Revelation 6:1-8; 7:9-17

Revelation 6:1-8; 7:9-17
Narrative Lectionary


6:1 Then I sawI the LambII openIII one of the sevenIV seals,V

Notes on verse 6:1a

I “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
II “Lamb” = Arnion. From aren (sheep, male lamb); perhaps from the same as arren (male); perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is a lamb. In earlier usage this was a diminutive (i.e. a little lamb). At this point, it may have meant young lamb. Figuratively, it was someone pure or innocent.
III “open” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in  literal or figurative sense.
IV “seven” = hepta. This is seven or seventh. Figuratively, seven is the number of completeness or perfection.
V “seals” = sphragis. 16x in NT. Perhaps from phrasso (to stop, fence in). This is a seal, signet, or signet ring. It is also the impression of that seal; so, the thing attested to by that seal – proof or a signifier of privacy.

and I heardVI one of the fourVII living creaturesVIII call out,IX as with a voiceX of thunder,XI “Come!” 

Notes on verse 6:1b

VI “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
VII “four” = tessares. This is four – used figuratively for total coverage.
VIII “living creatures” = zoon. From zao (to live literally or figuratively). This is literally a thing that is alive. So, it is an animal or living creature.
IX “call out” = lego. This is to say, speak, tell.
X “voice” = phone. Probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
XI “thunder” = bronte. 12x in NT. Related to bremo (to roar). This is thunder. It’s part of the root of brontosaurus, literally thunder lizard. This is also where the last name Brontё comes from.

2 I looked,XII and thereXIII was a whiteXIV horse!XV

Notes on verse 6:2a

XII “looked” = horao. Same as “saw” in v6:1. See note I above.
XIII “there” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, re member, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XIV “white” = leukos. Related to luke (light). This is bright, white, or brilliant.
XV “horse” = hippos. 17x in NT – 1x in James and the rest in Revelation. This is a horse. It is part of where “hippopotamus” comes from (literally, “horse of the river”).

Its riderXVI had a bow;XVII a crownXVIII was givenXIX to him, and he came out conqueringXX and to conquer.

Notes on verse 6:2b

XVI “rider” = ho + kathemai + epi + autos. Literally, “the one sitting on it.” Kathemai is from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
XVII “bow” = toxon. 1x in NT. Perhaps from tikto (to produce, bring forth, beget). This is a bow (as used in archery).
XVIII “crown” = stephanos. 18x in NT. From stepho (to twine, encircle). This is something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland. Properly, this refers to the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win. It symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek. This is the word used for the crown that the saints in heaven wear in, for example, Revelation 4:4.
XIX “given” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XX “conquering” = nikao. From nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful). This is to have victory, overcome, conquer, or prevail. It implies a victory that follows a battle. This root is part of “Nicodemus’s” name and it is also the root where Nike comes from.

3 When he opened the secondXXI seal, I heard the second living creature call out, “Come!” And out came anotherXXII horse, bright red;XXIII

Notes on verses 6:3-4a

XXI “second” = deuteros. From duo (two, both). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See
XXII “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
XXIII “bright red” = purrhos. 3x in NT. From pur (fire, lightning, heat from the sun; figuratively, strife or trials). This is red, particularly like the color of fire, fiery. It is related to the word “pyrrhic.”

its rider was permittedXXIV to takeXXV peaceXXVI from the earth,XXVII

Notes on verse 6:4b

XXIV “permitted” = didomi. Same as “given” in v6:2. See note XIX above.
XXV “take” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XXVI “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
XXVII “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

so that people would slaughterXXVIII one another; and he was given a greatXXIX sword.XXX

Notes on verse 6:4c

XXVIII “slaughter” = sphazo. 10x in NT. This is to slay, butcher an animal to eat or for sacrifice, slaughter, maim through violence. In 1 John 3:12 it is used to describe Cain murdering Abel. All other uses are in Revelation.
XXIX “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
XXX “sword” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.

When he opened the thirdXXXI seal, I heard the third living creature call out, “Come!” I looked, and there was a blackXXXII horse! Its rider held a pair of scalesXXXIII in his hand,XXXIV 

Notes on verse 6:5

XXXI “third” = tritos. From treis (three). This is third.
XXXII “black” = melas. 3x in NT. This is black or ink. It is the root of the word “melanin.”
XXXIII “pair of scales” = zugos. 6x in NT. From zeugnumi (to yoke). This is a yoke or set of scale. It is what unites people in shared work so it is servitude or obligation.
XXXIV “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.

