mean beloved or darling.
XLII “home” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XLIII “gives…to live in” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.

    he leads outXLIV the prisonersXLV to prosperity,XLVI

Notes on verse 6b

XLIV “leads out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XLV “prisoners” = asir. 12x in OT. From asar (to tie, yoke, bind, or fasten; can mean to harness an animal, to join in fighting a battle, or to imprison someone). This is a prisoner or captive. It can also refer to a slave or someone otherwise bound.
XLVI “prosperity” = kosharah. 1x in OT. From kasher (to succeed, be proper, be right, be acceptable). This is prosperity or freedom.

    but the rebelliousXLVII liveXLVIII in a parchedXLIX land.

Notes on verse 6c

XLVII “rebellious” = sarar. 17x in OT. This is turning away, backsliding, rebellious.
XLVIII “live” = shakan. This is to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently. It can mean abide or continue. “Mishkan,” taken from this verb, is the Hebrew word for the Tabernacle (as a place where God abided).
XLIX “parched” = tsechichah. 1x in OT. From tsachiach (shining surface, exposed, top, glaring; a bright surface because the sun shines on it); from tsachach (to be whiter, glare, be dazzling). This is a parched or dry land, the desert.

O God, when you went outL beforeLI your people,LII

Notes on verse 7a

L “went out” = yatsa. Same as “leads out” in v6. See note XLIV above.
LI “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note XI above.
LII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

    when you marchedLIII through the wilderness,LIV SelahLV

Notes on verse 7b

LIII “marched” = tsaad. 8x in OT. This is to step, go, run, walk, to pace. It is to march with a regular step, climb up, hurl down.
LIV “wilderness” = yeshimon. 13x in OT. From yasham (to be stripped, destroyed, desolate). This is a wilderness or desert. It can also refer to a place called Jeshimon. It means “wasteland” or “wilderness.” See
LV “Selah” = selah. Related to “lift up a song” in v4. From salal (see note XXIX above). This is to lift up or exalt. Also, “selah” in the psalms where its precise meaning is uncertain. It could be a pause in the music, a moment of silence. It could signal a change in the service or mean something akin to amen.

the earthLVI quaked,LVII the heavensLVIII poured downLIX rain
    at the presenceLX of God, the God of Sinai,
    at the presence of God, the God of Israel.LXI

Notes on verse 8

LVI “earth” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
LVII “quaked” = raash. This is to quake, shake, tremble, shake from fear; leap like a locust.
LVIII “heavens” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
LIX “poured down” = nataph. 18x in OT. This is to drip, ooze, or drop. It can also refer to the process of gradual distillation that causes liquid to fall drop by drop. Figuratively, it can mean prophesying or inspired speech.
LX “presence” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note XI above.
LXI “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “God” in v1. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note V above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

RainLXII in abundance,LXIII O God, you showered abroad;LXIV

Notes on verse 9a

LXII “rain” = geshem. Perhaps from gasham (to rain). This is rain, shower, or rainy. It can be used figuratively for blessing or for destruction.
LXIII “abundance” = nedabah. From nadab (to offer willingly, volunteer, freely give, be willing). This is a freewill offering, something giving spontaneously.
LXIV “showered abroad” = nuph. This is to rock back and forth, wave, sprinkle, quiver, beckon, offer, present.

    you restoredLXV your heritageLXVI when it languished;LXVII

Notes on verse 9b

LXV “restored” = kun. Properly, this means in a perpendicular position. So, it is set up in a literal sense – establish, fix, fasten, prepare. In a figurative sense, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous.
LXVI “heritage” = nachalah. Related to nachal (to inherit, occupy, distribute, take as heritage). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.
LXVII “languished” = laah. 19x in OT. This is to be weary or exhausted, parched, faint, or tired. It could also mean to be impatient, or have a hard time. Figuratively, this could refer to being grieved or disgusted. This is the root verb that Leah comes from.

