Matthew 18:15-35

Matthew 18:15-35
Narrative Lectionary 131


15 “If your brotherI or sister sinsII against you, goIII

Notes on verse 15a

I “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
II “sins” = hamartano. From a (not) + meros (a part or share, portion); {from meiromai (to get one’s allotment or portion)}. This term also used of archers not hitting their targets. Literally, it means not getting your share or to miss the mark. Figuratively, it meant to do wrong or to sin.
III “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.

and point out the faultIV when the two of you are alone.V If you are listenedVI to, you have regainedVII that one.VIII 

Notes on verse 15b

IV “point out the fault” = elegcho. 17x in NT. This is to expose, reprove, discipline, convict, or rebuke. It is using convincing evidence to expose a wrong.
V “alone” = monos. Perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate.
VI “listened” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
VII “regained” = kerdaino. 17x in NT. From kerdos (profit, gain, advantage). This is to gain, win, or acquire. It is a word from the sphere of bartering and trading. Figuratively, it can mean trading up.
VIII “one” = adelphos. Same as “brother” in v15. See note I above.

16 But if you are not listened to, takeIX oneX or twoXI others along with you, so that everyXII wordXIII

Notes on verse 16a

IX “take” = paralambano. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
X “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XI “two” = duo. This is two or both.
XII “every” = pas. This is all or every.
XIII “word” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.

may be confirmedXIV by the evidenceXV of two or threeXVI witnesses.XVII 

Notes on verse 16b

XIV “confirmed” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
XV “evidence” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
XVI “three” = treis. This is three.
XVII “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.

17 If that person refuses to listenXVIII to them, tell it to the church,XIX and if the offender refuses to listen even to the church, let such a one be to you as a gentileXX and a tax collector.XXI 

Notes on verse 17

XVIII “refuses to listen” = parakouo. Related to “listens” in v15. 3x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + akouo (see note VI above). This is literally contrary hearing. So, it could be disobedience or inattention.
XIX “church” = ekklesia. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.
XX “gentile” = ethnikos. 4x in NT. From ethnos (people who are united by having similar customs or culture; a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general); probably from etho (custom, culture). This is ethnic, national, foreign, or referring to a Gentile. This is the root that the word “ethnicity” comes from.
XXI “tax collector” = telones. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one) + oneomai (to buy); {from onos (a price or sum)}. This is tax collector, one who worked for the Romans taking taxes from Jews. It also meant the toll house. Literally, this is “paying at the end.”

18 TrulyXXII I tellXXIII you, whatever you bindXXIV

Notes on verse 18a

XXII “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
XXIII “tell” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXIV “bind” = deo. To tie, bind, compel, put in chains. This is to bind in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean declaring something unlawful.

on earthXXV will be bound in heaven,XXVI and whatever you looseXXVII on earth will be loosed in heaven. 

Notes on verse 18b

XXV “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
XXVI “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
XXVII “loose” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.

19 Again, truly I tell you, if two of you agreeXXVIII on earth about anythingXXIX you ask,XXX it will be doneXXXI for you by my FatherXXXII in heaven. 

Notes on verse 19

XXVIII “agree” = sumphoneo. 6x in NT. From sumphonos (harmonious, agreeing, consent; having one voice i.e. a shared understanding); {from sun (with, together with) + phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}}. This is to harmonize with, agree, have a shared opinion, an accord. This is the root that “symphony” comes from.
XXIX “anything” = pas + pragma. Pas is the same as “every” in v16. See note XII above. Pragma is 11x in NT. From prasso (to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit; to accomplish, attend, or commit). This is an action, matter, or business. It is something done on a regular basis that is done in order to get something done.
XXX “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
XXXI “done” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XXXII “Father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.

20 For where two or three are gatheredXXXIII in my name,XXXIV I am there amongXXXV them.”

Notes on verse 20

XXXIII “gathered” = sunago. Related to “go” in v15. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note III above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
XXXIV “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XXXV “among” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.

