Romans 1:1-17

Romans 1:1-17
Narrative Lectionary 143


Paul,I a servantII of ChristIII Jesus,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
II “servant” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
III “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
IV “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

calledV to be an apostle,VI set apartVII for the gospelVIII of God,IX 

Notes on verse 1b

V “called” = kletos. 11x in NT. From the same as klesis (calling, invitation); from kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is the called, invited, calling. Used in the NT as God’s calling.
VI “apostle” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
VII “set apart” = aphorizo. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + horizo (to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined; literally, this is setting horizons); {from the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary)}. This is to set off by a boundary – to divide, separate, exclude. It can also mean ostracize or keep aloof.
VIII “gospel” = euaggelion. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel); {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
IX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

which he promised beforehandX through his prophetsXI in the holyXII scriptures,XIII 

Notes on verse 2

X “promised beforehand” = proepaggello. Related to “gospel” in v1. 2x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + epaggellomai (to proclaim, profess, or make a promise that is fitting); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (see note VIII above)}}}. This is to announce before or to promise a long time ago.
XI “prophets” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
XII “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XIII “scriptures” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.

the gospel concerning his Son,XIV who was descended fromXV DavidXVI according to the fleshXVII 

Notes on verse 3

XIV “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XV “descended from” = ginomai + ek + sperma. Literally, “came from the seed of.” Ginomai is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth. Sperma is from speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); perhaps from spao (to pull, to draw a sword). This is something sown so it could be seed or offspring and descendants. This is where the word “sperm” comes from.
XVI “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
XVII “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).

and was declaredXVIII to be Son of God with powerXIX according to the spiritXX of holinessXXI

Notes on verse 4a

XVIII “declared” = horizo. Related to “set apart” in v1. 8x in NT. See note VII above.
XIX “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
XX “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
XXI “holiness” = hagiosune. Related to “holy” in v2. 3x in NT. From hagios (see note XII above). This is holiness or sanctification. It is also the state or quality thereof.

by resurrectionXXII from the dead,XXIII Jesus Christ our Lord,XXIV 

Notes on verse 4b

XXII “resurrection” = anastasis. Related to “apostle” in v1. From anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note VI above). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.
XXIII “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
XXIV “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

through whom we have receivedXXV graceXXVI and apostleshipXXVII

Notes on verse 5a

XXV “received” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XXVI “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
XXVII “apostleship” = apostole. Related to “apostle” in v1 & “resurrection” in v4. 4x in NT. From apostello (see note VI above). This is commission, apostleship. It can be a commissioning or the responsibilities of an apostle.

to bring about the obedienceXXVIII of faithXXIX among allXXX

Notes on verse 5b

XXVIII “obedience” = hupakoe. 15x in NT. From hupoakouo (to listen, to attend to, or obey; acting subordinate to one who speaks – heeding a command or authority); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing)}. This is obedience, submissiveness – listening attentively and acting in response.
XXIX “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
XXX “all” = pas. This is all or every.

the gentilesXXXI for the sake of his name,XXXII including you who areXXXIII called to belong to Jesus Christ,

Notes on verses 5c-6

XXXI “gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XXXII “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XXXIII “are” = eimi. This is to be, exist.

To allXXXIV God’s belovedXXXV in Rome,XXXVI who are called to be saints:XXXVII

Notes on verse 7a

XXXIV {untranslated} = eimi. Same as “are” in v6. See note XXXIII above.
XXXV “beloved” = agapetos. From agape (love, goodwill, benevolence; God’s divine love); from agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is Beloved or very dear one. It is a title for the Messiah, but also for Christians. Properly, this is one who personally experiences God’s love.
XXXVI “Rome” = Rhome. 8x in NT. From the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This is Rome. See
XXXVII “saints” = hagios. Same as “holy” in v2. See note XII above.

Grace to you and peaceXXXVIII from God our FatherXXXIX and the Lord Jesus Christ.