10 your flockLXVIII found a dwellingLXIX in it;
    in your goodness,LXX O God, you providedLXXI for the needy.LXXII

Notes on verse 10

LXVIII “flock” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
LXIX “found a dwelling” = yashab. Same as “gives…to live in” in v6. See note XLIII above.
LXX “goodness” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
LXXI “provided” = kun. Same as “restored” in v9. See note LXV above.
LXXII “needy” = ani. From anah (to be bowed down; humility or being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed; literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance). This is humble, lowly, poor, or afflicted.

11 The LordLXXIII givesLXXIV the command;LXXV

Notes on verse 11a

LXXIII “Lord” = Adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans and (in the present form) of God. It means someone who is in control.
LXXIV “gives” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LXXV “command” = omer. 6x in OT. From emer (speech, thing, utterance, promise, argument, command); from amar (to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report). This is speech, a word, a matter, or a promise.

    greatLXXVI is the companyLXXVII of those who bore the tidings:LXXVIII

Notes on verse 11b

LXXVI “great” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
LXXVII “company” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.
LXXVIII “bore the tidings” = basar. This is being a messenger, to publish, carry, or preach. Properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news.

12     “The kingsLXXIX of the armies,LXXX they flee,LXXXI they flee!”

Notes on verse 12a

LXXIX “kings” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
LXXX “armies” = tsaba. Same as “company” in v11. See note LXXVII above.
LXXXI “flee” = nadad. This is to flee, stray, chase away, fugitive, to wave around, shrink.

The women at homeLXXXII divideLXXXIII the spoil,LXXXIV

Notes on verse 12b

LXXXII “women at home” = naveh + bayit. Literally “she who remains at home.” Naveh is from navah (home, beautify, praise) This is home, place where shepherd or sheep live. It is at home – implies a lovely place or a place of satisfaction. It can also be used for the Temple or a pasture as the home of wild animals. Bayit is the same as “home” in v6. See note XLII above.
LXXXIII “divide” = chalaq. This is to be smooth in a figurative sense. So, it can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute. Figuratively, it can also mean to flatter.
LXXXIV “spoil” = shalal. From shalal (to plunder, loot, capture). This is spoil, prey, or plunder.

13     though they stayLXXXV amongLXXXVI the sheepfoldsLXXXVII

Notes on verse 13a

LXXXV “stay” = shakab. This is to lie down, lodge. It is lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons.
LXXXVI “among” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
LXXXVII “sheepfolds” = shaphath. 2x in OT. From shaphath ((to lay, ordain, locate, establish, light on fire, bring). This is a hook as over a fireplace for cooking meat. It could also be a pot or cattle stall.

the wingsLXXXVIII of a doveLXXXIX coveredXC with silver,XCI

Notes on verse 13b

LXXXVIII “wings” = kanaph. This is wing, edge, corner, extremity. It can also be a flap or fold of a garment or the pinnacle of a building.
LXXXIX “dove” = yonah. Perhaps from yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is a dove or pigeon. Used to refer to the exiles coming home, to describe sails of ships. Also used figuratively for mourning or as a description of beauty.
XC “covered” = chaphah. 12x in OT. This is to cover, veil, overlay, or protect. It is used for covering one’s head or face or overlaying with precious metals.
XCI “silver” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.

    its pinionsXCII with greenXCIII gold.XCIV

Notes on verse 13c

XCII “pinions” = ebrah. From eber (wing, pinion); from abar (to fly, soar). This is a feather or wing.
XCIII “green” = yeraqraq. 3x in OT. From the same as yereq (something green or yellow-green; could be of pallor or some kind of vegetation); from yaraq (to spit). This is yellowish or pale green. It can also mean glistening.
XCIV “gold” = charuts. 18x in OT. From charats (to cut, sharpen, decree, wound, be alert, move). This is incisive, diligent, a trench, gold, threshing sledge, pointed thing.

