1 Corinthians 16

1 Corinthians 16


Now concerning the collectionI for the saints:II you should followIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “collection” = logeia. 2x in NT. From logeuo (to collect) OR from logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is a collection or contribution. It can also mean gathering.
II “saints” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
III “follow” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.

the directions I gaveIV to the churchesV of Galatia.VI 

Notes on verse 1b

IV “directions…gave” = diatasso. 16x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to arrange thoroughly, charge, appoint, give orders to. It is a command that is a proper order, given with the chain of command and so binding. This is from ancient military language.
V “churches” = ekklesia. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.
VI “Galatia” = Galatia. 4x in NT. From gal (to be able; taken from the Gallic tribes who intermingled with Greeks by marriage). This is Galatia.

On the firstVII day of every week,VIII eachIX of you is to putX aside

Notes on verse 2a

VII “first” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
VIII “week” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
IX “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
X “put” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.

and saveXI whatever extra you earn,XII so that collections need not be takenXIII when I come.XIV 

Notes on verse 2b

XI “save” = thesaurizo. Related to “put” in v2. 8x in NT. From thesauros (treasure, storehouse, deposit; wealth in a literal or figurative sense); from the same as tithemi (see note X above). This is to store up or treasure up – to amass in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “thesaurus” comes from.
XII “extra…earn” = euodoo. 4x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + hodos (way, road, path, journey). This is to prosper or succeed – to go on a successful journey. Figuratively, it can also mean to be on the right path of success or good fortune or to help along the way.
XIII “be taken” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XIV “come” = erchomai. This is to come or go.

And when I arrive,XV I will sendXVI any whom you approveXVII

Notes on verse 3a

XV “arrive” = paraginomai. Related to “be taken” in v2. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note XIII above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
XVI “send” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
XVII “approve” = dokimazo. From dokimos (what passes the test, approved, acceptable, genuine, verified); from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense) or dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion)}. This is to test, examine, prove. It is to approve after subjecting to a test to determine if it is real or acceptable. It is to test in a literal or figurative sense.

with lettersXVIII to takeXIX your giftXX to Jerusalem.XXI 

Notes on verse 3b

XVIII “letters” = epistole. From epistello (to write, communicate through letter); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}}. This is an epistle, letter, or other written message. This is where the word “epistle” comes from.
XIX “take” = apophero. 6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry off or away. It can mean carry off violently.
XX “gift” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
XXI “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

If it seemsXXII advisableXXIII that I should goXXIV also, they will accompanyXXV me.

Notes on verse 4

XXII “seems” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XXIII “advisable” = axios. From ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go). This is related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward.
XXIV “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XXV “accompany” = poreuomai. Same as “go” in v4. See note XXIV above.

I will visitXXVI you after passing through MacedoniaXXVII—for I intend to pass throughXXVIII Macedonia— 

Notes on verse 5

XXVI “visit” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v2. See note XIV above.
XXVII “Macedonia” = Makedonia. From makedonia (Macedonia, highland); from makednos (high or tall). This is Macedonia in Greece. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Macedonia
XXVIII “pass through” = dierchomai. Related to “come” in v2. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note XIV above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.

and perhapsXXIX I will stayXXX with you or even spend the winter,XXXI so that you may send me on my way,XXXII wherever I go. 

Notes on verse 6

XXIX “perhaps” = tugchano. 12x in NT. Root means to become ready. This word is to hit, meet, happen, obtain, chance, perhaps. Properly, it means to hit the mark or be spot on. Thus, it is the opposite of the Greek word for sin hamartano, which literally means to miss the mark.
XXX “stay” = parameno. 4x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure; to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition; to continue with hope and expectation). This is to remain beside or near, abide with, or continue. Figuratively, it’s persevere in. It could also be maintaining an ongoing close relationship or partnership.
XXXI “spend the winter” = paracheimazo. 4x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + cheimazo (to be in winter cold or driven by a storm); {from cheima (winter cold); from the same as cheimon (winter, storm – winter as the rainy season); related to the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn)}. This is to spend the winter near.
XXXII “send…on my way” = propempo. Related to “send” in v3. 9x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + pempo (see note XVI above). This is to send forth, accompany, escort. It is to prepare for a journey.