6 and I heard what seemed to be a voice in the midstXXXV of the four living creatures saying,XXXVI “A quartXXXVII of wheatXXXVIII for a day’s pay,XXXIX 

Notes on verse 6:6a

XXXV “midst” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
XXXVI “saying” = lego. Same as “call out” in v6:1. See note IX above.
XXXVII “quart” = choinix. 2x in NT. This is a choenix. It is a unit of dry measure that is smaller than a quart.
XXXVIII “wheat” = sitos. 15x in NT. This is used for any kind of grain that you can eat. It is usually wheat, but it can also be barley and other grains.
XXXIX “day’s pay” = denarion. 16x in NT. From Latin deni (ten each) + arius (belonging to). This is a denarius –  silver Roman coin.

and threeXL quarts of barleyXLI for a day’s pay, but do not damageXLII the olive oilXLIII and the wine!”XLIV, XLV

Notes on verse 6:6b

XL “three” = treis. Related to “third” in v6:5. See note XXXI above.
XLI “barley” = krithe. 1x in NT. This barley, which was more commonly eaten by poor folk (wealthier people ate wheat). It was often fodder for horses.
XLII “damage” = adikeo. From adikos (unjust, unrighteous, wicked, treacherous); {from a (not, without) + dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known)}. This is to harm, damage, behave in an unjust way. It can also refer to an offender. It is moral wrong, especially caused by neglecting justice.
XLIII “olive oil” = elaion. 11x in NT. From elaia (the olive tree or that which it produces; can also refer to the Mount of Olives). This is olive oil.
XLIV “wine” = oinos. Perhaps from Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is wine. It is where the word “oenophile” comes from.
XLV Whereas wheat and barley regrow year by year, damage to olive groves and vineyards take multiple years to recover in productive growth.

When he opened the fourthXLVI seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living creature call out, “Come!” 8 I looked and there was a pale greenXLVII horse! Its rider’s nameXLVIII was Death,XLIX and HadesL followedLI with him;

Notes on verses 6:7-8a

XLVI “fourth” = tetartos. Related to “four” in v6:1. 10x in NT. From tessares (see note VII above). This is fourth – a quarter. Symbolically, this refers to a significant amount or a totality.
XLVII “pale green” = chloros. 4x in NT. Related to Chloe (Chloe; a name referring to young plant growth or meaning verdant; also a name for the goddess Demeter); from chloe (young plant growth). This is greenish, pale green, brownish-gray, or pale. It is the root of “chlorophyll” and “chlorine.”
XLVIII “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XLIX “Death” = Thanatos. This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
L “Hades” = hades. Related to “saw” in v6:1. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + horao (see note I above). This is Literally, the world that is not seen. It is Hades, hell, the place where the dead reside. It can also refer to the grave.
LI “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.

they were given authorityLII over a fourth of the earth, to killLIII with sword,LIV famine,LV and pestilence,LVI and by the wild animalsLVII of the earth.

Notes on verse 6:8b

LII “authority” = exousia. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
LIII “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
LIV “sword” = rhompaia. 7x in NT– 1x Simeon’s words to Mary “a sword will pierce your own soul,” 6x in the book of Revelation. Probably of foreign origin. This refers to a Thracian long sword that could thrust and slash. It may have come from an Egyptian god. Figuratively, it refers to war or intense grief. Since the sword was so powerful, it can symbolize dominance.
LV “famine” = limos. 12x in NT. Probably from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is hunger, famine, or lacking.
LVI “pestilence” = thanatos. Same as “Death” in v6:8. See note XLIX above.
LVII “wild animals” = therion. From the same as thera (hunting, game, a net, trap, destruction); from ther (wild animal – particularly one that is hunted). This is wild animal or any creature. Figuratively, as wild animals are often dangerous, it can refer to a brutal nature.

7:9 After this I looked, and there was a greatLVIII multitude that no one couldLIX count,LX from every nation,LXI

Notes on verse 7:9a

LVIII “great” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
LIX “could” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
LX “count” = arithmeo. Related to “Lamb” in v6:1. 3x in NT. From arithmos (a number or total that has been counted to together); from airo (see note II above). This is to number of count. It shares a root with “arithmetic,” which literally means the “art of counting.” See
LXI “nation” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

from all tribesLXII and peoplesLXIII and languages,LXIV

Notes on verse 7:9b

LXII “tribes” = phule. From phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow). This is clan, tribe, lineage. It is those who descend from a shared ancestor.
LXIII “peoples” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
LXIV “languages” = glossa. Root refers to a point that sticks out. This is tongue in a literal sense, but can also refer to language or a nation that speaks a different language. Figuratively, it can also refer to speaking in tongues or speech inspired by the Spirit.

standingLXV beforeLXVI the throneLXVII and before the Lamb, robedLXVIII in white, with palm branchesLXIX in their hands. 