14 When the AlmightyXCV scatteredXCVI kings there,
    snow fellXCVII on Zalmon.XCVIII

Notes on verse 14

XCV “Almighty” = Shaddai. Perhaps from shadad (to ruin, assault, devastate, oppress, destroy completely; properly, it is being burly; figuratively it is something that is powerful) OR from shed (protective spirit) OR shadah (to moisten) OR shad (breast). Perhaps meaning almighty, “my destroyer,” “my protective spirit,” “my rainmaker,” “self-sufficient, “who is abundantly,” or “breasted one” – as the one who abundantly provides or grants fertility/abundance to humans. See
XCVI “scattered” = paras. This is to spread or stretch out, extend, break up, chop to pieces, disperse, display.
XCVII “snow fell” = shalag. 1x in OT. From sheleg (snow or snowy). This is to snow, to be white.
XCVIII “Zalmon” = Tsalmon. 3x in OT. From tselem (phantom, resemblance, illusion, image, idol). This is Zalmon, a place whose name may mean “shady,” “dark,” “place of the idol,” or “man of the idol.” See

15 O mightyXCIX mountain, mountain of Bashan;C
    O many-peakedCI mountain, mountain of Bashan!

Notes on verse 15

XCIX “mighty” = elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above. From eloah (God, a god); from el (God, a god). This is most commonly used as a name for God. Technically, it’s in the plural, i.e. gods. It can also mean great, mighty, judge, or ruler.
C “Bashan” = Bashan. Bashan is a place whose name may mean “smooth.”
CI “many-peaked” = gabnon. 2x in OT – both in this psalm. From the same as gibben (hunchback). This is a peak or hump. It can refer to a summit or the top of hills.

16 Why do you look with envy,CII O many-peaked mountain,
    at the mount that God desiredCIII for his abode,CIV

Notes on verse 16a

CII “look with envy” = ratsad. 1x in OT. This is a sidelong glance. Figuratively, it is to look with envy or to look at in a stealthy way.
CIII “desired” = chamad. This is to desire or delight in someone or something. It can also mean something that is precious or coveted. So, it can also refer to lust.
CIV “for his abode” = yashab. Same as “gives…to live in” in v6. See note XLIII above.

    where the LordCV will resideCVI forever?CVII

Notes on verse 16b

CV “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v4. See note XXXII above.
CVI “reside” = shakan. Same as “live” in v6. See note XLVIII above.
CVII “forever” = netsach. Related to “leader” in superscript. From natsach (see note I above). This is properly a goal or destination as the bright focus to which one journeys. It can be splendor, truthfulness, or confidence. Most often, it refers to everlastingness, always, continually.

17 With mighty chariotry,CVIII twice ten thousand,CIX
    thousandsCX upon thousands,CXI
    the LordCXII came from Sinai into the holy place.

Notes on verse 17

CVIII “chariotry” = rekeb. Related to “rides” in v4. From rakab (see note XXX above). This is a vehicle, wagon, or chariot. It can be cavalry or an individual rider.
CIX “twice ten thousand” = ribbo. Related to “great” in v11. 11x in OT. From rabab (see note LXXVI above). This is tens of thousands, a myriad, or some other large number whose quantity isn’t specified.
CX “thousands” = eleph. Perhaps from the same as eleph (herd, cattle); from alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is thousand.
CXI “thousands” = shinan. 1x in OT. From shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is repetition or change.
CXII “Lord” = Adonai. Same as “Lord” in v11. See note LXXIII above.

18 You ascendedCXIII the high mount,CXIV
    leading captivesCXV in your trainCXVI

Notes on verse 18a

CXIII “ascended” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
CXIV “high mount” = marom. From rum (to be high, rise, exalted, become proud, display, offer, present, set apart, extol; to rise in a literal or figurative sense). This can be height, high place, or lofty. It can be either exalted or haughty/proud. It can refer to dignity or to heaven.
CXV “leading captives” = shabah. This is to carry away into captivity, bring away, capture, lead away.
CXVI “train” = shbiy. Related to “leading captives” in v18. From shebo (a precious stone) OR from shabah (see note CXV above). This is captivity, what was taken, exiled, booty, prisoner.

    and receivingCXVII giftsCXVIII from people,CXIX
even from those who rebelCXX against the LordCXXI God’s abidingCXXII there.