I do not wantXXXIII to seeXXXIV you nowXXXV just in passing,XXXVI

Notes on verse 7a

XXXIII “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
XXXIV “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XXXV “now” = arti. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is now, the present, from now.
XXXVI “passing” = parodos. Related to “extra…earn” in v2. 1x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + hodos (see note XII). This is passing or passage. It could be a route or way.

for I hopeXXXVII to spendXXXVIII some timeXXXIX with you,

Notes on verse 7b

XXXVII “hope” = elpizo. From elpis (expectation, hope, trust, confidence, faith; expectation whether abstract or concrete); from elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively); from elpomai (to anticipate, expect). This is to expect, trust, hope for, or to wait in an active way.
XXXVIII “spend” = epimeno. Related to “stay” in v6. 17x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + meno (see note XXX above). This is to remain, terry, continue, or persevere. It denotes persistence in pursing a goal or task.
XXXIX “time” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.

if the LordXL permits.XLI But I will stayXLII in EphesusXLIII until Pentecost,XLIV 

Notes on verses 7c-8

XL “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XLI “permits” = epitrepo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + the same as trope (turning, change, shifting); {from trepo (to turn)}. This is to allow, permit, yield, entrust, give license.
XLII “stay” = epimeno. Same as “spend” in v7. See note XXXVIII above.
XLIII “Ephesus” = Ephesos. 16x in NT. Perhaps from Luwian Apa-ša (“later-city”) OR from Hittite Apasa (capital of Arzawa – an allied group in western Anatolia); {from appa (behind, back, after)}. This is Ephesus, meaning the “later place,” which would perhaps have the sense of a city named Newtown or Lands End. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E1%BnC%9C%CF%86%CE%B5%CF%83%CE%BF%CF%82#Ancient_Greek & https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Ephesus.html#.XsrG5WhKhPY
XLIV “Pentecost” = Pentekoste. 3x in NT. From pentekonta (fifty); {from pente (five) + deka (ten or -teen)}. This is fiftieth, used specially for Pentecost, the fiftieth day after Passover.

for a wideXLV doorXLVI for effective workXLVII has openedXLVIII to me, and there are manyXLIX adversaries.L

Notes on verse 9

XLV “wide” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
XLVI “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
XLVII “effective work” = energes. 3x in NT. From en (in, at, by, with, among) + ergon (word, task, action, employment); {from ergo (to work, accomplish) or from erdo (to do)}}. This is active, effective, operative, energized, powerful.
XLVIII “opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in literal or figurative sense.
XLIX “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
L “adversaries” = antikeimai. 8x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + keimai (to lie, recline, set, be appointed, be destined). This is to resist, oppose, or withstand. It can also be opposition, adversary, or enemy. This is to lie opposite or place against – being in irreconcilable opposition. Figuratively, it can be repugnant.

10 If TimothyLI comes, seeLII that he hasLIII nothing to fearLIV among you,

Notes on verse 10a

LI “Timothy” = Timoutheou. From time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; can be esteem or dignity; precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)} + Theos (God or a god). This is Timothy, literally “dear to God.”
LII “see” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
LIII “has” = ginomai. Same as “be taken” in v2. See note XIII above.
LIV “nothing to fear” = aphobos. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); {from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight)}. This is without fear or cause – also shamelessly, securely, fearlessly.

for he is doingLV the workLVI of the Lord just as I am; 11 therefore let no one despiseLVII him.

