Genesis 44

Genesis 44


Then he commandedI the steward of his house,II “FillIII the men’sIV sacksV with food,VI

Notes on verse 1a

I “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
II “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
III “fill” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.
IV “men’s” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
V “sacks” = amtachat. 15x in OT – all in Genesis 42-44. From matach (to spread out). This is something that is spread out like a bag or a sack.
VI “food” = okel. From akal (to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume; eating in a literal or figurative sense). This is food, supply of provisions, the act of eating, or the time when one eats.

 as much as they canVII carry,VIII and putIX each man’s moneyX in the topXI of his sack. 

Notes on verse 1b

VII “can” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
VIII “carry” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
IX “put” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
X “money” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
XI “top” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.

2 Put my cup,XII the silverXIII cup, in the top of the sack of the youngest,XIV with his money for the grain.”XV

Notes on verse 2a

XII “cup” = gabia. 14x in OT. This may come from a root that means convex. It is a cup, bowl, pot, pitcher, cup of a flower.
XIII “silver” = keseph. Same as “money” in v1. See note X above.
XIV “youngest” = qaton. From qut (to cut off, be grieved; figuratively to detest). This is small, young, least, not important. It could be a small quantity, size, age, or importance.
XV “grain” = sheber. 9x in OT– 7x in Genesis. From shabar (to break, give birth to, destroy, burst; can be literal or figurative). This is corn or grain as separated into its constituent parts.

And he didXVI asXVII JosephXVIII toldXIX him. 

Notes on verse 2b

XVI “did” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XVII “as” = dabar. Literally “according to the word.” From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
XVIII “Joseph” = Yoseph. From yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”
XIX “told” = dabar. Related to “as” in v2. See note XVII above.

As soon as the morningXX was light,XXI the menXXII were sent awayXXIII with their donkeys.XXIV 

Notes on verse 3

XX “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
XXI “light” = or. From or (to be or become light). This is light, sun, sunshine, dawn, or daylight. Figuratively, it can refer to light from instruction, light of a face (that is to say one that is cheerful or finds favor). It can refer to prosperity or salvation; a light that guides, a light eternal from Zion.
XXII “men” = enosh. Related to “men’s” in v1. See note IV above.
XXIII “sent away” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XXIV “donkeys” = chamor. From chamar (to be red, blush). This is a male donkey.

When they had goneXXV only a short distanceXXVI from the city,XXVII Joseph said to his steward,XXVIII

Notes on verse 4a

XXV “gone” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVI “short distance” = lo + rachaq. Literally “not far off.” Rachaq is to widen, become distant, cast, or remove. It can be in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVII “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
XXVIII {untranslated} = bayit. Same as “house” in v1. See note II above.

“Go,XXIX followXXX after the men;XXXI and when you overtakeXXXII them, say to them,

Notes on verse 4b

XXIX “go” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
XXX “follow” = radaph. This is to chase after, pursue, hunt, or persecute. It is running after someone or something, generally with hostile motives.
XXXI “men” = ish. Same as “men’s” in v1. See note IV above.
XXXII “overtake” = nasag. This is to reach in a literal or figurative sense. It is to overtake, catch, or be able to.

‘Why have you returnedXXXIII evilXXXIV for good?XXXV Why have you stolen my silver cup?XXXVI 

Notes on verse 4c

XXXIII “returned” = shalam. This is to be complete or sound – to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate. So, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated. This is the root verb that “shalom” comes from, the Hebrew word for peace.
XXXIV “evil” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
XXXV “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
XXXVI Some manuscripts lack “why have you stolen my silver cup?”

5 Is it not from this that my lordXXXVII drinks?XXXVIII Does he not indeed use it for divination?XXXIX You have done wrongXL in doing this.’”

Notes on verse 5

XXXVII “lord” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
XXXVIII “drinks” = shathah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.
XXXIX “indeed use it for divination” = nachash + nachash. 11x in OT. This is to practice divination, learn by experience, to use an enchantment. It can also mean to hiss as in whispering a spell. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
XL “done wrong” = ra’a’. Related to “evil” in v4. See note XXXIV above.