Notes on verse 18b

CXVII “receiving” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CXVIII “gifts” = mattanah. Related to “gives” in v11. 17x in OT. From mattan (gift, reward, to give); from natan (see note LXXIV above). This is gift, offering of sacrifice, present, bribe.
CXIX “people” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
CXX “rebel” = sarar. Same as “rebellious” in v6. See note XLVII above.
CXXI “Lord” = Yah. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXXII above.
CXXII “abiding” = shakan. Same as “live” in v6. See note XLVIII above.

19 Blessed beCXXIII the Lord,CXXIV
    who dailyCXXV bears us up;CXXVI
    GodCXXVII is our salvation.CXXVIII Selah

Notes on verse 19

CXXIII “blessed be” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
CXXIV “Lord” = Adonai. Same as “Lord” in v11. See note LXXIII above.
CXXV “daily” = yom + yom. Literally “day by day.”  Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CXXVI “bears…up” = amas. 9x in OT. This is to carry a load, to load, lift. Figuratively, it can mean infliction.
CXXVII “God” = El. Related to “God” in v1 & “Israel” in v8. See note V above.
CXXVIII “salvation” = yeshuah. From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free). This is salvation, deliverance, health, victory, prosperity.

20 Our GodCXXIX is a GodCXXX of salvation,CXXXI

Notes on verse 20a

CXXIX “God” = El. Same as “God” in v19. See note CXXVII above.
CXXX “God” = El. Same as “God” in v19. See note CXXVII above.
CXXXI “salvation” = moshaah. Related to “salvation” in v19. 1x in OT. From yasha (see note CXXVIII above). This is deliverance or salvation. It can also refer to deeds that save.

    and to God,CXXXII the Lord,CXXXIII belongs escapeCXXXIV from death.CXXXV

Notes on verse 20b

CXXXII “God” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v4 & “Lord” in v16. It is the same as YHVH in v16 with a different vowel pointing, but the same meaning. See note XXXII above.
CXXXIII “Lord” = Adonai. Same as “Lord” in v11. See note LXXIII above.
CXXXIV “belongs escape” = totsaah. Related to “leads out” in v6. From yatsa (see note XLIV above). This is outgoing, exit, to escape. It can refer to a far border or to a spring. It can also mean deliverance, source, or strength.
CXXXV “death” = mavet. From muth (to die in a literal or figurative sense). This can be death, deadliness, the dead, or the place where the dead go. It can be used figuratively for pestilence or ruin.

21 But GodCXXXVI will shatterCXXXVII the headsCXXXVIII of his enemies,

Notes on verse 21a

CXXXVI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.
CXXXVII “shatter” = machats. 14x in OT. This is to dash asunder, severely wound, strike, crush. Figuratively, it is to subdue or destroy.
CXXXVIII “heads” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).

    the hairyCXXXIX crownCXL of those who walkCXLI in their guilty ways.CXLII

Notes on verse 21b

CXXXIX “hairy” = sear. Perhaps from sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, storm tossed; this is to toss in a literal or figurative sense). This is hair, hairy, or rough.
CXL “crown” = qodqod. 11x in OT. Perhaps from qadad (to bow the head, stoop, bow in deference). This is the scalp or crown of the head.
CXLI “walk” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
CXLII “guilty ways” = asham. From asham (to be guilty, suffer, be punished; to destroy, condemn, be desolate, perish). This is guilt, sin, wrong, or offense. It is also a sin or guilt offering.

22 The LordCXLIII said,CXLIV
    “I will bring them backCXLV from Bashan,
I will bring them back from the depthsCXLVI of the sea,CXLVII

Notes on verse 22

CXLIII “Lord” = Adonai. Same as “Lord” in v11. See note LXXIII above.
CXLIV “said” = amar. Related to “command” in v11. See note LXXV above.
CXLV “bring…back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CXLVI “depths” = metsolah. 11x in OT. From the same as tsulah (root may mean to sink; ocean depths, the abyss of the sea). This is depth, bottom, or otherwise somewhere deep that is watery or muddy.
CXLVII “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.