Notes on verses 10b-11a

LV “doing” = ergazomai. Related to “effective work” in v9 & “work” in v10. From ergon (see note XLVII above). This is to work, labor, perform, toil.
LVI “work” = ergon. Related to “effective work” in v9. See note XLVII above.
LVII “despise” = exoutheneo. Related to “first” in v2. 11x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + oudeis (no one, none, nothing; ruling out absolutely); {from oude (and not, neither, not even) {from ou (not, no) + de (but, and, now, indeed)} + heis (see note VII above)}. Properly, this is casting someone or something out as nothing, consider someone or something nothing – of no account. This would be to treat someone with utter contempt or to ignore them.

Send him on his wayLVIII in peace,LIX so that he may come to me, for I am expectingLX him with the brothersLXI and sisters.

Notes on verse 11b

LVIII “send…on his way” = propempo. Same as “send…on my way” in v6. See note XXXII above.
LIX “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
LX “expecting” = ekdechomai. 7x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to take or receive, expect, await; to welcome someone from your heart; focusing on the goal of waiting or the outcome.
LXI “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

12 Now concerning our brother Apollos,LXII I stronglyLXIII urgedLXIV him to visit you with the other brothers and sisters,

Notes on verse 12a

LXII “Apollos” = Apollos. 10x in NT. Probably from Apollonios (belonging to Apollo); from the same as apollonia (Apollonia, a Macedonian city); from Apollon (the Greek god Apollo, who was god of “light, music, medicine, poetry, prophecy, dance, manly beauty”); possibly from Pre-Greek (to drive away) OR from Greek apollumi (to destroy) OR apolouon (washing) OR apoluon (delivering) OR haploun (simple) OR aeiballon (always shooting) OR a (not) + polus (parts). This is Apollos. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Apollo
LXIII “strongly” = polus. Same as “many” in v9. See note XLIX above.
LXIV “urged” = parakaleo. Related to “churches” in v1. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note V above). This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.

but he wasLXV not at allLXVI willingLXVII to come now. He will come when he has the opportunity.LXVIII

Notes on verse 12b

LXV “was” = eimi. Same as “seems” in v4. See note XXII above.
LXVI “at all” = pantos. 9x in NT. From pas (all, every, every kind of). This is entirely, all, altogether, undoubtedly.
LXVII “willing” = thelema. Related to “want” in v7. From thelo (see note XXXII above). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
LXVIII “has the opportunity” = eukaireo. Related to “extra…earn” in v2. 3x in NT. From eukairos (timely, suitable, strategic, well-timed, opportune, festival); {from eu (see note XII above) + kairos (season, opportunity, occasion; spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time)}. This is to have a good opportunity, to spend free time at something, to have a good time.

13 Keep alert;LXIX stand firmLXX in the faith;LXXI

Notes on verse 13a

LXIX “keep alert” = gregoreo. From egeiro (to awake, raise up or lift up; to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death; figuratively, rising from inactivity or from ruins). This is to be or stay awake, watch. Figuratively, it can be alertness or vigilance.
LXX “stand firm” = steko. Related to “letters” in v3. 11x in NT. From histemi (see note XVIII above). This is to stand fast or be stationary. Figuratively, it can mean to persevere.
LXXI “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

be courageous;LXXII be strong.LXXIII 14 Let allLXXIV that you do be doneLXXV in love.LXXVI

Notes on verses 13b-14

LXXII “be courageous” = andrizo. 1x in NT. From aner (man, male, sir, husband). This is to act like a man or play a man – as mature, grown up. Figuratively, to be brave or responsible.
LXXIII “be strong” = krataioo. 4x in NT. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is to strengthen, confirm, empower, or prevail.
LXXIV “all” = pas. Related to “at all” in v12. See note LXVI above.
LXXV “be done” = ginomai. Same as “be taken” in v2. See note XIII above.
LXXVI “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.