Notes on verse 7:9c

LXV “standing” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
LXVI “before” = enopios. Related to “saw” in v6:1 & “Hades” in v6:8. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); from horao (see note I above)}. This is literally, “in the eye of.” So, it can be before or in someone’s presence.
LXVII “throne” = thronos. Probably from thanos (bench); from thrao (to sit). This is throne or seat – the place where the king sits. So, it is used figuratively to mean power, dominion, or a potentate. This is where the word “throne” comes from.
LXVIII “robed” = periballo + stole. Periballo is from peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to thrown around, clothe, array, put on. Stole is related to “standing” in v7:9. 9x in NT –the scribes who want to be greeted with respect in marketplaces (Mk 12:13; Lk 20:46), the angel presenting as a young man at the resurrection (Mk 16:5), the robe brought for the prodigal son (Lk 15:22), and the attire of the martyrs and saints in heaven in Revelation 6, 7, and 22. From stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (see note LXV above)}. This is clothing, in particular a long, flowing robe associated with elites.
LXIX “palm branches” = phoinix. 2x in NT. This is some kind of palm or palm tee, perhaps the date palm. It shares a root with “phoenix.”

10 They cried outLXX in a loudLXXI voice, saying,

“SalvationLXXII belongs to our GodLXXIII who is seatedLXXIV on the throne, and to the Lamb!”

Notes on verse 7:10

LXX “cried out” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
LXXI “loud” = megas. Same as “great” in v6:4. See note XXIX above.
LXXII “salvation” = soteria. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.
LXXIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
LXXIV “seated” = kathemai. Same as “rider” in v6:2. See note XVI above.

11 And all the angelsLXXV stood aroundLXXVI the throne and around the eldersLXXVII and the four living creatures, and they fell on their facesLXXVIII before the throne and worshipedLXXIX God, 

Notes on verse 7:11

LXXV “angels” = aggelos. Probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
LXXVI “around” = kuklo. 8x in NT. From kuklos (a circle). This is a ring, around, all around.
LXXVII “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
LXXVIII “faces” = prosopon. Related to “saw” in v6:1 & “Hades” in v6:8 & “before” in v7:9. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note LXVI above). This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
LXXIX “worshipped” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.

12 singing,LXXX

“Amen!LXXXI BlessingLXXXII and gloryLXXXIII and wisdomLXXXIV

Notes on verse 7:12a

LXXX “singing” = lego. Same as “call out” in v6:1. See note IX above.
LXXXI “amen” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
LXXXII “blessing” = eulogia. Related to “call out” in v6:1. 16x in NT. From eulogeo (speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited; praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing); {from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note IX above)}}. This is blessing, praise, or a eulogy. It can also refer to largesse.
LXXXIII “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
LXXXIV “wisdom” = sophia. From sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.

and thanksgivingLXXXV and honorLXXXVI
and powerLXXXVII and mightLXXXVIII
be to our God forever and ever!LXXXIX Amen.”

Notes on verse 7:12b

LXXXV “thanksgiving” = eucharistia. Related to “blessing” in v7:12. 15x in NT. From eucharistos (thankful, well favored); {from eu (see note LXXXII above) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards)}}. This is thankfulness or thanksgiving. It is active gratitude. It is related to the word “eucharist.”
LXXXVI “honor” = time. From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value). This has to do with worth or something’s perceived value. Literally, it means price, but figuratively, it means the honor or value one sees in someone or something else. It can be esteem or dignity. It can also mean precious or valuables.
LXXXVII “power” = dunamis. Related to “could” in v7:9. From dunamai (see note LIX above). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
LXXXVIII “might” = ischus. 10x in NT. Perhaps from is (force) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is strength, might, power, force, or ability. It is power that engages immediate resistance.
LXXXIX “forever and ever” = eis + ho + aion + ho + aion. Literally “into the ages of the ages.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.

13 Then one of the elders addressed me, saying, “Who are these, robed in white, and where have they come from?” 

14 I said to him, “Sir,XC you are the one that knows.”XCI

Then he said to me, “These are they who have come out of the great ordeal;XCII they have washedXCIII their robes and made them whiteXCIV in the bloodXCV of the Lamb.