23 so that you may batheCXLVIII your feetCXLIX in blood,CL
   so that the tonguesCLI of your dogsCLII may have their share from the foe.”CLIII

Notes on verse 23

CXLVIII “bathe” = machats. Same as “shatter” in v21. See note CXXXVII above.
CXLIX “feet” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.
CL “blood” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.
CLI “tongues” = lashon. This is tongue, talker, language, or wedge. It can also be a tongue of flame or a water cove.
CLII “dogs” = keleb. This is yelping or attacking. It can also refer to a dog or it can be a term used for a male prostitute.
CLIII “foe” = oyeb. Same as “enemies” in v1. See note VII above.

24 Your solemn processionsCLIV are seen,CLV O God,CLVI
    the processions of my God,CLVII my King, into the sanctuaryCLVIII

Notes on verse 24

CLIV “processions” = halikah. Related to “walk” in v21. 6x in OT. From halak (see note CXLI above).This is a walking, group travelling together, procession, march.
CLV “seen” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
CLVI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.
CLVII “God” = El. Same as “God” in v19. See note CXXVII above.
CLVIII “sanctuary” = qodesh. Same as “holy” in v5. See note XXXIX above.

25 the singersCLIX in front,CLX the musiciansCLXI last,CLXII

Notes on verse 25a

CLIX “singers” = shir. Same as “sing” in v4. See note XXVI above.
CLX “in front” = qadam. May be from qedem (front, formerly, before, east, eternal, everlasting, antiquity). This is to come in front or be in front and so meet, anticipate, confront, receive, or rise. It sometimes means to meet for help.
CLXI “musicians” = nagan. 15x in OT. This is to strike a stringed instrument, to pluck or play it. It can also refer to a musician or a melody.
CLXII “last” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.

    betweenCLXIII them girlsCLXIV playing tambourines:CLXV

Notes on verse 25b

CLXIII “between” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
CLXIV “girls” = almah. 7x in OT– this is the same word used in Isaiah 7:14 to refer to the “young woman” who is with child and shall name her son Immanuel. From elem (youth, lad, stripling; something that remains out of view); perhaps from alam (to hide, conceal, a dissembler; to conceal in a literal or figurative sense). This is a young woman or girl. It can be a maid as one who is veiled. By extension, this can mean virgin since a girl/young woman was presumed to be a virgin.
CLXV “playing tambourines” = taphaph. 2x in OT. From toph (timbrel, tambourine). This is to play a drum, timbrel, or tambourine.

26 “Bless GodCLXVI in the great congregation,CLXVII
    the Lord,CLXVIII O you who are of Israel’s fountain!”CLXIX

Notes on verse 26

CLXVI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.
CLXVII “congregation” = maqhel. 2x in OT. From the same as qahal (assembly, congregation, or multitude); from qahal (to gather, convene, assemble like a congregation). This is an assembly or congregation. Here, it is plural.
CLXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v16. See note CXXXII above.
CLXIX “fountain” = maqor. 18x in OT. From qur (to dig, destroy, wall up). This is a spring or fountain. Properly, it is a site that was dug and so it is used for a wellspring. It also refers to natural water sources. It can be used of tears, blood, female genitalia. Figuratively, it can be offspring, posterity, wisdom, or happiness.