15 LXXVIINow, brothers and sisters, you knowLXXVIII that members of the householdLXXIX of StephanasLXXX

Notes on verse 15a

LXXVII {untranslated} = parakaleo. Same as “urged” in v12. See note LXIV above.
LXXVIII “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
LXXIX “members of the household” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
LXXX “Stephanas” = Stephanas. 3x in NT. Perhaps from stephanos (something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland; properly, the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win; symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek); stepho (to twine, encircle). This is Stephanas, meaning crowned.

were the first fruitsLXXXI in Achaia,LXXXII and they have devotedLXXXIII themselves to the serviceLXXXIV of the saints; 

Notes on verse 15b

LXXXI “first fruits” = aparche. 8x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + arche (origin, beginning, rule; can refer to the power of a magistrate or a king; it is the first thing as being the starting point or the most important); {from archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power)}. This is first fruit or gift. It is the beginning of sacrifice – so the first crops of the season. It is also used figuratively of early converts in a specific location.
LXXXII “Achaia” = Achaia. 10x in NT. Perhaps from achos (pain, distress, or grief). This is Achaia, perhaps meaning pain or trouble. Achaia was also a name used to refer to Demeter. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Achaia.html#.XsylTGhKhPY
LXXXIII “devoted” = tasso. Related to “directions…gave” in v1. 9x in NT. See note IV above.
LXXXIV “service” = diakonia. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is service, ministry, attending someone, service. It can mean serving someone at a table or otherwise as their servant/slave. It is also used for people who serve/minister in temples, as well as the work of Christian ministry. Figuratively, this word can mean money given for charity. This shares a root with “deacon” and is where the word “diaconate” comes from.

16 I urge you to put yourselves at the serviceLXXXV of such people and of everyoneLXXXVI who works and toilsLXXXVII withLXXXVIII them. 

Notes on verse 16

LXXXV “put…at the service” = hupotasso. Related to “directions…gave” in v1 & “devoted” in v15. From hupo (by, under, about, under one’s authority) + tasso (see note IV above). This is to place under. So it is to subject, submit, obey, or subordinate.
LXXXVI “everyone” = pas. Same as “all” in v14. See note LXXIV above.
LXXXVII “toils” = kopiao. From kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is working with effort, whether of the body or mind, growing weary, feeling tired, working hard.
LXXXVIII “works…with” = sunergeo. Related to “effective work” in v9 & “work” and “doing” in v10. 5x in NT. From sunergos (co-worker, associate, helper, co-laborer or one’s companion during labor); {from sun (with, together with) + ergon (see note XLVII above)}. This is to work together, help in labor, be a co-worker, to cooperate. This root is where “synergy” comes from.

17 I rejoiceLXXXIX at the comingXC of Stephanas and FortunatusXCI

Notes on verse 17a

LXXXIX “rejoice” = chairo. Related to “gift” in v3. See note XX above.
XC “coming” = parousia. Related to “seems” in v4. From pareimi (to be present, have come) {from para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + eimi (see note XXII above)}. This is presence, coming, arrival, advent. Properly, it was the term for an official visit of a king or someone else with formal authority. It is used specifically in the New Testament to refer to Jesus’s second coming.
XCI “Fortunatus” = Phortounatos. 1x in NT. From Latin fortuno (to bless, make prosperous, make happy); from fortuna (fortune, luck, prosperity); from fors (chance, luck); {from Proto-Indo-European *bʰértis (“the act of carrying”)}} + -o (makes a noun or adjective into a verb)}. This is Fortunatus, meaning prosperous, blessed, or lucky. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/fortunatus

and Achaicus,XCII because they have made up forXCIII your absence,XCIV 

Notes on verse 17b

XCII “Achaicus” = Achaikos. Related to “Achaia” in v15. 1x in NT. From Achaia (see note LXXXII above). This is Achaicus, meaning someone from Achaia.
XCIII “made up for” = anapleroo. 6x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + pleroo (to fill, make full or complete; properly, filling something up to the maximum extent or induvial capacity; used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill); {from pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with)}. This is to fill up, supply, occupy, fulfil. It is adding what is missing so that something can be full.
XCIV “absence” = husterema. 9x in NT. From hustereo (to fall behind, come late, be interior, suffer need, be left out); from husteros (last, later). This is something lacking. So it could be a need or a defect. It could be a shortcoming or poverty.