When he overtook them, he repeatedXLI these wordsXLII to them. They said to him, “Why does my lord speakXLIII such words as these? Far be itXLIV from your servantsXLV that they should do such a thing!XLVI 

Notes on verses 6-7

XLI “repeated” = dabar. Same as “told” in v2. See note XIX above.
XLII “words” = dabar. Same as “as” in v2. See note XVII above.
XLIII “speak” = dabar. Same as “told” in v2. See note XIX above.
XLIV “far be it” = chalilah. From chalal (to pierce, which implies to wound; used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word; to begin as though one opened a wedge; to eat something as a common thing). This is literally something that is profaned. It is used to mean “God forbid” or “far be it.”
XLV “servants” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
XLVI “thing” = dabar. Same as “as” in v2. See note XVII above.

8 Look,XLVII the money that we foundXLVIII at the top of our sacks, we brought backXLIX to you from the landL of Canaan;LI

Notes on verse 8a

XLVII “look” = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
XLVIII “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
XLIX “brought back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
L “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
LI “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See

why then would we stealLII silver or goldLIII from your lord’s house? Should it be found with any one of your servants, let him die;LIV moreover the rest of us will becomeLV my lord’s slaves.”LVI 

Notes on verses 8b-9

LII “steal” = ganab. This is to steal in a stealthy way rather than through violence. It can also mean to deceive. There is a Yiddish word ganef that derives from this root. It means thief or scoundrel.
LIII “gold” = zahab. Root may mean to shimmer. This is gold or something that has the color of gold like oil. It can also refer to a clear sky – to good weather.
LIV “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
LV “become” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
LVI “slaves” = ebed. Same as “servants” in v7. See note XLV above.

10 He said, “Even so; in accordance with your words,LVII let it be: he with whom it is found shall become my slave, but the rest of you shall goLVIII free.”LIX 

Notes on verse 13

LVII {untranslated} = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
LVIII “go” = hayah. Same as “become” in v9. See note LV above.
LIX “free” = naqiy. From naqah (to be empty, cleanse, acquit; to be clean in a literal or figurative sense). This is blameless, innocent, free from punishment, or clear.

11 Then each oneLX quicklyLXI loweredLXII his sack to the ground,LXIII and each openedLXIV his sack. 

Notes on verse 11

LX “each one” = ish. Same as “men’s” in v1. See note IV above.
LXI “quickly” = mahar. This is being liquid, which implies flowing. So, this word implies hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense.
LXII “lowered” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
LXIII “ground” = erets. Same as “land” in v8. See note L above.
LXIV “opened” = pathach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.

12 He searched,LXV beginningLXVI with the eldestLXVII and endingLXVIII with the youngest; and the cup was found in Benjamin’sLXIX sack. 

Notes on verse 12

LXV “searched” = chaphas. This is to seek. In a causative sense, it can mean to hide or disguise oneself.
LXVI “beginning” = chalal. Related to “far be it” in v7. See note XLIV above.
LXVII “eldest” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
LXVIII “ending” = kalah. This is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed.
LXIX “Benjamin’s” = Binyamin. Related to “house” in v1. From ben (son, age, child); {from banah (see note II above)} + from yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}. This is Benjamin, meaning “son of the right hand.” It could refer to Benjamin himself, his offspring, their tribe, or their territory.

13 At this they toreLXX their clothes.LXXI Then each one loadedLXXII his donkey, and they returnedLXXIII to the city.

Notes on verse 13

LXX “tore” = qara. This is to tear or cut out in a literal or figurative sense. It an also be to revile or to apply eye make up – as though they are made to look larger.
LXXI “clothes” = simlah. Perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is mantle, clothes, wrapper.
LXXII “loaded” = amas. 9x in OT. This is to carry a load, to load, lift. Figuratively, it can mean infliction.
LXXIII “returned” = shub. Same as “brought back” in v8. See note XLIX above.

14 JudahLXXIV and his brothersLXXV cameLXXVI to Joseph’s house while he was still there; and they fellLXXVII to the ground beforeLXXVIII him. 

Notes on verse 14

LXXIV “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
LXXV “brothers” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
LXXVI “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
LXXVII “fell” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
LXXVIII “before” = paneh. Literally “before his face.” From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

15 Joseph said to them, “What deedLXXIX is this that you have done? Do you not knowLXXX that oneLXXXI such as I can practice divination?”LXXXII 

Notes on verse 15

LXXIX “deed” = maaseh. Related to “did” in v2. From asah (see note XVI above). This is a word – any action whether positive or negative. It can also be a transaction, construction, activity, property, or something that is produced.
LXXX “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
LXXXI “one” = ish. Same as “men’s” in v1. See note IV above.
LXXXII “practice divination” = nachash + nachash. Same as “indeed use it for divination” in v5. See note XXXIX above.

