Revelation 13:1-18

Revelation 13:1-18
Narrative Lectionary


And I sawI a beastII risingIII out of the sea,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
II “beast” = therion. From the same as thera (hunting, game, a net, trap, destruction); from ther (wild animal – particularly one that is hunted). This is wild animal or any creature. Figuratively, as wild animals are often dangerous, it can refer to a brutal nature.
III “rising” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
IV “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.

havingV tenVI hornsVII and sevenVIII heads;IX

Notes on verse 1b

V “having” = echo. This is to have, hold, or possess.
VI “ten” = deka. This is ten, a number associated with perfection (to a lesser extent than the number seven). It is where “decade” and “decathlon” come from.
VII “horns” = keras. 11x in NT. Perhaps from kar (hair). This is horn or something horn-shaped; horn in a literal or figurative sense – that which prevails or a symbol of power.
VIII “seven” = hepta. This is seven or seventh. Figuratively, seven is the number of completeness or perfection.
IX “heads” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.

and on its horns were ten diadems,X and on its heads were blasphemousXI names.XII 

Notes on verse 1c

X “diadems” = diadema. 3x in NT. From diadeo (to bind around); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited)}. This is a diadem or crown. Whereas stephanos is a wreath awarded for victory or from demonstrated skill (as a winner of athletic games), diadema is a crown associated with royalty.
XI “blasphemous” = blasphemia. 18x in NT. From perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine)}. This is slander, blasphemy, or abusive language. It is calling something wrong that is right or calling something right that is wrong – mis-identifying what is good and bad. This is particularly used for vilifying God. This is where the word “blasphemy” comes from.
XII “names” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

And the beast that I saw was like a leopard,XIII its feetXIV were like a bear’s,XV and its mouthXVI was like a lion’sXVII mouth.

Notes on verse 2a

XIII “leopard” = pardalis. Perhaps related to “beast” in v1. 1x in NT. Perhaps from pardos (panther) OR related to panther (panther); {perhaps from pas (all, every) + ther (see note II above)} OR related to Sogdian pwrdnk OR Pashto prang (leopard) OR Persian palang (leopard, panther) OR Sanskrit prdaku (snake, panther, elephant, tree). This is leopard or panther. See
XIV “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.
XV “bear’s” = arkos. 1x in NT. Probably from arkeo (to assist, be satisfied or sufficient; properly, to ward off, by extension being satisfactory). This is a bear.
XVI “mouth” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
XVII “lion’s” = leon. 9x in NT. This is lion, which is where our word “lion” comes from.

And the dragonXVIII gaveXIX it his powerXX and his throneXXI and greatXXII authority.XXIII 

Notes on verse 2b

XVIII “dragon” = drakon. 13x in NT. From derkomai (to look). This is a dragon or other mythical snake-like monster. Figuratively, it refers to Satan. Dragons were thought to be able to see their prey from great distances. It is where the word “dragon” comes from.
XIX “gave” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XX “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
XXI “throne” = thronos. Probably from thanos (bench); from thrao (to sit). This is throne or seat – the place where the king sits. So, it is used figuratively to mean power, dominion, or a potentate. This is where the word “throne” comes from.
XXII “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
XXIII “authority” = exousia. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.

OneXXIV of its heads seemed to have received a death-blow,XXV but its mortalXXVI woundXXVII had been healed.XXVIII

Notes on verse 3a

XXIV “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XXV “received a death-blow” = sphazo + eis + thanatos. Literally “been slain to death.” Sphazo is 10x in NT. This is to slay, butcher an animal to eat or for sacrifice, slaughter, maim through violence. In 1 John 3:12 it is used to describe Cain murdering Abel. All other uses are in Revelation. Thanatos is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
XXVI “mortal” = thanatos. Same as “received a death-blow” in v3. See note XXV above.
XXVII “wound” = plege. From plesso (to pound, strike, flatten; figuratively, cause a calamity). This is a blow, stroke, wound, affliction, plague, calamity.
XXVIII “healed” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.

In amazementXXIX the wholeXXX earthXXXI followedXXXII the beast. 