21 Then PeterXXXVI cameXXXVII and said to him, “Lord,XXXVIII if my brother or sister sins against me, how often should I forgive?XXXIX As many as seven times?”XL 

Notes on verse 21

XXXVI “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XXXVII “came” = proserchomai. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
XXXVIII “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XXXIX “forgive” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XL “seven times” = heptakis. 4x in NT– each in reference to forgiving seven times in the Gospels. From hepta (seven or seventh; figuratively, the number of completeness or perfection). This is seven times.

22 JesusXLI said to him, “Not seven times, but, I tell you, seventyXLII-sevenXLIII times.

Notes on verse 22

XLI “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XLII “seventy” = hebdomekontakis. Related to “seven times” in v21. 1x in NT. From hebdomekonta (seventy); {from hebdomos (seventh); {from hepta (see note XL above)} + deka (ten, -teen)}. This is seventy times.
XLIII “seven” = hepta. Related to “seven times” in v21 & “seventy” in v22. See note XL above.

23 “For this reason the kingdomXLIV of heaven may be comparedXLV to aXLVI kingXLVII

Notes on verse 23a

XLIV “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
XLV “compared” = homoioo. 15x in NT. From homoios (similar to, resembling, like); from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is to compare, liken, resemble, become similar.
XLVI {untranslated} = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XLVII “king” = basileus. Related to “kingdom” in v23. See note XLIV above.

who wishedXLVIII to settleXLIX accountsL with his slaves.LI 

Notes on verse 23b

XLVIII “wished” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
XLIX “settle” = sunairo. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + airo (to lift up in a literal or figurative sense; to lift, carry, or raise; take away or remove; figuratively, raising the voice or level of suspense; sailing off as raising the anchor; atonement of sin as lift/remove sin). This is to take up together, which would be making a reckoning or comparing accounts. It is to settle or compute.
L “accounts” = logos. Related to “tell” in v18. From lego (see note XXIII above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
LI “slaves” = doulos. Related to “bind” in v18. Perhaps from deo (see note XXIV above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).

24 When he beganLII the reckoning,LIII oneLIV who owedLV him

Notes on verse 24a

LII “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
LIII “reckoning” = sunairo. Same as “settle” in v23. See note XLIX above.
LIV “one” = heis. Same as “one” in v16. See note X above.
LV “owed” = opheiletes. 7x in NT. From opheilo (to be indebted morally or legally – having an obligation one must meet; perhaps from the legal world, but then adopted in reference to morality; used to refer to humanity’s ethical responsibility); probably from ophelos (advantage, gain, profit); from ophello (heaped together, accumulate, increase). This is one who owes so it is a debtor or someone under obligation. Figuratively, it is a culprit, delinquent, or a sinner.

ten thousandLVI talentsLVII was broughtLVIII to him, 

Notes on verse 24b

LVI “ten thousand” = murios. 3x in NT. Root may mean numerous. This can mean a large number, countless. In the plural, it can mean ten thousand.
LVII “talents” = talanton. 14x in NT– all in Matthew 18 & Matthew 25 in the Parable of the Unforgiving Servant and the Parable of the Talents. Perhaps from tlao (to bear). This is a balance as an amount that is weighed to make up a talent. A talent was around 3,000 shekels. A silver talent could be exchanged for around 6,000 denarii and gold ones about thirty times more.
LVIII “brought” = prosphero. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.

