Psalm 74

Psalm 74


A MaskilI of Asaph.II

O God,III why do you cast us offIV forever?V

Notes on superscript - verse 1a

I “Maskil” = maskiyl. 13x in OT. From sakal (to consider or be prudent; to instruct, be an expert; dealing prudently, which implies success and prospering; can mean laying cross-wise). This is maskil or maschil. It is a poem used for instruction.
II “Asaph” = Asaph. From asaph (to gather, assemble, bring, take away, destroy, or remove). This is Asaph, meaning “gatherer” or “collector.” It is a personal name.
III “God” = Elohim.
IV “cast…off” = zanach. This is to cast aside, reject, remove, forsake.
V “forever” = netsach. From natsach (something that glitters from a distance or stands out, excels, has status/standing; also to be permanent or enduring). This is properly a goal or destination as the bright focus to which one journeys. It can be splendor, truthfulness, or confidence. Most often, it refers to everlastingness, always, continually.

    Why does your angerVI smokeVII against the sheepVIII of your pasture?IX

Notes on verse 1b

VI “anger” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
VII “smoke” = ashan. 6x in OT. This is to smoke or burn in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean to be angry.
VIII “sheep” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
IX “pasture” = marith. 10x in OT. From raah (to graze, tend a flock, keep company with; to pasture in a literal or figurative sense). This is shepherding, pasturage, a flock.

RememberX your congregation,XI which you acquiredXII long ago,XIII

Notes on verse 2a

X “remember” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
XI “congregation” = edah. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.
XII “acquired” = qanah. This is to acquire, create, purchase, own. Its root may mean to smith or to produce.
XIII “long ago” = qedem. Perhaps from qadam (to come in front or be in front; to meet, anticipate, confront, receive, or rise; sometimes to meet for help). This is front, formerly, before, east, eternal, everlasting, antiquity.

    which you redeemedXIV to be the tribeXV of your heritage.XVI

Notes on verse 2b

XIV “redeemed” = gaal. This is to redeem someone or something according to kinship laws. So, it could be acting on a relative’s behalf to buy back their property, to marry one’s brother’s widow, etc. This could be more briefly translated as to redeem, acts as kinsman, or purchase. As a noun, it could be deliverer or avenger.
XV “tribe” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.
XVI “heritage” = nachalah. Related to nachal (to inherit, occupy, distribute, take as heritage). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.

    Remember MountXVII Zion,XVIII where you came to dwell.XIX

Notes on verse 2c

XVII “Mount” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
XVIII “Zion” = Tsiyyon. Related to tsyiyyun (signpost, monument); from tsavah (to charge someone, to command, order); from the same as tsiyyah (dryness drought); from a root meaning parched as desert, dry land. Zion can refer to a mountain in Jerusalem as well as another name for Jerusalem itself or the people.
XIX “dwell” = shakan. This is to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently. It can mean abide or continue. “Mishkan,” taken from this verb, is the Hebrew word for the Tabernacle (as a place where God abided).

DirectXX your stepsXXI to the perpetualXXII ruins;XXIII

Notes on verse 3a

XX “direct” = rum. This is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
XXI “steps” = paam. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.
XXII “perpetual” = netsach. Same as “forever” in v1. See note V above.
XXIII “ruins” = mashshuot. 2x in OT. From nasha (to deceive, lead astray, trick, or delude) OR related to meshoah (desolation, waste; the act of ruin or the ruins themselves); {from the same as sho (ruin, desolation, storm; from a root that means rushing over – hence a storm and hence devastation)}. This is ruins or desolation.

    the enemyXXIV has destroyedXXV everything in the sanctuary.XXVI

Notes on verse 3b

XXIV “enemy” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.
XXV “destroyed” = ra’a’. This is to be evil, bad, afflict. Properly, it means to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces. Figuratively, it is to cause something to be worthless. It is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense – something that displeases, does harm or mischief, punishes or vexes.
XXVI “sanctuary” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.