Notes on verse 3b

XXIX “in amazement” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
XXX “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
XXXI “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
XXXII “followed” = opiso. From the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back). This is back, behind, after.

4 They worshipedXXXIII the dragon, for he had given his authority to the beast, and they worshiped the beast, saying, “Who is like the beast, and who canXXXIV fightXXXV against it?”

Notes on verse 4

XXXIII “worshiped” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.
XXXIV “can” = dunamai. Related to “power” in v2. See note XX above.
XXXV “fight” = polemeo. 7x in NT – 1x in James 4:2 & 6x in Revelation. From polemos (war, quarrel, strife; battle, whether one time or on-going); from pelomai (to bustle). This is to fight, wage war, content. It is fighting in a literal or figurative sense.

5 The beast was given a mouth uttering haughtyXXXVI and blasphemous words, and it was allowedXXXVII to exerciseXXXVIII authority for fortyXXXIX-twoXL months. 

Notes on verse 5

XXXVI “haughty” = megas. Same as “great” in v2. See note XXII above.
XXXVII “allowed” = didomi. Same as “gave” in v2. See note XIX above.
XXXVIII “exercise” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XXXIX “forty” = tesserakonta. From tessares (four). This is forty. Figuratively, it alludes to a time of trial or a long interval.
XL “two” = duo. This is two or both.

6 It openedXLI its mouth to utter blasphemies against God,XLII blasphemingXLIII his name and his dwelling,XLIV that is, those who dwellXLV in heaven.XLVI 

Notes on verse 6

XLI “opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in  literal or figurative sense.
XLII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XLIII “blaspheming” = blasphemeo. Related to “blasphemous” in v1. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (see note XI above) + pheme (see note XI above). This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
XLIV “dwelling” = skene. Perhaps related to skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense) or perhaps related to skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is a tent, booth, tabernacle, or dwelling. It could be a cloth hut. This is a tent in a literal or figurative sense.
XLV “dwell” = skenoo. Related to “dwelling” in v6. 5x in NT – 1x in John 1 & 4x in Revelation.  From skenos (tent, tabernacle; used figuratively for the body as the home of the spirit; generally, a hut or temporary home); from skene (see note XLIV above). This is to encamp, dwell, have or pitch a tent.
XLVI “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

Also it was allowed to makeXLVII warXLVIII on the saintsXLIX and to conquerL them. 

Notes on verse 7a

XLVII “make” = poieo. Same as “exercise” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
XLVIII “war” = polemos. Related to “fight” in v4. 18x in NT. See note XXXV above.
XLIX “saints” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
L “conquer” = nikao. From nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful). This is to have victory, overcome, conquer, or prevail. It implies a victory that follows a battle. This root is part of “Nicodemus’s” name and it is also the root where Nike comes from.

It was given authority over every tribeLI and peopleLII and languageLIII and nation,LIV 

Notes on verse 7b

LI “tribe” = phule. From phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow). This is clan, tribe, lineage. It is those who descend from a shared ancestor.
LII “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
LIII “language” = glossa. Root refers to a point that sticks out. This is tongue in a literal sense, but can also refer to language or a nation that speaks a different language. Figuratively, it can also refer to speaking in tongues or speech inspired by the Spirit.
LIV “nation” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

8 and all the inhabitantsLV of the earth will worship it, everyone whose name has not been writtenLVI from the foundationLVII of the worldLVIII

Notes on verse 8a

LV “inhabitants” = katoikeo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); {from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.
LVI “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
LVII “foundation” = katabole. 11x in NT. From kataballo (to cast down, lay prostate, set a foundation); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a foundation or a plan for one – setting the foundation according to the plans. Figuratively, it can be the beginning of something, sowing, or conception.
LVIII “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

in the bookLIX of lifeLX of the LambLXI that was slaughtered.LXII

Notes on verse 8b

LIX “book” = biblion. From biblos (the inside bark of papyrus so it could refer to anything that was written on – a scroll, book, record, roll; could also have an association with the sacred); perhaps from bublos (papyrus); from Phoenician Byblos (a Phoenician city that exported papyrus for writing); {from gb (well, origin) + I (God)}; from Proto-Canaanite g-b-l (Gubla – maybe meaning to border). This is paper, book, scroll, certificate. It is where the word “Bible” comes from.
LX “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
LXI “Lamb” = Arnion. From aren (sheep, male lamb); perhaps from the same as arren (male); perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is a lamb. In earlier usage this was a diminutive (i.e. a little lamb). At this point, it may have meant young lamb. Figuratively, it was someone pure or innocent.
LXII “slaughtered” = sphazo. Same as “received a death-blow” in v3. See note XXV above.