16 And Judah said, “What can we say to my lord? What can we speak? How can we clearLXXXIII ourselves? GodLXXXIV has found out the guiltLXXXV of your servants; hereLXXXVI we are then, my lord’s slaves, both we and also the one in whose possessionLXXXVII the cup has been found.” 

Notes on verse 16

LXXXIII “clear” = tsadeq. From tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, just cause, vindication; that which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense; abstractly equity; figuratively prosperity). This is being just or righteousness. It refers to right in a moral or legal sense. So, it can be doing justice, clearing oneself, or turning to righteousness.
LXXXIV “God” = Elohim.
LXXXV “guilt” = avon. Perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.
LXXXVI “here” = hen. Same as “look” in v8. See note XLVII above.
LXXXVII “possession” = yad. Literally “at hand.” This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.

17 But he said, “Far be it from me that I should do so! Only the one in whose possession the cup was found shall be my slave; but as for you, go upLXXXVIII in peaceLXXXIX to your father.”XC

Notes on verse 17

LXXXVIII “go up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIX “peace” = shalom. Related to “returned” in v4. From shalam (see note XXXIII above). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).
XC “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.

18 Then Judah stepped upXCI to him and said, “OXCII my lord, let your servant pleaseXCIII speak a word in my lord’s ears,XCIV and do not be angryXCV with your servant; for you are like PharaohXCVI himself. 

Notes on verse 18

XCI “stepped up” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
XCII “O” = biy. 12x in OT. Perhaps from ba’ah (to inquire, search, boil, or swell out. Figuratively, it could be to sincerely desire). This is O, I pray – it is used to make a request or to speak to someone of higher social status. It is always followed by, “my lord.” In the Bible it is used in addressing a higher status human, an angel, and also God.
XCIII “please” = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
XCIV “ears” = ozen. This is ear, hearing, audience, show. Properly, it is broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape.
XCV “be angry” = charah + aph. Literally “let your anger be kindled.” Charah is perhaps related to charar (to be hot, burn, glow, melt, be scorched; figuratively, to incite passion, be angry). This is to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn. Figuratively it is a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy. Aph is from anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
XCVI “Pharaoh” = Paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See

19 My lord askedXCVII his servants, saying, ‘Have you a father or a brother?’ 20 And we said to my lord, ‘We have a father, an old man,XCVIII and a young brother, the childXCIX of his old age.C

Notes on verses 19-20a

XCVII “asked” = shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand.
XCVIII “old man” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.
XCIX “child” = yeled. From yalad (to bear, bring forth; can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage). This is something born – so, offspring, youth, fruit. It is the same word used in Isaiah 9:6 “for a child will be born to us.”
C “old age” = zequn. Related to “old man” in v20. 4x in OT – all in Genesis. From zaqen (to be old, grow old, old man); from zaqan (see note XCVIII above). This is old age.

His brother is dead; he aloneCI is leftCII of his mother’sCIII children, and his father lovesCIV him.’ 

Notes on verse 20b

CI “alone” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.
CII “is left” = yathar. This is to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel. It can be to leave or to be in abundance.
CIII “mother’s” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
CIV “loves” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.

21 Then you said to your servants, ‘Bring him downCV to me, so that I may setCVI my eyesCVII on him.’ 22 We said to my lord, ‘The boyCVIII cannot leaveCIX his father, for if he should leave his father, his father would die.’ 

Notes on verses 21-22

CV “bring…down” = yarad. Same as “lowered” in v11. See note LXII above.
CVI “set” = sim. Same as “put” in v1. See note IX above.
CVII “eyes” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
CVIII “boy” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
CIX “leave” = azab. To loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute.

23 Then you said to your servants, ‘Unless your youngest brother comes downCX with you, you shall seeCXI my faceCXII no more.’CXIII 

Notes on verse 23

CX “comes down” = yarad. Same as “lowered” in v11. See note LXII above.
CXI “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
CXII “face” = paneh. Same as “before” in v14. See note LXXVIII above.
CXIII “more” = yasaph. Related to “Joseph” in v2. See note XVIII above.

24 CXIVWhen we went backCXV to your servant my father we toldCXVI him the words of my lord. 

Notes on verse 24

CXIV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “become” in v9. See note LV above.
CXV “went back” = alah. Same as “go up” in v17. See note LXXXVIII above.
CXVI “told” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.

25 And when our father said, ‘Go again,CXVII buyCXVIII us a littleCXIX food,’ 26 we said, ‘We cannot go down. Only if our youngest brother goes with us, will we go down; for we cannot see the man’sCXX face unless our youngest brother is with us.’ 