4 Your foesXXVII have roaredXXVIII withinXXIX your holy place;XXX
    they set upXXXI their emblemsXXXII there.

Notes on verse 4

XXVII “foes” = tsarar. This is to bind, restrict, narrow, be cramped, an adversary.
XXVIII “roared” = shaag. This is to roar, rumble, or moan.
XXIX “within” = qereb. Perhaps from qarab (to come near or approach). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.
XXX “holy place” = moed. Related to “congregation” in v2. From yaad (see note XI above). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.
XXXI “set up” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
XXXII “emblems” = oth + oth. Perhaps, “their banners for signs.” From avah (to mark, sign, point out); OR from uth (to agree). This is a sign in a literal or figurative sense. It could be a flag or monument. It could be evidence or a mark. It could also be an omen or a miracle. 

5 XXXIIIAt the upper entranceXXXIV they hackedXXXV

Notes on verse 5a

XXXIII {untranslated} = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XXXIV “upper entrance” = maal. From alah (to go up, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense). This is the upper part, forward, high above, upwards, greater, heaven, or exceedingly.
XXXV “hacked” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.

    the woodenXXXVI trellisXXXVII with axes.XXXVIII

Notes on verse 5b

XXXVI “wooden” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.
XXXVII “trellis” = sebak. 4x in OT. From sabak (to tangle, entwine). This is a thicket or copse.
XXXVIII “axes” = qardom. Related to “long ago” in v2. 5x in OT. Perhaps from qadam (see note XIII above). This is an axe.

And then, with hatchetsXXXIX and hammers,XL
    they smashedXLI allXLII its carved work.XLII

Notes on verse 6

XXXIX “hatchets” = kashshil. 1x in OT. From kashal (to stumble, fail, be weak or decayed, be overthrown, to totter; weak legs or ankles so to falter, faint, or fall). This is an axe or hatchet.
XL “hammers” = kelappoth. 1x in OT. Root may mean to strike such that it makes a sound. This could be a club or sledgehammer.
XLI “smashed” = halam. 9x in OT. This is to strike, hammer, smash, beat, overcome, conquer.
XLII “all” = yachad. From yachad (to join, be united). This is a unit, both, altogether, unitedness, alike.
XLIII “carved work” = pittuach. 10x in OT. From pathach (to carve, make a carving). This is a sculpture or inscription.

7 They setXLIV your sanctuaryXLV on fire;XLVI

Notes on verse 7a

XLIV “set” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XLV “sanctuary” = miqdash. Related to “sanctuary” in v3. From the same as qodesh (see note XXVI above). This is a sacred place, sanctuary, holy place. It is something or somewhere that is consecrated, whether to God or to another.
XLVI “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.

    they desecratedXLVII the dwelling placeXLVIII of your name,XLIX
    bringing it to the ground.L

Notes on verse 7b

XLVII “desecrated” = chalal. This is to pierce, which implies to wound. It is used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word. It can also mean to begin as though one opened a wedge. Also, to eat something as a common thing.
XLVIII “dwelling place” = mishkan. Related to “dwell” in v2. From shakan (see note XIX above). This is a place where one lives – a tabernacle, tent, or other kind of dwelling. It can also be a lair where animals live, the grave, the Temple, or the Tabernacle.
XLIX “name” = shem. Related to “set up” in v4. Perhaps from sim (see note XXXI above). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
L “ground” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

They said to themselves,LI “We will utterlyLII subdueLIII them”;

Notes on verse 8a

LI “to themselves” = leb. Literally, “in their hearts.” May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
LII “utterly” = yachad. Same as “all” in v6. See note XLII above.
LIII “subdue” = yanah. 19x in OT. This is to do wrong, oppress, destroy, mistreat, or suppress. It can imply violence or anger.

    they burnedLIV all the meeting placesLV of GodLVI in the land.LVII

We do not seeLVIII our emblems;
    there is no longer any prophet,LIX
    and there is no one among us who knowsLX how long.