First,XL, XLI I thankXLII my God through Jesus Christ for all of you,

Notes on verses 7b-8a

XXXVIII “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
XXXIX “Father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XL “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
XLI {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XLII “thank” = eucharisteo. Related to “gospel” in v1 & “grace” in v5. From eu (see note VIII above) + charis (see note XXVI above). This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.

because your faith is proclaimedXLIII throughoutXLIV the world.XLV 

Notes on verse 8b

XLIII “proclaimed” = kataggello. Related to “gospel” in v1 & “promised beforehand” in v2. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + aggello (see note IX above). This is to proclaim openly and confidently a very specific message. It can also be celebrate, preach, or teach.
XLIV “throughout” = en + holos. Holos is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
XLV “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

For God, whom I serveXLVI with my spirit by announcing the gospel of his Son, is my witnessXLVII that without ceasingXLVIII

Notes on verse 9a

XLVI “serve” = latreuo. From latris (a hired servant; someone who is qualified to perform a technical task). Properly, this is giving good, technical service because qualified or equipped to do so. It can be serve, minister, worship, or give homage.
XLVII “witness” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.
XLVIII “without ceasing” = adialeiptos. 4x in NT. From adialeptos (continual as not having unneeded gaps in the middle; constantly, unceasing, or incessant; can imply permanent); {from a (not, without) + dialeipo (to give up, cease, stop in the middle); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing)}}. This is constantly, unceasingly. It is something that continues without unnecessary interruption.

I rememberXLIX you alwaysL in my prayers,LI 

Notes on verse 9b

XLIX “remember” = mneia + poieo. Mneia is 7x in NT– all in epistles for remembering you in prayers and 1x to remember us kindly (1 Th 3:6). From mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). Properly, this is bringing someone or something to mind or mentioning them. It can also be a memory or commemoration. Further, it can be a specific focus on an aspect of someone or something. Poieo is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
L “always” = pantote. Related to “all” in v5. From pas (see note XXX above) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
LI “prayers” = proseuche. From proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.

10 askingLII that by God’s willLIII I may somehow at last succeedLIV in comingLV to you. 

Notes on verse 10

LII “asking” = deomai. Related to “servant” in v1. From deo (see note II above) This is having an urgent need because one is missing or needing something so it is an earnest appeal or pressing request.
LIII “will” = thelema. From thelo (to desire, wise, will, intend). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
LIV “succeed” = euodoo. Related to “gospel” in v1 & “thank” in v8. 4x in NT. From eu (see note VIII above) + hodos (way, road, path, journey). This is to prosper or succeed – to go on a successful journey. Figuratively, it can also mean to be on the right path of success or good fortune or to help along the way.
LV “coming” = erchomai. This is to come or go.

11 For I longLVI to seeLVII you so that I may shareLVIII with you

Notes on verse 11a

LVI “long” = epipotheo. 9x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + potheo (to yearn). This is to long for, greatly desire, or strain towards. It can also imply doting or a desire to possess something or someone, whether legitimately or wrongfully.
LVII “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
LVIII “share” = metadidomi. 5x in NT. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is to share, bestow, offer something to make a change.

some spiritualLIX giftLX so that you may be strengthenedLXI— 

Notes on verse 11b

LIX “spiritual” = pneumatikos. Related to “spirit” in v4. From pneuma (see note XX above). This is spiritual, spiritual people, or spiritual things – that which is ethereal or divine or religious.
LX “gift” = charisma. Related to “grace” in v5 & “thank” in v8. 17x in NT. From charizomai (to show favor, kindness, or grace, to pardon, forgive); from charis (see note XXVI above). This is grace, undeserved favor, a free gift, or a spiritual gift. It is the working of grace, some spiritual gift or religious qualification. It could be some kind of miraculous endowment.
LXI “strengthened” = sterizo. Related to “apostle” in v1 & “resurrection” in v4 & “apostleship” in v5. 13x in NT. From sterigx (a support, plant down); perhaps from histemi (see note VI above). This is to make fast, support, strengthen, establish, fix firmly, to go resolutely.

12 or rather so that we may be mutually encouragedLXII by each other’s faith, both yours and mine. 13 I do not wantLXIII you to be unaware,LXIV brothersLXV and sisters,

Notes on verses 12-13a

LXII “mutually encouraged” = sumparakaleo. Related to “called” in v1. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + parakaleo (to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg; to exhort or admonish; to encourage, comfort, or console; has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note V above)}. This is to encourage, console, affirm, or strengthen together.
LXIII “want” = thelo. Related to “will” in v10. See note LIII above.
LXIV “be unaware” = agnoeo. Related to “name” in v5. From a (not) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (see note XXXII above)}. This is unaware not to know. Sometimes it is willful ignorance, but other times it is simply not knowing.
LXV “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

that I have oftenLXVI intendedLXVII to come to you (but thus farLXVIII have been prevented),LXIX