Notes on verses 25-26

CXVII “go again” = shub. Same as “brought back” in v8. See note XLIX above.
CXVIII “buy” = shabar. Related to “grain” in v2. From sheber (see note XV above). This is to trade in grain, whether to buy or sell.
CXIX “little” = me’at. From ma’at (being or becoming small, decrease, diminish, pare off). This is a little or few, lightly little while, very small matter.
CXX “man’s” = ish. Same as “men’s” in v1. See note IV above.

27 Then your servant my father said to us, ‘You know that my wifeCXXI boreCXXII me twoCXXIII sons; 

Notes on verse 27

CXXI “wife” = ishshah. Related to “men’s” in v1 & “men” in v3. From ish (see note IV above). This is woman, wife, or female.
CXXII “bore” = yalad. Related to “child” in v20. See note XCIX above.
CXXIII “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.

28 oneCXXIV leftCXXV me, and I said, Surely he has been torn to pieces;CXXVI and I have never seen him since.CXXVII 

Notes on verse 28

CXXIV “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
CXXV “left” = yatsa. Same as “gone” in v4. See note XXV above.
CXXVI “torn to pieces” = taraph + taraph. This is to tear or pluck off into pieces, to rend or catch. It can also mean supply with food. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CXXVII {untranslated} = hennah. Related to “look” in v8. Perhaps from hen (see note XLVII above). This is here in a location or here in a time, i.e. now.

29 If you takeCXXVIII this one also fromCXXIX me, and harmCXXX comesCXXXI to him,

Notes on verse 29a

CXXVIII “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CXXIX “from” = paneh. Literally “from before my face.” Same as “before” in v14. See note LXXVIII above.
CXXX “harm” = ason. 5x in OT– 3x in Genesis & 2x in Exodus. This is mischief, evil, or injury.
CXXXI “comes” = qarah. This is to encounter, usually unintentionally. It can also mean to happen or to lay wood for a floor or roof.

you will bring down my gray hairsCXXXII in sorrowCXXXIII to Sheol.’CXXXIV 

Notes on verse 29b

CXXXII “gray hairs” = sebah. 19x in OT. From sib (to have gray hair, become old). This is being gray or old.
CXXXIII “sorrow” = ra’. Same as “evil” in v4. See note XXXIV above.
CXXXIV “Sheol” = Sheol. Related to “asked” in v19. Perhaps from shaal (see note XCVII above). This is the place where the dead go, the grace, the underworld.

30 Now therefore, when I come to your servant my father and the boy is not with us, then, as his lifeCXXXV is bound upCXXXVI in the boy’s life, 31 CXXXVIIwhen he sees that the boy is not with us, he will die; and your servants will bring down the gray hairs of your servant our father with sorrowCXXXVIII to Sheol. 

Notes on verses 30-31

CXXXV “life” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
CXXXVI “bound up” = qashar. This is to tie or bind. It can also refer to joining together as a league or in love. In a negative sense, it can mean to conspire.
CXXXVII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “become” in v9. See note LV above.
CXXXVIII “sorrow” = yagon. 14x in OT. From yagah (to suffer, grieve, afflict). This is grief or sorrow.

32 For your servant became suretyCXXXIX for the boy to my father, saying, ‘If I do not bring him backCXL to you, then I will bear the blameCXLI in the sight of my father all my life.’CXLII 

Notes on verse 32

CXXXIX “became surety” = arab. This is to bargain, barter, give or take in pledge. It can also mean to braid or intermingle.
CXL “bring…back” = bo. Same as “came” in v14. See note LXXVI above.
CXLI “bear the blame” = chata. This is properly to miss, and so figuratively it is used for sinning, bearing the blame. It implies a forfeiture or loss of something.
CXLII “life” = yom. Literally “all days.” Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

33 Now therefore, please let your servant remainCXLIII as a slave to my lord in place of the boy; and let the boy go back with his brothers. 34 For how can I go back to my father if the boy is not with me? I fear to see the sufferingCXLIV that would come uponCXLV my father.”

Notes on verses 33-34

CXLIII “remain” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
CXLIV “suffering” = ra’. Same as “evil” in v4. See note XXXIV above.
CXLV “come upon” = matsa. Same as “found” in v8. See note XLVIII above.

Image credit: “Stories from Genesis: Joseph” by Oleg Volodin of Wycliffe Russia.

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