Notes on verses 8b-9

LIV “burned” = saraph. This is to burn or kindle. This is the root that “seraphim” comes from.
LV “meeting places” = moed. Same as “holy place” in v4. See note XXX above.
LVI “God” = El. Related to “God” in v1. See note III above.
LVII “land” = erets. Same as “ground” in v7. See note L above.
LVIII “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
LIX “prophet” = nabi. This is prophet, prophecy, speaker, or someone inspired.
LX “knows” = yada. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXIII above.

10 How long, O God,LXI is the foeLXII to scoff?LXIII
    Is the enemy to revileLXIV your name forever

Notes on verse 10

LXI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note III above.
LXII “foe” = tsar. Related to “foes” in v4. From tsarar (see note XXVII above). Properly, this is a narrow or constricted place. Figuratively, it can be trouble, a pebble, an enemy, anguish, or distress.
LXIII “scoff” = charaph. This is to expose and so figuratively to reproach, defame, carp at, defy. It can also mean spend the winter or betroth.
LXIV “revile” = naats. This is to spurn, reject, provoke, abhor, treat with contempt. It can also mean bloom or flourish.

11 Why do you hold backLXV your hand;LXVI
    why do you keepLXVII your handLXVIII inLXIX your bosom?LXX

Notes on verse 11

LXV “hold back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
LXVI “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LXVII “keep” = kalah. This is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed.
LXVIII “hand” = yamin. May be from yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm). This can mean right hand, right side, or south. Since most people are right-handed, the metaphorical usage of this word presumes that the right hand is stronger and more agile. Thus, it is the instrument of power and action.
LXIX “in” = qereb. Same as “within” in v4. See note XXIX above.
LXX “bosom” = cheq. Root may mean to enclose. This is bosom in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be arms, lap, or midst. It can also be care or cherish.

12 Yet GodLXXI my KingLXXII is from of old,LXXIII

Notes on verse 12a

LXXI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note III above.
LXXII “King” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
LXXIII “of old” = qedem. Same as “long ago” in v2. See note XIII above.

    workingLXXIV salvationLXXV inLXXVI the earth.LXXVII

Notes on verse 12b

LXXIV “working” = paal. This is to do, make, work, or accomplish. Generally refers to regularly repeated or systematic action – so, to practice.
LXXV “salvation” = yeshuah. From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free). This is salvation, deliverance, health, victory, prosperity.
LXXVI “in” = qereb. Same as “within” in v4. See note XXIX above.
LXXVII “earth” = erets. Same as “ground” in v7. See note L above.

13 You dividedLXXVIII the seaLXXIX by your might;LXXX

Notes on verse 13a

LXXVIII “divided” = parar. This is to break, defeat, frustrate, caste off, clean, cease.
LXXIX “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.
LXXX “might” = oz. From azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; it means to be stout literally or figuratively. A Late Hebrew word). This is strength in the sense of force, majesty, praise, material and physical strength, the abstract notion of security. It can also speak of social or political power.

    you brokeLXXXI the headsLXXXII of the dragonsLXXXIII in the waters.LXXXIV

Notes on verse 13b

LXXXI “broke” = shabar. This is break, collapse, destroy, break in pieces, tear. It is bursting in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXII “heads” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
LXXXIII “dragons” = tannin. From the same as tan (jackal, dragon, whale). It may stem from a root meaning elongate. It is some kind of monster of and or sea like a jackal or a sea serpent.
LXXXIV “waters” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.

14 You crushedLXXXV the heads of Leviathan;LXXXVI
    you gaveLXXXVII him as foodLXXXVIII for the creaturesLXXXIX of the wilderness.XC

Notes on verse 14

LXXXV “crushed” = ratsats. 19x in OT. This is properly cracking in pieces. It is used in a literal or figurative sense. So, crush, break, bruise, struggle, discourage, oppress.
LXXXVI “Leviathan” = Livyathan. 6x in OT. From the same as livyah (a wreath or garland – as something entwined); from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is levitation – a sea monster or snakelike creature. It may be symbolic of Babylon or mourning.
LXXXVII “gave” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LXXXVIII “food” = maakal. From akal (to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume; eating in a literal or figurative sense). This is food, something edible.
LXXXIX “creatures” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XC “wilderness” = tsiyyi. 6x in OT. From the same as tsi (a wild animal; maybe an animal living in the desert, a nomad). This is a wild animal living in the desert or a desert nomad.