Notes on verse 13b

LXVI “often” = pollakis. 18x in NT. From polus (much, many, abundant). This is often, many, frequently, again and again.
LXVII “intended” = protithemi. 3x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish). This is to set before, intent, determine, display publicly. It is to exhibit something to achieve a particular goal.
LXVIII “thus far” = achri + ho + deuro. Achri is until, up to, while. Deuro is 9x in NT. This is come here, hither, hence, now, until now.
LXIX “prevented” = koluo. Perhaps from the same as kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked, dwarf). This is to hinder or prevent, restrain, refuse. It can be prevent, whether through words or actions.

in order that I may reapLXX some harvestLXXI among you, as I have among the restLXXII of the gentiles. 14 I am obligatedLXXIII both to GreeksLXXIV

Notes on verses 13c-14a

LXX “reap” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
LXXI “harvest” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.
LXXII “rest” = loipos. Related to “without ceasing” in v9. From leipo (see note XLVIII above). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.
LXXIII “obligated” = opheiletes. 7x in NT. From opheilo (to be indebted morally or legally – having an obligation one must meet; perhaps from the legal world, but then adopted in reference to morality; used to refer to humanity’s ethical responsibility); probably from ophelos (advantage, gain, profit); from ophello (heaped together, accumulate, increase). This is one who owes so it is a debtor or someone under obligation. Figuratively, it is a culprit, delinquent, or a sinner.
LXXIV “Greeks” = Hellen. From Hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is Greek, but was used for Gentiles, broader populations that spoke Greek and were a part of Greek culture regardless of their heritage. See

and to barbarians,LXXV both to the wiseLXXVI and to the foolish,LXXVII 

Notes on verse 14b

LXXV “Barbarians” = Barbaros. 6x in NT. Perhaps onomatopoetic mocking of the sounds of non-Greek languages. Used to refer to uncivilized, again any non-Greek, people. This could refer to someone not adopting Greek language or culture or both.
LXXVI “wise” = sophos. Related to saphes (clear). This is wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated. This is wisdom as expressed through a practical skill or ability as opposed to thoughtfulness, or intelligence.
LXXVII “foolish” = anoetos. Related to “name” in v5 & “be aware” in v3. 6x in NT. From a (not, without) + noieo (see note LXIV above). This is not thinking or thoughtless. It is not using proper logic to think something through.

15 hence my eagernessLXXVIII to proclaim the gospelLXXIX to you also who are in Rome.

16 For I am not ashamedLXXX of the gospel;

Notes on verses 15-16a

LXXVIII “eagerness” = prothumos. 3x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + thumos (passion, actions that stem from passion or impulse; can be rage, indignation); {from thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general)}. This is willing, eager, ready, enthusiastic, free from resistance. It can also be predisposed, willing, or generous from one’s own impulse.
LXXIX “proclaim the gospel” = euaggelizo. Related to “gospel” in v1 & “thank” in v8 & “succeed” in v10 & to “gospel” in v1 & “promised beforehand” in v2 & “proclaimed” in v8. From eu (see note VIII abover) + aggelos (see note VIII above). This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
LXXX “ashamed” = epaischunomai. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aischuno to dishonor, put to shame, shrink, disfigure); {from aischos (shame, disgrace, disfigurement)}. This is to be ashamed or disgraced. It is a personal humiliation or dishonor – a shame that matches an error.

it is God’s savingLXXXI power for everyoneLXXXII who believes,LXXXIII for the JewLXXXIV first and also for the Greek. 

Notes on verse 16b

LXXXI “saving” = soteria. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.
LXXXII “everyone” = pas. Same as “all” in v5. See note XXX above.
LXXXIII “believes” = pisteuo. Related to “faith” in v5. From pistis (see note XXIX above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
LXXXIV “Jew” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

17 For in it the righteousnessLXXXV of God is revealedLXXXVI through faith for faith, as it is written,LXXXVII “The one who is righteousLXXXVIII will liveLXXXIX by faith.”

Notes on verse 17

LXXXV “righteousness” = dikaiosune. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
LXXXVI “revealed” = apokalupto. From apo (from, away from) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is properly to uncover so it means revealing something that was hidden or obstructed. It particularly refers to revealing the essence of something. This is to make plain or manifest. This is the root verb that “apocalypse” comes from.
LXXXVII “written” = grapho. Related to “scriptures” in v2. See note XIII above.
LXXXVIII “one who is righteous” = dikaios. Related to “righteousness” in v17. See note LXXXV above.
LXXXIX “live” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

Image credit: “St Paul ‘I am the Prisoner of the Lord'” by Jude Tarrant, 2012.

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