Titus 2:11-14

Titus 2:11-14
Christmas Eve ABC


11 For the graceA of GodB has appeared,C bringing salvationD to all,E 

Notes on verse 11

A “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
B “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
C “appeared” = epiphaino. 4x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear); {perhaps from phos (light, radiance; light literal or figurative)}. This is to shine on, appear, become visible, give light. It can figuratively mean to reveal or be known. It is where “epiphany” comes from.
D “bringing salvation” = soterios. 5x in NT. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is salvation, defender, something or someone saving.
E “all” = pas + anthropos. Pas is all or every. Anthropos is probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

12 trainingF us to renounceG impietyH and worldlyI passions,J

Notes on verse 12a

F “training” = paideuo. 13x in NT. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). Properly, this is training or teaching children so it is educate, correct, discipline, and punish. This is the root of “pedagogy.”
G “renounce” = arneomai. From a (not) + rheo (say, speak of). This is to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict.
H “impiety” = asebeia. 6x in NT. From a (not, without) + sebomai (to worship, revere, adore; properly, hold in respect or high personal regard; reverence or awe shown by someone who is devout). This is ungodliness, impiety, irreverence, or wickedness. Properly, this is a lack of respect – not giving honor when it is warranted. It implies wickedness.
I “worldly” = kosmikos. 2x in NT. From kosmos (order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants; literally, something that is ordered; can refer to all creation or decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and so more beautiful); perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is worldly or mundane. Figuratively, it can mean corrupt.
J “passions” = epithumia. From epithmueo (long for, set one’s heart on, yearn, desire); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is desire, a longing built on passionate emotion or urges. This can be a positive or a negative passion (lust or eagerness).

and in the present ageK to live livesL that are self-controlled,M upright,N and godly,O 

Notes on verse 12b

K “age” = aion. From the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
L “live lives” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
M “self-controlled” = sophronos. Related to “bringing salvation” in v11. 1x in NT. From sophron (of sound mind, temperate, moderate, chaste; properly, safe because of moderated temperament; balanced); {from the same as sozo (see note D above)} + phren (mind, heart, thought, intellect, understanding; properly, the midriff or diaphragm; figuratively used for personal opinion – someone’s inner outlook or mindset; the inner perspective that guides someone’s behavior; by implication, sympathy, feelings; by extension the mind). This is having a sound mind, being prudent or sensible, acting with moderation.
N “upright” = dikaios. 5x in NT. From dikaios (correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person; implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is righteously, uprightly, or equitably. It can also refer to something being as it ought.
O “godly” = eusebos. Related to “impiety” in v12. 2x in NT. From eusebes (pious, devout, respectful); {from eu (well, good, rightly) + sebomai (see note H above)}. This is piously, religiously, godly. Inwardly pious, which is to say, devout. There was a great 4th century church historian named Eusebius.

13 while we waitP for the blessedQ hopeR and the manifestationS of the gloryT

Notes on verse 13a

P “wait” = prosdechomai. 14x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is to receive, welcome, expect, accept. It is reception with a warm, personal welcome or active waiting. It can also mean endurance or patience.
Q “blessed” = makarios. From makar (happy); from mak– (to become long or large). This is blessed, happy, fortunate. It is when God’s grace/abundance is extended.
R “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.
S “manifestation” = epiphaneia. Related to “appeared” in v11. 6x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to) + phaino (see note C above). This is an appearance, manifestation, glorious display, brightness. Literally, this is an epiphany (and where the word epiphany comes from). Used in a specific sense for Christ coming into the world at his birth as well as for his second coming.
T “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.

of our greatU God and Savior,V JesusW Christ.X 

Notes on verse 13b

U “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
V “Savior” = soter. Related to “bringing salvation” in v11 & “self-controlled” in v12. See note D above.
W “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
X “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

14 He it is who gaveY himself for us that he might redeemZ us from all iniquityAA

Notes on verse 14a

Y “gave” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
Z “redeem” = lutroo. 3x in NT. From luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is to redeem or liberate; to set someone free by paying their ransom or the value held against their life/freedom. It is used figuratively for restoring something to its rightful owner (as when ancestral land was sold). This is ransom literally or figuratively.
AA “iniquity” = anomia. 15x in NT. From anomos (literally without law; could refer to someone who disregards authority or one who is not under the law (i.e. a Gentile); lawless, wicked, or a transgressor); {from a (not, without) + nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}}. This is lawlessness, disobedience, without law, violation. It is disregarding the law whether human or God’s law, including the harmful impact.

and purifyBB for himself a peopleCC of his ownDD who are zealousEE for goodFF deeds.GG

Notes on verse 14b

BB “purify” = katharizo. From katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying). This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.
CC “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
DD “own” = periousios. 1x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, around, comprehensive) + einai (was, being, is, to exist); {from eimi (to be)}. This is costly, treasured, specially chosen, select. It is special or one’s own.
EE “zealous” = zelotes. 8x in NT. From zeloo (jealous, eager for, burning with zeal, deeply committed, envy); from zelos (eagerness or zeal on the one hand or rivalry and jealousy on the other; burning anger or burning love) perhaps from from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is zealous or a zealot – someone eagerly devoted to someone or something. This is where the word “zealot” comes from.
FF “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
GG “deeds” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

Image credit: “Colored Glass Light Above Tri-Valley” by Jay Huang, 2016.

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