27 There is Benjamin,CLXX the leastCLXXI of them, in the lead,CLXXII

Notes on verse 27a

CLXX “Benjamin” = Binyamin. Related to “home” in v6. From ben (son, age, child); {from banah (see note XLII above)} + from yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}. This is Benjamin, meaning “son of the right hand.” It could refer to Benjamin himself, his offspring, their tribe, or their territory.
CLXXI “least” = tsair. From tsaar (to be brought low, small, little one; figuratively, be insignificant or ignoble). This is little, young, least, younger, few in number, low in value.
CLXXII “lead” = radah. This is to step down, rule, dominate, have victory over, crumble.

    the princesCLXXIII of JudahCLXXIV in a body,CLXXV
    the princes of Zebulun,CLXXVI the princes of Naphtali.CLXXVII

Notes on verse 27b

CLXXIII “princes” = sar. This is chief, leader, ruler, lord, official, governor, prince, military leader. It refers to someone at the top of a rank or class.
CLXXIV “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
CLXXV “body” = rigmah. 1x in OT. From ragam (to stone). This is a pile of stones, a group of people, a council.
CLXXVI “Zebulun” = Zebulun. From zabal (to dwell, inclose, reside). This is Zebulun, that tribe, or their territory. It means “habitation.”
CLXXVII “Naphtali” = Naphtali. From pathal (to twist, twine, wrestle, struggle, behave in an unsavory way). This is Naphtali, meaning “my wrestling.” It can refer to Naphtali, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.

28 SummonCLXXVIII your might,CLXXIX O God;CLXXX
    show your strength,CLXXXI O God,CLXXXII as you have doneCLXXXIII for us before.

Notes on verse 28

CLXXVIII “summon” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
CLXXIX “might” = oz. From azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; it means to be stout literally or figuratively. A Late Hebrew word). This is strength in the sense of force, majesty, praise, material and physical strength, the abstract notion of security. It can also speak of social or political power.
CLXXX “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.
CLXXXI “show…strength” = azaz. Related to “might” in v28. 12x in OT. See note CLXXIX above.
CLXXXII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.
CLXXXIII “done” = paal. This is to do, make, work, or accomplish. Generally refers to regularly repeated or systematic action – so, to practice.

29 Because of your templeCLXXXIV at JerusalemCLXXXV
    kings bearCLXXXVI giftsCLXXXVII to you.

Notes on verse 29

CLXXXIV “temple” = hekal. Perhaps from yakol (to be able, endure, overcome, prevail). This is a large building with public access such as a palace or temple.
CLXXXV “Jerusalem” = Yerushalaim. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
CLXXXVI “bear” = yabal. 18x in OT. This is to lead, bring, carry, conduct. Properly, it means to flow. It can mean to bring or lead with fanfare.
CLXXXVII “gifts” = shay. 3x in OT. Perhaps from shavah (to equalize, resemble, agree with, compare, adjust, compose, place, or yield). This is a gift or present. It is something given as an act of homage.

30 RebukeCLXXXVIII the wild animalsCLXXXIX that live among the reeds,CXC
    the herdCXCI of bullsCXCII with the calvesCXCIII of the peoples.

Notes on verse 30a

CLXXXVIII “rebuke” = gaar. 14x in OT. This is to rebuke, corrupt, or chide.
CLXXXIX “wild animals” = chay. Same as “flock” in v10. See note LXVIII above.
CXC “reeds” = qaneh. Perhaps from qanah (to get, buy, redeem, create, possess). This is reed, branch, stalk, beam, or measuring rod.
CXCI “herd” = edah. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.
CXCII “bulls” = abbir. Related to “pinions” in v13. 17x in OT. From abir (strong, mighty); from abar (see note XCII above). This is mighty or valiant. It could refer to a mighty one broadly, an angel, or a bull.
CXCIII “calves” = egel. May be from the same as agol (round, circular – root meaning revolve). This is a male calf as one that frisks about. Often used for one that is almost grown up. This is also the word used for the molten calf in Ex 32.

Trample under footCXCIV those who lustCXCV after tribute;CXCVI
    scatterCXCVII the peoples who delightCXCVIII in war.CXCIX

Notes on verse 30b

CXCIV “trample under foot” = raphas. 2x in OT. This is to tread or trample. It can also refer to humbling oneself.
CXCV {untranslated} = rats. 1x in OT. From ratsats (properly, cracking in pieces in a literal or figurative sense; to crush, break, bruise, struggle, discourage, oppress). This may mean a piece or fragment.
CXCVI “tribute” = keseph. Same as “silver” in v13. See note XCI above.
CXCVII “scatter” = bazar. 2x in OT. This is to scatter or distribute.
CXCVIII “delight” = chaphets. Properly, this means inclined towards or bending to. Figuratively, it means to desire, delight in, or be pleased with.
CXCIX “war” = qerab. 9x in OT. From qarab (to come near, approach). This is a battle or other violent encounter.