15 You cut openingsXCI for springsXCII and torrents;XCIII

Notes on verse 15a

XCI “cut openings” = baqa. This is to break open, breach, divide, rip, shake, tear. It can also mean dash into pieces or being ready to burst.
XCII “springs” = mayan. From ayin (eye, appearance; eye in a literal or figurative sense; a fountain). This is a spring, well, or fountain. Figuratively, this is a source of contentment.
XCIII “torrents” = nachal. Related to “heritage” in v2. From nachal (see note XVI above). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water.

    you dried upXCIV ever-flowingXCV streams.XCVI

Notes on verse 15b

XCIV “dried up” = yabesh. This is to be dry, withered, confused, or ashamed. It can also be to fail.
XCV “ever-flowing” = ethan. 13x in OT. Root might mean to continue. This is mighty, strong, ever-flowing, enduring, or permanence.
XCVI “streams” = nahar. From nahar (to flow, sparkle, be cheerful). This is a stream, river, or flood. Particularly used for the Nile or Euphrates. Figuratively, this can mean prosperity.

16 Yours is the day,XCVII yours also the night;XCVIII
    you establishedXCIX the luminariesC and the sun.CI

Notes on verse 16

XCVII “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XCVIII “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
XCIX “established” = kun. Properly, this means in a perpendicular position. So, it is set up in a literal sense – establish, fix, fasten, prepare. In a figurative sense, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous.
C “luminaries” = maor. 19x in OT. From or (to be or become light, shine). This is light as an element, something that gives off light, the quality of brightness, or cheerfulness.
CI “sun” = shemesh. This is sun or toward the east. Its root may mean being brilliant. Figuratively, this could be a ray or an arch.

17 You have fixedCII all the boundsCIII of the earth;
    you madeCIV summerCV and winter.CVI

Notes on verse 17

CII “fixed” = natsab. This is to station, appoint, establish, take a stand.
CIII “bounds” = gebulah. 10x in OT. From gebul (boundary, limit, coast, space; properly, a line that is twisted, which implies a boundary and, by extension, the boundaries of a territory or other enclosed space); perhaps from gabal (to border, twist like rope). This is boundary, place, territory, landmark, or coast.
CIV “made” = yatsar. Related to “foes” in v4 & “foe” in v10. Perhaps related to yatsar (); perhaps related to tsarar (see note XXVII above). This is to fashion or form, perhaps by squeezing something into a shape or form. Particularly, it is to create as a potter does. Figuratively, it is to determine.
CV “summer” = qayits. From quts (summer, clip off). This is fruit, harvest, or summer – the dry season.
CVI “winter” = choreph. Related to “scoff” in v10. 7x in OT. Perhaps from charaph (see note LXIII above). This is autumn, winter – the time of ripeness or harvest, the prime, youth.

18 Remember this, O Lord,CVII how the enemy scoffs,
    and an impiousCVIII peopleCIX reviles your name.

Notes on verse 18

CVII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
CVIII “impious” = nabal. 18x in OT. From nabal (to be foolish, senseless, fall away, faint, wither, to be wicked, disgrace). This is foolish or a fool. It can also mean impious. Nabal, taken from this root, was the name of Abigail’s first husband in 1 Samuel 25.
CIX “people” = am. Same as “creatures” in v14. See note LXXXIX above.

19 Do not deliverCX the soulCXI of your doveCXII to the wild animals;CXIII

Notes on verse 19a

CX “deliver” = natan. Same as “gave” in v14. See note LXXXVII above.
CXI “soul” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
CXII “dove” = tor. 14x in OT. This is a literal dove – it can also be a romantic term of affection.
CXIII “wild animals” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.

    do not forgetCXIV the lifeCXV of your poorCXVI forever.

