Romans 10:5-15

Romans 10:5-15
Proper 14A


MosesA writesB concerning the righteousnessC

Notes on verse 5a

A “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
B “writes” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
C “righteousness” = dikaiosune. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.

that comes from the law,D that “the personE who doesF these things will liveG by them.” 

Notes on verse 5b

D “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
E “person” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
F “does” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
G “live” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

But the righteousness that comes from faithH says,I “Do not say in your heart,J

Notes on verse 6a

H “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
I “says” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
J “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

‘Who will ascendK into heaven?’”L (that is,M to bring ChristN down)O 

Notes on verse 6b

K “ascend” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
L “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
M “is” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
N “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
O “bring…down” = katago. 9x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go). This is to bring or lead down. It could be from higher to lower ground or from out to sea closer to the land.

“or ‘Who will descendP into the abyss?’”Q (that is, to bring Christ upR from the dead).S 

Notes on verse 7

P “descend” = katabaino. Related to “ascend” in v6. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note K above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
Q “abyss” = abussos. Related to “ascend” in v6 & “descend” in v7. 9x in NT. From a (not, without) + buthos (deep, bottom, deep sea); {akin to bathos (depth, fullness, profundity, or immensity); from bathus (deep in a literal or figurative sense); from the same root as basis (step, foot); from baino (see note K above)}. This is boundless, bottomless – literally without depth. It can imply the realm of the dead and evil spirits – the infernal abyss. This is where the word “abyss” comes from.
R “bring…up” = anago. Related to “bring…down” in v6. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + ago (see note O above). This is to lead up, offer, set sail, bring out, depart, loose.
S “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

But what does it say?

“The wordT is nearU you,
    in your mouthV and in your heart”

(that is, the word of faith that we proclaim),W because if you confessX, Y with your mouth

Notes on verses 8-9a

T “word” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
U “near” = eggus. Perhaps from agcho (to squeeze). This is nearby or near in time.
V “mouth” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
W “proclaim” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
X “confess” = homologeo. Related to “says” in v6. From homologos (of one mind); {from homos (the same) + lego (see note I above)}. This is to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate. It can mean to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse.
Y {untranslated} = rhema. Same as “word” in v5. See note T above.

that JesusZ is LordAA and believeBB in your heart

Notes on verse 9b

Z “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
AA “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
BB “believe” = pisteuo. Related to “faith” in v6. From pistis (see note H above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

that GodCC raisedDD him from the dead, you will be saved.EE 10 For one believes with the heart, leading to righteousness, and one confesses with the mouth, leading to salvation.FF 

Notes on verses 9c-10

CC “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
DD “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
EE “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
FF “salvation” = soteria. Related to “saved” in v9. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (see note EE above). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.

11 The scriptureGG says, “No oneHH who believes in him will be put to shame.”II 

Notes on verse 11

GG “scripture” = graphe. Related to “writes” in v5. From grapho (see note B above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
HH “one” = pas. This is all or every.
II “put to shame” = kataischuno. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + aischunomai (to dishonor, put to shame, shrink, disfigure); {from aischos (shame, disgrace, disfigurement)}. This is literally to shame down, which is to say disgrace or implying make someone blush. It can be frustrate, dishonor, confound or shame.

12 For there is no distinctionJJ between JewKK and Greek;LL

Notes on verse 12a

JJ “distinction” = diastole. 3x in NT. From diastello (to set apart, distinguish, give a commission, order, set apart for service); {from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}}. This is difference, separation, distinction, or variation.
KK “Jew” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
LL “Greek” = Hellen. From Hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is Greek, but was used for Gentiles, broader populations that spoke Greek and were a part of Greek culture regardless of their heritage. See

the same Lord is Lord of allMM and is generousNN to all who call onOO him. 13 For “everyonePP who calls on the nameQQ of the Lord shall be saved.”

Notes on verses 12b-13

MM “all” = pas. Same as “one” in v11. See note HH above.
NN “is generous” = plouteo. 12x in NT. From ploutizo (to enrich, cause abundance, bring fullness); from ploutos (abundance, wealth, or riches; money, possessions, spiritual abundance, or a valuable bestowment); from polus (much, many, abundant) OR pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is to be rich or abound in. It is to be or get wealth in a literal or figurative sense.
OO “call on” = epikaleo. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
PP “everyone” = pas. Same as “one” in v11. See note HH above.
QQ “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

14 But how are they to call on one in whom they have not believed? And how are they to believe in one of whom they have never heard?RR And how are they to hear withoutSS someone to proclaim him? 15 And how are they to proclaim him unless they are sent?TT

Notes on verses 14-15a

RR “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
SS “without” = choris. From chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is apart from, separate from.
TT “sent” = apostello. Related to “distinction” in v12. From apo (from, away from) + stello (see note JJ above). This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

As it is written, “How beautifulUU are the feetVV of thoseWW who bringXX good news!”YY 

Notes on verse 15b

UU “beautiful” = horaios. 4x in NT. From hora (a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season). This is timely, seasonable, blooming, beautiful. It is fruitful, having the right timing, in season, flourishing.
VV “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.
WW Some manuscripts add “of those proclaiming peace” = euaggelizo + eirene. Euaggelizo is related to “bring…down” in v6 & “bring…up” in v7. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (see note O above)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel. Eirene is perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
XX “bring” = euaggelizo. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note WW above.
YY “good news” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.

Image credit: “Soyuz MS-15 crew ship ascending into space” by Christina Koch. Posted by NASA Johnson, 2019.

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