Notes on verses 7:13-14

XC “sir” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XCI “knows” = eido. Related to “there” in v6:2. See note XIII above.
XCII “ordeal” = thlipsis. From thlibo (to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict; figuratively to oppress or afflict). This is pressure that hems us in – used often of internal pressure that makes us feel like we have no other options and are confined or restricted. So, this is persecution, affliction, trouble, distress, and anguish. There is a different word, stenoxoria, that refers to external pressure that we feel from what’s going on.
XCIII “washed” = pluno. 3x in NT. Perhaps from pluo (to flow). This is to wash as in washing clothes by plunging.
XCIV “made…white” = leukaino. Related to “white” in v6:2. 2x in NT. From leukos (see note XIV above). This is to make white. It is also used in Mark 9:3 of Jesus’s clothes during the Transfiguration.
XCV “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).

15 For this reason they are before the throne of God,
    and worshipXCVI him dayXCVII and nightXCVIII within his temple,XCIX
    and the one who is seated on the throne will shelterC them.

Notes on verse 7:15

XCVI “worship” = latreuo. From latris (a hired servant; someone who is qualified to perform a technical task). Properly, this is giving good, technical service because qualified or equipped to do so. It can be serve, minister, worship, or give homage.
XCVII “day” = hemera. Perhaps related to “rider” in v6:2. Perhaps from hemai (see note XVI above). This is day, time, daybreak.
XCVIII “night” = nux. This is night in a literal or figurative sense.
XCIX “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
C “shelter” = skenoo. 5x in NT– 1x in John 1 & 4x in Revelation. From skenos (tent, tabernacle; used figuratively for the body as the home of the spirit; this is generally a hut or temporary home); from skene (a tent, booth, tabernacle, dwelling – in a literal or figurative sense). This is to encamp, dwell, have or pitch a tent.

16 They will hungerCI no more, and thirstCII no more;
    the sunCIII will not strike them,
    nor any scorching heat;CIV

Notes on verse 7:16

CI “hunger” = peinao. From peina (hunger); related to penomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is to hunger, be needy, or desire earnestly. It can be being famished in a definitive sense or in comparison to someone or something else. Figuratively, this means to crave.
CII “thirst” = dipsao. 16x in NT. From dipsa (thirst); from dipsos (thirst). This is thirst in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean keenly desire.
CIII “sun” = helios. This is sun, which would imply light in general or the east.
CIV “scorching heat” = kauma. 2x in NT – both in Revelation. From kaio (to burn, light, kindle). This is heat or burning. It can also refer to a glow.

17 for the Lamb at the centerCV of the throne will be their shepherd,CVI
    and he will guideCVII them to springsCVIII of the waterCIX of life,CX

Notes on verse 7:17a

CV “center” = mesos. Same as “midst” in v6:6. See note XXXV above.
CVI “will be…shepherd” = poimaino. 11x in NT. From poimen (shepherd in a literal or figurative sense – one who feeds, protects, rules). This is to tend, care for, shepherd. It focuses on tending, guiding, and protecting rather than feeding. Figuratively, it can mean to govern.
CVII “guide” = hodegeo. Related to “angels” in v7:11. 5x in NT. From hodegos (leader or guide; can be used figuratively for a teacher); {from hodos (way, road, path, or journey; can imply progress along a route) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go)}}. This is to lead or guide. It is to point out the way, figuratively to teach.
CVIII “springs” = pege. 11x in NT. This is a fount in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be a spring of water, a fountain, or a well. It is also used for a flow of blood. It can mean more generally the source of something: water, blood, fun.
CIX “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
CX “life” = zoe. Related to “living creatures” in v6:1. From zao (see note VIII above). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

and God will wipe away every tearCXI from their eyes.”CXII

Notes on verse 7:17b

CXI “tear” = dakruon. 10x in NT– 2x of the woman anointing Jesus’ feet, 2x of Paul’s tears about people distorting the truth, 2x of God wiping away ever tear of the saints in heaven, 1x of Paul missing the Corinthians, 1x of remembering Timothy’s tears, 1x of Esau’s tears, 1x of Jesus’ tears. This is tear or teardrop.
CXII “eyes” = ophthalmos. Related to “saw” in v6:1 & “Hades” in v6:8 & “before” in v7:9. From optanomai (see note LXVI above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.

Image credit: “Three Apocalyptic Horsemen” by Willem Adolfs, circa 1943.

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