Let anyone who has an earLXIII listen:LXIV

10 If you are to be taken captive,LXV
    into captivityLXVI you go;LXVII

Notes on verses 9-10a

LXIII “ear” = ous. This is the physical ear, or the perception of hearing, whether physical or cognitive.
LXIV “listen” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LXV “captive” = aichmalosia. Related to “Lamb” in v8. 3x in NT. From aichmalotos (a prisoner or captive in war); {from aichme (a spear) + haliskomai (taken or conquered) or halosis (capturing); from haliskomai (see above); from haireomai (to take, choose, or prefer); probably related to airo (see note LXI above)}. This is captivity or a large number of captives.
LXVI “captivity” = aichmalosia. Same as “captive” in v10. See note LXV above.
LXVII “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.

if you killLXVIII with the sword,LXIX
    with the sword you mustLXX be killed.

Here is a call for the enduranceLXXI and faithLXXII of the saints.

Notes on verse 10b

LXVIII “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
LXIX “sword” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.
LXX “must” = dei. Related to “diadems” in v1. From deo (see note X above). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
LXXI “endurance” = hupomone. From hupo (by, under, about) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, and waiting in hope.
LXXII “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

11 Then I saw anotherLXXIII beast that rose out of the earth; it had two horns like a lamb and it spoke like a dragon. 12 It exercises all the authority of the first beast on its behalf,LXXIV and it makes the earth and its inhabitantsLXXV worship the firstLXXVI beast, whose mortal wound had been healed. 

Notes on verses 11-12

LXXIII “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
LXXIV “on…behalf” = enopios. Related to “saw” in v1. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); from horao (see note I above)}. This is literally “in sight of.” It is before in a literal or figurative since.
LXXV “inhabitants” = ho + en + autos + katoikeo. Literally, “those dwelling in it.” Katoikeo is the same as “inhabitants” in v8. See note LV above.
LXXVI “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.

13 It performsLXXVII great signs,LXXVIII even making fireLXXIX come downLXXX from heaven to earth in the sight ofLXXXI all;LXXXII 

Notes on verse 13

LXXVII “performs” = poieo. Same as “exercise” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
LXXVIII “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
LXXIX “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.
LXXX “come down” = katabaino. Related to “rising” in v1. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note III above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXI “in the sight of” = enopios. Same as “on…behalf” in v12. See note LXXIV above.
LXXXII “all” = anthropos. Related to “saw” in v1 & “on…behalf” in v12. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (see note LXXIV above). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

14 and by the signs that it is allowed to perform on behalf of the beast, it deceivesLXXXIII the inhabitantsLXXXIV of earth, telling themLXXXV to make an imageLXXXVI for the beast that had been wounded by the sword and yet lived;LXXXVII 

Notes on verse 14

LXXXIII “deceives” = planao. From plane (wandering – used figuratively for deceit, error, sin, fraudulence, or wandering from orthodoxy); from planos (wandering, misleading, a deceiver or imposter). This is to wander, lead astray, mislead, mistake, seduce, or deceive. Generally used to refer to sin – going off the right path or roaming from truth/virtue. This word shares a root with “planet” (as a heavenly body that wanders).
LXXXIV “inhabitants” = ho + katoikeo. Literally “those dwelling.” Same as “inhabitants” in v8. See note LV above.
LXXXV “them” = ho + katoikeo + epi + ho + ge. Literally, “those dwelling on the earth.” Katoikeo is the same as “inhabitants” in v8. See note LV above. Ge is the same as “earth” in v3. See note XXXI above.
LXXXVI “image” = eikon. From eiko (resemble, be like) OR perhaps related to eiko (to submit, give way, be weak, yield). This is a likeness such as an image, statue, or other representation. It implies a prototype that is being mirrored – a replication rather than a shadow. It can be an image in a figurative sense as well. This is where the word “icon” comes from.
LXXXVII “lived” = zao. Related to “life” in v8. See note LX above.