25 and, as he couldLIX not pay,LX the lord orderedLXI him to be sold,LXII

Notes on verse 25a

LIX “could” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
LX “pay” = apodidomi. From apo (from, away from) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is to give back, return, give away. It is to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell.
LXI “ordered” = keleuo. Related to “church” in v17. See note XIX above.
LXII “sold” = piprasko. 9x in NT. From pernemi (to sell by export). This is to sell with travel involved. It can also mean to sell into slavery or to be devoted to.

together with his wifeLXIII and childrenLXIV and allLXV his possessionsLXVI and payment to be made.LXVII 

Notes on verse 25b

LXIII “wife” = gune. Related to “done” in v19. Perhaps from ginomai (see note XXXI above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
LXIV “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
LXV “all” = pas. Same as “every” in v16. See note XII above.
LXVI “possessions” = hosos + echo. Literally, “as much as he had.” Echo is the same as “could” in v18. See note LIX above.
LXVII “payment to be made” = apodidomi. Same as “pay” in v25. See note LX above.

26 So the slave fellLXVIII on his kneesLXIX before him, saying, ‘Have patienceLXX with me, and I will pay you everything.’LXXI 

Notes on verse 26

LXVIII “fell” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.
LXIX “knees” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.
LXX “have patience” = makrothumeo. 10x in NT. From makros (long, long lasting) {from mekos (length); probably related to megas (great or large)} + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}. This is properly long tempered. It refers to one who delays anger, perseveres, or is patient. One could also say longsuffering or forbearing.
LXXI “everything” = pas. Same as “every” in v16. See note XII above.

27 And out of pityLXXII for him, the lord of that slave releasedLXXIII him and forgave him the debt.LXXIV 

Notes on verse 27

LXXII “out of pity” = splagchnizomai. 12x in NT– 8x of Jesus having compassion on people or crowds. From splanxnon (inner organs, entrails; seen as the root of emotions). This is moved to compassion from deep within oneself – visceral empathy or sympathy, being deeply moved.
LXXIII “released” = apoluo. Related to “loose” in v18. From apo (from, away from) + luo (see note XXVII above). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
LXXIV “debt” = daneion. Related to “pay” in v25. 1x in NT. From the same as danizo (to lend or borrow with interest); from dano (loan, gift); probably related to didomi (see note LX above). This is a loan or debt.

28 But that same slave, as he went out,LXXV came uponLXXVI oneLXXVII of his fellow slavesLXXVIII who owedLXXIX him

Notes on verse 28a

LXXV “went out” = exerchomai. Related to “came” in v21. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XXXVII above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
LXXVI “came upon” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXXVII “one” = heis. Same as “one” in v16. See note X above.
LXXVIII “fellow slaves” = sundoulos. Related to “bind” in v18 & “slaves” in v23. 10x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + doulos (see note LI above). This is a fellow servant or slave. It can also refer to a co-worker in Christ.
LXXIX “owed” = opheilo. Related to “owed” in v24. See note LV above.

a hundredLXXX denarii,LXXXI and seizingLXXXII him by the throatLXXXIII he said, ‘Pay what you owe.’LXXXIV 

Notes on verse 28b

LXXX “hundred” = hekaton. 17x in NT. This is hundred literal or figurative.
LXXXI “denarii” = denarion. 16x in NT. From Latin deni (ten each) + arius (belonging to). This is a silver Roman coin.
LXXXII “seizing” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control.
LXXXIII “throat” = pnigo. 3x in NT. Perhaps from pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is to choke, wheeze, strangle, or drown.
LXXXIV “owe” = opheilo. Same as “owed” in v28. See note LXXIX above.

29 Then his fellow slave fell down and pleadedLXXXV with him, ‘Have patience with me, and I will pay you.’ 30 But he refused;LXXXVI then he wentLXXXVII

Notes on verses 29-30a

LXXXV “pleaded” = parakaleo. Related to “church” in v17 & “ordered” in v25. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note XIX above). This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
LXXXVI “refused” = ou + thelo. Literally, “not willing.” Thelo is the same as “wished” in v23. See note XLVIII above.
LXXXVII “went” = aperchomai. Related to “came” in v21 & “went out” in v28. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note XXXVII above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.

and threwLXXXVIII him into prisonLXXXIX until he would pay the debt.XC 

Notes on verse 30b

LXXXVIII “threw” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
LXXXIX “prison” = phulake. From phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).
XC “debt” = opheilo. Same as “owed” in v28. See note LXXIX above.