31 Let bronzeCC be broughtCCI from Egypt;CCII
    let EthiopiaCCIII hasten to stretch outCCIV its handsCCV to God.CCVI

Notes on verse 31

CC “bronze” = chashman. 1x in OT. This may mean wealthy so it can refer to an ambassador or prince.
CCI “brought” = athah. This is to come or bring. It can also refer to the past or future arriving.
CCII “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
CCIII “Ethiopia” = Kush. Perhaps from Egyptia k’sh (Cush). This is Cush or his descendants. Also, Ethiopia – a place south of the Nile Valley. See
CCIV “hasten to stretch out” = ruts. This is to run or rush, divide quickly, bring swiftly. It can also refer to a footman or guard.
CCV “hands” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CCVI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.

32 Sing to God,CCVII O kingdomsCCVIII of the earth;
    sing praisesCCIX to the Lord,CCX Selah

Notes on verse 32

CCVII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.
CCVIII “kingdoms” = mamlakah. Related to “kings” in v12. From the same as melek (see note LXXIX above). This is kingdom, dominion, sovereignty, rule. It can also refer to the realm.
CCIX “sing praises” = zamar. Same as “sing praises” in v4. See note XXVII above.
CCX “Lord” = Adonai. Same as “Lord” in v11. See note LXXIII above.

33 O riderCCXI in the heavens, the ancientCCXII heavens;
    listen,CCXIII he sends outCCXIV his voice,CCXV his mightyCCXVI voice.

Notes on verse 33

CCXI “rider” = rakab. Same as “rides” in v4. See note XXX above.
CCXII “ancient” = qedem. Related to “in front” in v25. Perhaps from qadam (see note CLX above). This is front, formerly, before, east, eternal, everlasting, antiquity.
CCXIII “listen” = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
CCXIV “sends out” = natan. Same as “gives” in v11. See note LXXIV above.
CCXV “voice” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
CCXVI “mighty” = oz. Same as “might” in v28. See note CLXXIX above.

34 AscribeCCXVII powerCCXVIII to God,CCXIX
    whose majestyCCXX is over Israel;
    and whose power is in the skies.CCXXI

Notes on verse 34

CCXVII “ascribe” = natan. Same as “gives” in v11. See note LXXIV above.
CCXVIII “power” = oz. Same as “might” in v28. See note CLXXIX above.
CCXIX “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.
CCXX “majesty” = gaavah. 19x in OT. From gaah (to rise up, be exalted, triumph; figuratively, be majestic). This is majesty, excellency, pride, or arrogance. It can also mean ornament.
CCXXI “skies” = shachaq. From shachaq (to rub off, wear away, pulverize). This is powder, dust, vapor. It can also refer to the sky or a cloud.

35 Awesome isCCXXII GodCCXXIII in his sanctuary,CCXXIV
    the GodCCXXV of Israel;
    he gives power and strengthCCXXVI to his people.

Blessed be God!CCXXVII

Notes on verse 35

CCXXII “awesome is” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
CCXXIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.
CCXXIV “sanctuary” = miqdash. Related to “holy” in v5. From the same as qodesh (see note XXXIX above). This is a sacred place, sanctuary, holy place. It is something or somewhere that is consecrated, whether to God or to another.
CCXXV “God” = El. Same as “God” in v19. See note CXXVII above.
CCXXVI “strength” = taatsumah. 1x in OT. From atsam (vast, numerous, strong; to close one’s eyes, to make powerful; to break bones). This is might or power.
CCXXVII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.

Image credit: “The Flood” by Willem de Zwart, from 1900-1931.

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