Romans 5:12-19

Romans 5:12-19
First Sunday of Lent A


12 Therefore, just as sinA cameB into the worldC

Notes on verse 12a

A “sin” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
B “came” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
C “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

through oneD man,E and deathF came through sin,

Notes on verse 12b

D “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
E “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
F “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.

and so death spreadG to allH, I because all have sinnedJ— 

Notes on verse 12c

G “spread” = dierchomai. Related to “came” in v12. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note B above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
H “all” = pas. This is all or every.
I {untranslated} = anthropos. Same as “man” in v12. See note E above.
J “sinned” = hamartano. Related to “sin” in v12. See note A above.

13 for sin was indeed in the world before the law,K but sin is not reckonedL when there is no law. 14 Yet death reignedM from AdamN

Notes on verses 13-14a

K “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
L “reckoned” = ellogeo. 2x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is to reckon or charge, attribute.
M “reigned” = basileuo. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is to reign as king, to rule in a literal or figurative sense.
N “Adam” = Adam. 9x in NT. From Hebrew Adam (Adam); from the same as adam (human, humankind, ruddy); from adam (to be red, red in the face). This is Adam.

to Moses,O even over those who did not sin in the likenessP, Q of Adam, who is a patternR of the one who was to come.S

Notes on verse 14b

O “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
P “likeness” = homoioma. 6x in NT. From homoioo (to compare, liken, resemble, become similar); from homoios (similar to, resembling, like); from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is resembling, likeness, form, or appearance.
Q {untranslated} = parabasis. Related to “reigned” in v14. 7x in NT. From para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + the same as basis (see note M above). Literally, this is an overstepping or a going aside. It is a transgression or violation that is deliberate. So, this is one who knows the law, or knows what they ought to do, and chooses to do otherwise.
R “pattern” = tupos. 16x in NT. From tupto (to strike repeatedly, wound, punish; figuratively to offend). This is a figure, model, image, impression, pattern, copy. Properly, this is a model created through much repetition so figuratively it is the proper model. It can be the impression of a stamped image, the mark of a scar, the shape of a statue. Figuratively, it can refer to a style or resemblance. Used specially, it is a model as something to imitate or as a cautionary tale. This is where the word “type” comes from.
S “come” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.

15 But the free giftT is not like the trespass.U For if the manyV diedW through the one man’s trespass,

Notes on verse 15a

T “free gift” = charisma. 17x in NT. From charizomai (to show favor, kindness, or grace, to pardon, forgive); from charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, undeserved favor, a free gift, or a spiritual gift. It is the working of grace, some spiritual gift or religious qualification. It could be some kind of miraculous endowment.
U “trespass” = paraptoma. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is properly, falling away after having been devout or faithful. So, this is a lapse, sin, slip, transgression, offense. It is a deviation from what is true – it could be accidental or unconscious.
V “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
W “died” = apothnesko. Related to “death” in v12. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (see note F above). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.

muchX moreY surely have the graceZ of GodAA and the giftBB in the grace of the one man,

Notes on verse 15b

X “much” = polus. Same as “many” in v12. See note V above.
Y “more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
Z “grace” = charis. Related to “free gift” in v15. See note T above.
AA “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
BB “gift” = dorea. 11x in NT. From doron (gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily); from didomi (to give in a literal or figurative sense). This is a free gift given voluntarily and not received by merit or entitlement. It emphasizes the benevolence of the giver.

JesusCC Christ,DD aboundedEE for the many. 

Notes on verse 15c

CC “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
DD “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
EE “abounded” = perisseuo. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is more than what is ordinary or necessary. It is abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond. It is super-abounding in number or quality.

16 And the giftFF is not like the effect of the one man’s sin. For theGG judgmentHH

Notes on verse 16a

FF “gift” = dorema. Related to “gift” in v15. 2x in NT. From doreomai (to give freely, donate); from doron (see note BB above). This is a gift or bestowment.
GG {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
HH “judgment” = krima. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judgment, sentence, verdict. Sometimes, this can have a negative sense – condemnation. It is the decision and the full force of its effect negative and positive.

following one trespass brought condemnation,II but the giftJJ following many trespasses brings justification.KK 

Notes on verse 16b

II “condemnation” = katakrima. Related to “judgment” in v16. 3x in NT. From katakrino (judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn; a decisive judgment of guilt; also to damn someone); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (see note HH above)}. This is penalty, the sentence of condemnation that comes after one is found guilty, the punishment that comes after being condemned.
JJ “gift” = charisma. Same as “free gift” in v15. See note T above.
KK “justification” = dikaioma. 10x in NT. From dikaioo (to be righteous, plead the cause of, justify, acquit; properly, approved, particularly carrying the weight of a legal judgment; upright, render just or innocent); from dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is justification or righteousness – it can be a second chance for a criminal, a verdict for or against, an act that is legally proper, or a statute or decision. It is something pronounced righteous by God.

17 If, because of the one man’s trespass, death reigned through that one, much more surely will those who receiveLL the abundanceMM of grace and the giftNN of righteousnessOO reign in lifePP through the one man, Jesus Christ.

Notes on verse 17

LL “receive” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
MM “abundance” = perisseia. Related to “abounded” in v15. 4x in NT. From perisseuo (see note EE above). This is abundance, surplus – it is more than expected.
NN “gift” = dorea. Same as “gift” in v15. See note BB above.
OO “righteousness” = dikaiosune. Related to “justification” in v16. From dikaios (see note KK above). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
PP “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

18 Therefore just as one man’s trespass led to condemnation for all,QQ so one man’s act of righteousnessRR leads to justificationSS and life for all.TT 

Notes on verse 18

QQ {untranslated} = anthropos. Same as “man” in v12. See note E above.
RR “act of righteousness” = dikaioma. Same as “justification” in v16. See note KK above.
SS “justification” = dikaiosis. Related to “justification” in v16 & “righteousness” in v17. 2x in NT – both in Romans. From dikaioo (see note KK above). This is acquittal or justification. It could be divine approval or one who is pronounced righteous.
TT {untranslated} = anthropos. Same as “man” in v12. See note E above.

19 For just as through the one man’s disobedienceUU the many were madeVV sinners,WW so through the one man’s obedienceXX the many will be made righteous.YY 

Notes on verse 19

UU “disobedience” = parakoe. 3x in NT. From parakouo (to hear improperly because of not paying attention or disregarding good advice; disobey); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing)}. This is literally contrary hearing. So, it could be disobedience or inattention.
VV “made” = kathistemi. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge, designate.
WW “sinners” = hamartolos. Related to “sin” & “sinned” in v12. From hamartano (see note A above). This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.
XX “obedience” = hupakoe. Related to “disobedience” in v19. 15x in NT. From hupoakouo (to listen, to attend to, or obey; acting subordinate to one who speaks – heeding a command or authority); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + akouo (see note UU above)}. This is obedience, submissiveness – listening attentively and acting in response.
YY “righteous” = dikaios. Related to “justification” in v16 & “righteousness” in v17 & “justification” in v18. See note KK above.

Image credit: “Expulsion from the Garden of Eden” by Thomas Cole, 1828.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply