1 Corinthians 11

1 Corinthians 11


BeI imitatorsII of me, as I am of Christ.III

Notes on verse 1

I “be” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
II “imitators” = mimetes. 6x in NT. From mimeomai (to emulate, follow, or imitate); from mimos (a mimic). This is a follower or imitator. It is imitation in a positive sense due to admiration of a good example. This is where “mime” and “mimetic” come from.
III “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

I commendIV you because you rememberV me in everythingVI

Notes on verse 2a

IV “commend” = epaineo. 6x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aineo (to praise, praise God); {from ainos (praise, saying, story, proverb)}. This is to praise or laud. It is to give someone the credit that they are due.
V “remember” = mimnesko. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is to remind or remember. It is memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful of. It is not incidentally or accidentally remembering.
VI “everything” = pas. This is all or every.

and maintainVII the traditionsVIII just as I handed them onIX to you. 

Notes on verse 2b

VII “maintain” = katecho. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is to hold fast, bind, possess, restrain, arrest, suppress. It is to hold down in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to hold something in one’s memory.
VIII “traditions” = paradosis. Related to “handed…on” in v2. 13x in NT. From paradidomi (literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement); {from para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note IX below)}. This is something handed down or handed over. So, it could be some kind of instruction, ordinance, or tradition. It can be used to refer to the tradition of the elders within Judaism.
IX “handed…on” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

But I wantX you to understandXI that Christ isXII the headXIII

Notes on verse 3a

X “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
XI “understand” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
XII “is” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XIII “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.

of everyXIV man,XV and the man is the head of the woman,XVI and GodXVII is the head of Christ. AnyXVIII man who praysXIX

Notes on verses 3b-4a

XIV “every” = pas. Same as “everything” in v2. See note VI above.
XV “man” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XVI “woman” = gune. Related to “be” in v1. Perhaps from ginomai (see note I above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XVII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XVIII “any” = pas. Same as “everything” in v2. See note VI above.
XIX “prays” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.

or prophesiesXX with something on his headXXI shamesXXII his head, 

Notes on verse 4b

XX “prophesies” = propheteuo. From prophetes (prophet or poet; one who speaks with inspiration from God); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}}. This is to prophesy, foretell, or tell forth.
XXI {untranslated} = echo. Related to “maintain” in v2. See note VII above.
XXII “shames” = kataischuno. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + aischunomai (to dishonor, put to shame, shrink, disfigure); {from aischos (shame, disgrace, disfigurement)}. This is literally to shame down, which is to say disgrace or implying make someone blush. It can be frustrate, dishonor, confound or shame.

but any woman who prays or prophesies with her head unveiledXXIII shames her head—it is oneXXIV and the same thing as having her head shaved.XXV For if a woman will not veilXXVI herself, then she should cut off her hair,XXVII

Notes on verses 5-6a

XXIII “unveiled” = akatakaluptos. 2x in NT – both in this chapter. From a (not, without) + katakalupto (to cover, veil, hide); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}}. This is uncovered or unveiled.
XXIV “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XXV “shaved” = xurao. 3x in NT. Perhaps akin to xulon (things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross; timber used as fuel for a fire) OR related to xulon (a razor). This is to shave or cut hair.
XXVI “veil” = katakalupto. Related to “unveiled” in v5. 3x in NT – all in this chapter. See note XXIII above.
XXVII “cut off…hair” = keiro. 4x in NT – 2x in Acts & 2x in 1 Corinthians. This is to cot off. It can also refer to a shearer (of sheep).

but if it is shamefulXXVIII for a woman to have her hair cut off or to be shaved, she should wear a veil.XXIX For a manXXX oughtXXXI not to have his head veiled,

Notes on verse 6b

XXVIII “shameful” = aischros. Related to “shames” in v4. 4x in NT. From the same as aischunomai (see note XXII above). This is shameful, disgraceful, improper, sordid, or filthy.
XXIX “wear a veil” = katakalupto. Same as “veil” in v6. See note XXVI above.
XXX {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXXI “ought” = opheilo. Perhaps from the base of ophelos (advantage, gain, profit); from ophello (heaped together, accumulate, increase). This is to be indebted morally or legally – having an obligation one must meet. This term came from the legal world, but was then adopted in reference to morality. In the New Testament it is used for humanity’s ethical responsibility.

since he isXXXII the imageXXXIII and reflectionXXXIV of God, but woman is the reflection of man. Indeed, man was not made from woman but woman from man. Neither was man createdXXXV for the sake of woman but woman for the sake of man. 

Notes on verses 6c-9

XXXII “is” = huparcho. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
XXXIII “image” = eikon. From eiko (resemble, be like) OR perhaps related to eiko (to submit, give way, be weak, yield). This is a likeness such as an image, statue, or other representation. It implies a prototype that is being mirrored – a replication rather than a shadow. It can be an image in a figurative sense as well. This is where the word “icon” comes from.
XXXIV “reflection” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
XXXV “created” = ktizo. 15x in NT. Probably akin to ktaomai (to get, purchase, possess). This is to build, create, form, shape. It refers to God’s acts of creation.

10 For this reason a woman ought to haveXXXVI authorityXXXVII over her head, because of the angels.XXXVIII 

Notes on verse 10

XXXVI “have” = echo. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XXI above.
XXXVII “authority” = exousia. Related to “is” in v3. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note XII above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
XXXVIII “angels” = aggelos. Probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.

11 Nevertheless,XXXIX in the LordXL woman is not independent ofXLI man or man independent of woman. 12 For just as woman came from man, so man comes through woman, but all thingsXLII come from God. 

Notes on verses 11-12

XXXIX “nevertheless” = plen. From pleion (many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent); from polus (much, many, abundant). This is yet, nevertheless.
XL “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XLI “independent of” = choris. From chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is apart from, separate from.
XLII “all things” = pas. Same as “everything” in v2. See note VI above.

13 JudgeXLIII for yourselves: Is it properXLIV for a woman to pray to God with her head unveiled? 14 Does not natureXLV itself teachXLVI you

Notes on verses 13-14a

XLIII “judge” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
XLIV “proper” = prepo. 7x in NT. This is fitting, suitable, conspicuous, proper.
XLV “nature” = phusis. 14x in NT. From phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow). This is inherent nature, origin, species, growth, descent, natural disposition, condition. It shares a root with the word “physical.”
XLVI “teach” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.

that, ifXLVII a man wears long hair,XLVIII it is dishonoringXLIX to him, 

Notes on verse 14b

XLVII {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XXX above.
XLVIII “wears long hair” = komao. 2x in NT – both in this chapter. From kome (head hair); perhaps from the same as komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is letting one’s hair grow out.
XLIX “dishonoring” = atimia. 7x in NT. From a (not, without) + time (value, price, honor; honor as it is perceived by another or willingly granted by another; mark or respect, price, precious value, esteem, dignity); {from tio (to honor, pay respect to, value)} OR from tino (to pay a penalty or fine). This is dishonor or disgrace, shame, reproach, or common use. It is something that as seen as having no value.

15 but if a woman has long hair, it is her glory?L For her hairLI is givenLII to her for a covering.LIII 

Notes on verse 15

L “glory” = doxa. Same as “reflection” in v7. See note XXXIV above.
LI “hair” = kome. Related to “wears long hair” in v14. 1x in NT. See note XLVIII above.
LII “given” = didomi. Related to “handed…on” and “traditions” in v2. See note IX above.
LIII “covering” = peribolaion. 2x in NT. From periballo (to throw around, clothe, array, put on); {from peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a cloak, veil, or covering. It is a thing that is cast around.

16 But if anyone is disposedLIV to be contentiousLV—we have no such custom,LVI nor do the churchesLVII of God.

Notes on verse 16

LIV “is disposed” = dokeo. Related to “reflection” in v7. See note XXXIV above.
LV “contentious” = philoneikos. 1x in NT. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + neikos (strife, quarrel); {probably akin to nikos (victory, triumph – especially a conquest); from nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful)}. This is contentious or strife-loving.
LVI “custom” = sunetheia. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + ethos (custom habit, rite – also, doing something that the law requires; can be an unwritten custom, acting in accordance with tradition); {from etho (custom, what is customary)}. This is a habit, custom, or practice.
LVII “churches” = ekklesia. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.

17 Now in the following instructionsLVIII I do not commend you, because when you come togetherLIX it is not for the betterLX but for the worse.LXI 

Notes on verse 17

LVIII “instructions” = paraggello. Related to “angels” in v10. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (see note XXXVIII above)}. This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
LIX “come together” = sunerchomai. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
LX “better” = kreisson. 4x in NT. From kreitton (stronger, better, more dominant or nobler; better in the sense that it is mastered or developed); from the same as kratistos (strongest, noblest – high in dignity or honor; used to speak to a high ranking Roman; can also differentiate an equestrian from a senator); from kratus (strong); from kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is better or stronger – holding an advantage.
LXI “worse” = hetton. 2x in NT. From hesson (inferior, less); from eka (a little). This is less, worse, or weaker.

18 For, to begin with,LXII, LXIII when you come together as a church, I hearLXIV that there areLXV divisionsLXVI among you,

Notes on verse 18a

LXII “to begin with” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
LXIII {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XXX above.
LXIV “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LXV “are” = huparcho. Same as “is” in v7. See note XXXII above.
LXVI “divisions” = schisma. 8x in NT. From schizo (to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense). This is a split or a tear. Figuratively, it can refer to a schism, division, or dissension. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).

and to some extentLXVII I believeLXVIII it. 19 Indeed, there haveLXIX to be factionsLXX among you,

Notes on verses 18b-19a

LXVII “to some extent” = meros. From meiromai (to get your allotment or portion). This is a part, a share, or a portion.
LXVIII “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
LXIX “have” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
LXX “factions” = hairesis. 9x in NT. From haireo (to take, choose, or prefer); {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is a choice, contention, heresy, or sect. It is making a person choice so, by implication, choice of a separate party or faction. It is where the word “heresy” comes from.

for only so will it becomeLXXI clearLXXII who among you are genuine.LXXIII 

Notes on verse 19b

LXXI “become” = ginomai. Same as “be” in v1. See note I above.
LXXII “clear” = phaneros. Related to “prophesies” in v4. 18x in NT. From phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (see note XX above); from the same as phaino (see note XX above). This is visible, apparent, clear, shining.
LXXIII “genuine” = dokimos. Related to “reflection” in v7 & “is disposed” in v16. 7x in NT. From dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense) or dokeo (see note XXXIV above). This is what passes the test, approved, acceptable, genuine, verified.

20 When you come together, it is not really to eatLXXIV the Lord’sLXXV supper.LXXVI 21 For when the time comes to eat, eachLXXVII of you proceedsLXXVIII

Notes on verses 20-21a

LXXIV “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
LXXV “Lord’s” = kuriakos. Related to “Lord” in v11. 2x in NT. From kurios (see note XL above). This is related to the Lord as in communion and Sunday.
LXXVI “supper” = deipnon. 16x in NT. From the same as dapane (cost or expense); from dapto (to devour). This is a dinner or a feast – a meal in the afternoon or, more commonly, the evening.
LXXVII “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
LXXVIII “proceeds” = prolambano. 3x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to anticipate, take by surprise, take before others have the chance to, take before.

to eat your ownLXXIX supper, and oneLXXX goes hungryLXXXI and another becomes drunk.LXXXII 

Notes on verse 21b

LXXIX “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
LXXX {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XXX above.
LXXXI “goes hungry” = peinao. From peina (hunger); related to penomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is to hunger, be needy, or desire earnestly. It can be being famished in a definitive sense or in comparison to someone or something else. Figuratively, this means to crave.
LXXXII “becomes drunk” = methuo. 6x in NT. From methu (wine) OR from methe (drunkenness, an intoxicant). This is to drink freely, be drunk.

22 What! Do you not have householdsLXXXIII to eatLXXXIV and drinkLXXXV in? Or do you show contemptLXXXVI for the church of God

Notes on verse 22a

LXXXIII “households” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
LXXXIV “eat” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.
LXXXV “drink” = pino. This is to drink, literally or figuratively.
LXXXVI “show contempt” = kataphroneo. 9x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, according to) + phroneo (to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action); from phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is to disregard despise look down, think little of. It can be active scorn or a generally hostile view. It can be disregarding or ignoring something because it is considered of little importance. This can also be thinking someone unworthy and hating them. Additionally, it can be to think against something.

and humiliateLXXXVII those who have nothing? What should I sayLXXXVIII to you? Should I commend you? In this matter I do not commend you!

23 For I receivedLXXXIX from the Lord what I also handed on to you, that the Lord JesusXC

Notes on verses 22b-23a

LXXXVII “humiliate” = kataischuno. Same as “shames” in v4. See note XXII above.
LXXXVIII “say” = eiron. This is to speak say, answer, command.
LXXXIX “received” = paralambano. Related to “proceeds” in v21. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (see note LXXVIII above). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
XC “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

on the nightXCI when he was betrayedXCII tookXCIII a loaf of bread,XCIV 24 and when he had given thanks,XCV

Notes on verses 23b-24a

XCI “night” = nux. This is night in a literal or figurative sense.
XCII “betrayed” = paradidomi. Same as “handed…on” in v2. See note IX above.
XCIII “took” = lambano. Related to “proceeds” in v21. & “received” in v23. See note LXXVIII above.
XCIV “loaf of bread” = artos. Related to “factions” in v19. Perhaps from airo (see note LXX above). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
XCV “given thanks” = eucharisteo. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards)}. This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.

he brokeXCVI it and said, “This is my bodyXCVII that is for you. DoXCVIII this in remembranceXCIX of me.” 

Notes on verse 24b

XCVI “broke” = klao. 14x in NT. This is to break, to break in pieces as one breaks bread.
XCVII “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
XCVIII “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XCIX “remembrance” = anamnesis. Related to “remember” in v2. 4x in NT. From anamimnesko (to remind, admonish; to follow the path of memory); {from ana (up, again, among, anew) + mimnesko (see note V above)}. This is intentional remembering to re-experience the effect of the event. It is active, motivated as a memorial.

25 In the same way he took the cupC also, after supper,CI saying,CII

Notes on verse 25a

C “cup” = poterion. Related to “drink” in v22. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is a drinking vessel. Figuratively, it can refer to one’s lot, to fate, or to what God has in store for you.
CI “supper” = deipneo. Related to “supper” in v20. 4x in NT. From deipnon (see note LXXVI above). This is to eat the main, evening meal.
CII “saying” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

“This cup is the newCIII covenantCIV in my blood.CV Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me.” 

Notes on verse 25b

CIII “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
CIV “covenant” = diatheke. From diatithemi (to place separately – to make a will or covenant; this is arranging ahead of time how things will be accomplished); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is a will, covenant, contract, or agreement.
CV “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).

26 For as often as you eatCVI this bread and drink the cup, you proclaimCVII the Lord’s deathCVIII until he comes.CIX

Notes on verse 26

CVI “eat” = esthio. Same as “eat” in v22. See note LXXXIV above.
CVII “proclaim” = kataggello. Related to “angels” in v10 & “instructions” in v17. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + aggello (see note LVIII above). This is to proclaim openly and confidently a very specific message. It can also be celebrate, preach, or teach.
CVIII “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CIX “comes” = erchomai. Related to “come together” in v17. See note LIX above.

27 Whoever, therefore, eatsCX the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy mannerCXI will be answerableCXII for the body and blood of the Lord. 

Notes on verse 27

CX “eats” = esthio. Same as “eat” in v22. See note LXXXIV above.
CXI “in an unworthy manner” = anaxios. Related to “angels” in v10 & “instructions” in v17 & “proclaim” in v26. 1x in NT. From anaxios (unworthy, inadequate; failed a test, unfit, falling short; not matching anticipated value); {from a (not, without) + axios (weight, worth, suitable, corresponding, deserving; corresponding value); from ago (see note XXXVIII above)}. This is unworthily or irreverently.
CXII “answerable” = enochos. Related to “maintain” in v2 & {untranslated} in v4. 10x in NT. From enecho (to hold in, ensnare, be angry at); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + echo (see note VII above)}. This is bound by, liable to, deserving, guilty, subject, in danger of.

28 CXIIIExamineCXIV yourselves, and only then eatCXV of the bread and drink of the cup. 

Notes on verse 28

CXIII {untranslated} = anthropos. Related to “man” in v3. Probably from aner (see note XV above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CXIV “examine” = dokimazo. Related to “reflection” in v7 & “is disposed” in v16 & “genuine” in v19. From dokimos (see note LXXIII above). This is to test, examine, prove. It is to approve after subjecting to a test to determine if it is real or acceptable. It is to test in a literal or figurative sense.
CXV “eat” = esthio. Same as “eat” in v22. See note LXXXIV above.

29 For all who eatCXVI and drink without discerningCXVII the body eatCXVIII and drink judgmentCXIX against themselves. 

Notes on verse 29

CXVI “eat” = esthio. Same as “eat” in v22. See note LXXXIV above.
CXVII “discerning” = diakrino. Related to “judge” in v13 & “judgment” in v29. 19x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + krino (see note XLIII above). This is to judge, separate, contend, investigate, thoroughly judge.
CXVIII “eat” = esthio. Same as “eat” in v22. See note LXXXIV above.
CXIX “judgment” = krima. Related to “judge” in v13. From krino (see note XLIII above). This is judgment, sentence, verdict. Sometimes, this can have a negative sense – condemnation. It is the decision and the full force of its effect negative and positive.

30 For this reason manyCXX of you are weakCXXI and ill,CXXII

Notes on verse 30a

CXX “many” = polus. Related to “nevertheless” in v11. See note XXXIX above.
CXXI “weak” = asthenes. From a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}. This is without strength so weak, sick, helpless, frail, feeble. It can also be unimpressive or impotent. It can be used for physical or moral weakness.
CXXII “ill” = arrostos. 5x in NT. From a (not, without) + rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly) probably akin to rhoumai (to pull to oneself, rescue from danger, snatch up, set free); akin to eruo (to drag) or rheo (to flow, to flow like water, overflow)}. This is literally not strong so it refers to a chronic illness that persists. It is infirmity, feeble, or sick person.

and someCXXIII have died.CXXIV 31 But if we judgedCXXV ourselves, we would not be judged.CXXVI 

Notes on verses 30b-31

CXXIII “some” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
CXXIV “died” = koimao. 18x in NT. From keimai (to lie, recline, set, be appointed, be destined). This is to sleep or put to sleep. Figuratively, it can mean to die. In the New Testament, it is used 15x for death and 3x for sleep.
CXXV “judged” = diakrino. Same as “discerning” in v29. See note CXVII above.
CXXVI “judged” = krino. Same as “judge” in v13. See note XLIII above.

32 But when we are judgedCXXVII by the Lord, we are disciplinedCXXVIII so that we may not be condemnedCXXIX along with the world.CXXX

Notes on verse 32

CXXVII “judged” = krino. Same as “judge” in v13. See note XLIII above.
CXXVIII “are disciplined” = paideuo. 13x in NT. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). Properly, this is training or teaching children so it is educate, correct, discipline, and punish. This is the root of “pedagogy.”
CXXIX “be condemned” = katakrino. Related to “judge” in v13 & “judgment” and “discerning” in v29. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (see note XLIII above). This is judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn. This is a decisive judgment of guilt. It can also be to damn someone.
CXXX “world” = kosmos. Related to “wears long hair” in v14 & “hair” in v15. Perhaps from the base of komizo (see note XLVIII above). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

33 So then, my brothersCXXXI and sisters, when you come together to eat,CXXXII wait forCXXXIII one another. 34 If you are hungry,CXXXIV eatCXXXV at home,CXXXVI so that when you come together,

Notes on verses 33-34a

CXXXI “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
CXXXII “eat” = phago. Same as “eat” in v20. See note LXXIV above.
CXXXIII “wait for” = ekdechomai. 7x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to take or receive, expect, await; to welcome someone from your heart; focusing on the goal of waiting or the outcome.
CXXXIV “are hungry” = peinao. Same as “goes hungry” in v21. See note LXXXI above.
CXXXV “eat” = esthio. Same as “eat” in v22. See note LXXXIV above.
CXXXVI “home” = oikos. Related to “households” in v22.See note LXXXIII above.

it will not be for your condemnation.CXXXVII About the other thingsCXXXVIII I will give instructionsCXXXIX when I come.

Notes on verse 34b

CXXXVII “condemnation” = krima. Same as “judgment” in v29. See note CXIX above.
CXXXVIII “other things” = loipos. From leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.
CXXXIX “give instructions” = diatasso. 16x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to arrange thoroughly, charge, appoint, give orders to. It is a command that is a proper order, given with the chain of command and so binding. This is from ancient military language.

Image credit: “Princess Nesmeyana or Zabava Putyatishna icon.” Photo by EgorovaSvetlana, 2023.

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