15 and it was allowed to give breathLXXXVIII to the image of the beast so that the image of the beast could even speak and causeLXXXIX those who would not worship the image of the beast to be killed. 16 Also it causes all, both smallXC and great, both richXCI and poor,XCII

Notes on verses 15-16a

LXXXVIII “breath” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LXXXIX “cause” = poieo. Same as “exercise” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
XC “small” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
XCI “rich” = plousios. From ploutos (abundance, wealth, or riches; money, possessions, spiritual abundance, or a valuable bestowment); from polus (much, many, abundant) OR pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is wealthy, having full resources. It can be a rich person or refer to God’s abundance.
XCII “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.

both freeXCIII and slave,XCIV to be markedXCV on the rightXCVI handXCVII or the forehead,XCVIII 

Notes on verses 16b

XCIII “free” = eleutheros. Probably from erchomai (to come or go). This is a free person, at liberty, not a slave. Properly, it is unshackled – figuratively, it is one who has the freedom to choose their destiny. Also, it is one who does not have obligation or liability.
XCIV “slave” = doulos. Related to “diadems” in v1 & “must” in v10. Perhaps from deo (see note X above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
XCV “marked” = didomi + autos + charagma. Literally “it should give them a mark.” Didomi is the same as “gave” in v2. See note XIX above. Charagma is 8x in NT. From charasso (to engrave or sharpen) OR from the same as charax (pointed stake, barricade, rampart, trench); from charasso (see above). This is an engraving, stamp, sculpture, or brand mark. It is a mark that shows ownership identification or the mark on a coin or seal.
XCVI “right” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
XCVII “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
XCVIII “forehead” = metopon. Related to “saw” in v1 & “on…behalf” in v12 & “all” in v13. 8x in NT. From meta (with, among, behind, beyond) + ops (see note LXXIV above). This is literally, “beyond the eye.” It is the forehead.

17 so that no one can buyXCIX or sellC who does not have the mark, that is, the name of the beast or the numberCI of its name. 

Notes on verses 17

XCIX “buy” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.
C “sell” = poleo. This is to barter or sell. It can also refer to the thing that is sold.
CI “number” = arithmos. Related to “Lamb” in v8 & “captive” in v10. 18x in NT. From airo (see note LXI above). This is a number or total that has been counted to together.

18 This calls for wisdom:CII let anyone withCIII understandingCIV calculateCV the number of the beast, for it is the number of a person.CVI Its number is six hundredCVII sixtyCVIII-six.CIX

Notes on verses 18

CII “this calls for wisdom” = hode + ho + sophia + eimi. Literally, “here is the wisdom.” Sophia is from sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.
CIII “with” = echo. Same as “having” in v1. See note V above.
CIV “understanding” = nous. Related to “names” in v1. From noos (mind) OR from the same as ginosko (see note XII above). This is mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect. It can refer to God’s mind or human minds – thoughts, feelings, will, or reflective thinking.
CV “calculate” = psephizo. 2x in NT. From psephos (smooth pebble; used to cast a vote or as a counter); from the same as psallo (to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp); {from psao (to rub) or pselaphao (to feel about for, investigate by touching; figuratively, to seek to discover); {from psallo (see above) + haphao (to handle)}}. This is to count or calculate. It refers to the stones as counters.
CVI “person” = anthropos. Same as “all” in v13. See note LXXXII above.
CVII “six hundred” = hexakosioi. 2x in NT. From hex (six) + hekaton (a hundred; literally or figuratively). This is six hundred.
CVIII “sixty” = hexekonta. Related to “six hundred” in v18. 9x in NT. From hex (see note CVII above) + deka (ten or -teen). This is sixty.
CIX “six” = hex. Related to “six hundred” and “sixty” in v18. 13x in NT. See note CVII above.

Image credit: Depiction of the 7-headed beast from the apocalypse at Pomposa Abbey, c. 1350. Photo by Sailko, 2016.

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