31 When his fellow slaves sawXCI what had happened,XCII they were greatlyXCIII distressed,XCIV

Notes on verse 31a

XCI “saw” = horao. Related to {untranslated} in v23. See note XLVI above.
XCII “happened” = ginomai. Same as “done” in v19. See note XXXI above.
XCIII “greatly” = sphodra. 11x in NT. From sphodros (exceeding, very much, all out, violent). This is exceedingly, greatly, deeply. This is going all out, with total effort, done to the fullest extent.
XCIV “distressed” = lupeo. From lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.

and they wentXCV and reportedXCVI to their lord all that had taken place.XCVII 

Notes on verse 31b

XCV “went” = erchomai. Related to “came” in v21 & “went out” in v28 & “went” in v30. See note XXXVII above.
XCVI “reported” = diasapheo. 2x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + saphes (clear). This is to make fully clear, declare, report.
XCVII “taken place” = ginomai. Same as “done” in v19. See note XXXI above.

32 Then his lord summonedXCVIII him and said to him, ‘You wickedXCIX slave! I forgave you all that debtC because you pleaded with me. 

Notes on verse 32

XCVIII “summoned” = proskaleo. Related to “church” in v17 & “ordered” in v25 & “pleaded” in v29. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (see note XIX above). This is to call to oneself, summon.
XCIX “wicked” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
C “debt” = opheile. Related to “owed” in v24 & “owed” in v28. 3x in NT. From opheilo (see note LXXIX above). This is a debt, duty, obligation. It can refer to money or to marital rights.

33 Should you not haveCI had mercyCII on your fellow slave, as I had mercy on you?’ 34 And in angerCIII his lord handed him overCIV

Notes on verses 33-34a

CI “should…have” = dei. Related to “bind” in v18 & “slaves” in v23 & “fellow slaves” in v28. From deo (see note XXIV above). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
CII “had mercy” = eleeo. From eleos (mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion; generally understood in action by word or deed). This is to have pity on, show mercy to, be compassionate; often used for God’s grace. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is from this root verb.
CIII “in anger” = orgizo. 8x in NT. From orge (impulse, wrath, anger, passion, punishment); from orgao (something that teems or stews; this is anger rising from prolonged personal contact that is fixed rather than an angry outburst; it can also be anger that stems from an individual’s sense of right and wrong, justice, etc.). This is being angry, enraged, exasperated. It is a fixed, sustained anger.
CIV “handed…over” = paradidomi. Related to “pay” in v25 & “debt” in v27. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note LX above). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

to be torturedCV until he would pay his entireCVI debt.CVII 

Notes on verse 34b

CV “tortured” = basanistes. Related to “kingdom” and “king” in v23. 1x in NT. From basanizo (to torture, interrogate by torture, torment, batter with waves, examine, strain); from basanaos (touchstone used to test metals; figuratively used for interrogating using torture, torment, pain sickness); perhaps from the same as basis (see note XLIV above). This is someone who tortures as interrogation. So, it could be a torturer or prison guard.
CVI “entire” = pas. Same as “every” in v16. See note XII above.
CVII “debt” = opheilo. Same as “owed” in v28. See note LXXIX above.

35 So my heavenlyCVIII Father will also doCIX to everyCX one of you, if you do not forgive your brother or sister from your heart.”CXI

Notes on verse 35

CVIII “heavenly” = ouranios. Related to “heaven” in v18. 9x in NT. From ouranos (see note XXVI above). This is heavenly or celestial. It can mean in, belonging to, or coming from heaven or the sky.
CIX “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
CX “every” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
CXI “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

Image credit: “Merciful Father/Lost Son” on the external wall of St. Apollinaris and Agatha in Scheven, Germany. Photo by Thomas Hummel, 2022.

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