Notes on verse 19b

CXIV “forget” = shakach. This is to forget because of not remembering something or not paying attention to it. It can also mean to mislay.
CXV “life” = chay. Same as “wild animals” in v19. See note CXIII above.
CXVI “poor” = ani. From anah (to be bowed down; humility or being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed; literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance). This is humble, lowly, poor, or afflicted.

20 Have regardCXVII for your covenant,CXVIII
    for the dark placesCXIX of the land are fullCXX of the hauntsCXXI of violence.CXXII

Notes on verse 20

CXVII “have regard” = nabat. This is to behold, look at intently, consider, or scan. It can mean to have respect or regard someone favorably.
CXVIII “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from bara (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.
CXIX “dark places” = machshak. 7x in OT. From chashak (to be or become dark). This is darkness or a place that is dark.
CXX “are full” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXI “haunts” = naah. 12x in OT. From the same as naveh (home, place where shepherd or sheep live; at hme implies a lovely place or a place of satisfaction); from navah (home, beautify, praise) OR from naah (to be at home and so pleasant, beautiful). This is a home, pleasant place, or pasture.
CXXII “violence” = chamas. From chamas (to violate, do violence, to wrong; implies mistreatment). This is violence, cruelty, damage, wrong, injustice, or unrighteous. Violence implies a wrong done. The term is also used to describe unjust gain.

21 Do not letCXXIII the downtroddenCXXIV be put to shame;CXXV
    let the poor and needyCXXVI praiseCXXVII your name.

Notes on verse 21

CXXIII “let” = shub. Same as “hold back” in v11. See note LXV above.
CXXIV “downtrodden” = dak. 4x in OT. This is crushed so figuratively it refers to the injured or afflicted.
CXXV “be put to shame” = kalam. This is bearing shame, bringing dishonor or disgrace, humiliate insult, taunt, embarrass, reproach. Properly, to wound in a figurative sense.
CXXVI “needy” = ebyon. From abah (to consent, obey, want, yield, accept). This is needy, poor, beggar. Someone who is wanting.
CXXVII “praise” = halal. This is to be clear – it originally referred to a sound, then a color. It was to shine and then make a show or boast then to rave. In a causative sense it came to mean celebrate, give glory, sing praise, or be worth of praise. Because of the celebratory nature of the word, it could also mean to give in marriage. This is where Hallelujah comes from.

22 Rise up,CXXVIII O God,CXXIX pleadCXXX your cause;CXXXI
    remember how the impious scoffCXXXII at you all day long.

Notes on verse 22

CXXVIII “rise up” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
CXXIX “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note III above.
CXXX “plead” = rib. This is properly to toss or grapple. It is used figuratively to mean wrangling and so for arguments, complaints, or disputes. It is used in a legal setting for pleading or defending a case.
CXXXI “cause” = rib. Related to “plead” in v22. From rib (see note CXXX above).  This is strife or dispute – whether a personal one or one in a court of law.
CXXXII “scoff” = cherpah. Related to “scoff” in v10 & “winter” in v17. From charaph (see note LXIII above). This is reproach, rebuke, shame, or disgrace. It can also refer to genitals.

23 Do not forget the clamorCXXXIII of your foes,
    the uproarCXXXIV of your adversariesCXXXV that goes upCXXXVI continually.CXXXVII

Notes on verse 23

CXXXIII “clamor” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
CXXXIV “uproar” = shaon. 18x in OT. From shaah (to crash, rumble, rush, be desolate, devastate). This is a crash, loud sound, clamor, rumbling, destruction. It could also be the sound of rushing water.
CXXXV “adversaries” = qum. Literally, “those who rise up against you.” Same as “rise up” in v22. See note CXXVIII above.
CXXXVI “goes up” = alah. Related to “upper entrance” in v5. See note XXXIV above.
CXXXVII “continually” = tamid. May come from a word that means to stretch. This word means an indefinite period of time. So, it could be regular or daily. It could also be constantly, continually, always, or perpetually.

Image credit: “Jeremiah on the Ruins of Jerusalem” by Horace Vernet, 1844.

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