18 for they refreshedXCV my spiritXCVI as well as yours. So give recognitionXCVII to such persons.

Notes on verse 18

XCV “refreshed” = anapauo. 12x in NT. – including Matthew 11:28 “come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest.” From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + pauo (to stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, come to an end). This is a break from work, which implies being refreshed. It denotes that rest that one gets once a necessary task is finished.
XCVI “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
XCVII “give recognition” = epiginosko. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.

19 The churches of AsiaXCVIII send greetings.XCIX AquilaC and Prisca,CI

Notes on verse 19a

XCVIII “Asia” = Asia. 18x in NT. Perhaps from Hittite assuwa (22 allied ancient states in Anatolia) OR Aegean asis (muddy, silty) OR Semitic root asu (rising or light; Asia as land to the east). This is Asia, the Roman province, which consisted of western Asia Minor. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_continent_name_etymologies
XCIX “send greetings” = aspazomai. Perhaps from a (with, together with) + a form of spao (to draw, draw out, pull). This is to welcome, salute, or greet. It can also be to embrace or acclaim.
C “Aquila” = Akulas. 6x in NT. From Latin Aquila (Aquila); from aquila (eagle); perhaps related to aquilus (“blackish, the color of darkness”); perhaps from aqua (water). This is Aquila, meaning eagle. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aquila
CI “Prisca” = Priska. 3x in NT. From Latin priscus (Priscus, a male name); from Latin priscus (ancient, former); from prae (first, earlier). This is Prisca, meaning “of earlier times.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Prisca.html#.XsyzQmhKhPY & https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Prisca

together with the church in their house,CII greetCIII you warmlyCIV in the Lord. 20 All the brothers and sisters send greetings. Greet one another with a holyCV kiss.CVI

Notes on verses 19b-20

CII “house” = oikos. Related to “members of the household” in v15. See note LXXIX above.
CIII “greet” = aspazomai. Same as “send greetings” in v19. See note XCIX above.
CIV “warmly” = polus. Same as “many” in v9. See note XLIX above.
CV “holy” = hagios. Same as “saints” in v1. See note II above.
CVI “kiss” = philema. 7x in NT. From phileo (friendship love and fondness with personal attachment; kiss as a sign of love deriving from this personal affection -cherishing); {from philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person)}. This is a kiss of friendship or other deep bond.

21 I, Paul,CVII write this greetingCVIII with my own hand.CIX 22 Let anyone be accursedCX who has no loveCXI for the Lord.

Notes on verses 21-22a

CVII “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
CVIII “greeting” = aspasmos. Related to “send greetings” in v19. 10x in NT. From aspazomai (see note XCIX above). This is a greeting whether face to face or in a letter.
CIX “hand” = cheir. Perhaps from cheimon (winter, storm – winter as the rainy season); related to the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn). This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CX “accursed” = anathema. Related to “put” and “save” in v2. 6x in NT. From anatithemi (to set up or fort, communicate, submit, declare); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + tithemi (see note X above)}. This is solemn, anathema, or accursed. From its root, it is a thing that is laid up, such as a votive offering or something one pledges to God. So, it can be a divine curse or a divine ban, something or someone that is cast out.
CXI “has…love” = phileo. Related to “kiss” in v20. See note CVI above.

Our Lord, comeCXII 23 The graceCXIII of the Lord JesusCXIV be with you. 

Notes on verses 22b-23

CXII “Lord, come” = marana tha. 1x in NT. From Aramaic maran atha (“Our Lord has come”; emphasizes lingering results); {from maran (title of honor for rabbis in the Talmud, meaning our master) + atha (come)}. This is “our Lord, come” or sometimes transliterated from Aramaic as maranatha. It relates to coming divine judgment – at hand. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maranatha
CXIII “grace” = charis. Same as “gift” in v3. See note XX above.
CXIV “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

24 My loveCXV be with all of you in ChristCXVI Jesus.CXVII

Notes on verse 24

CXV “love” = agape. Same as “love” in v14. See note LXXVI above.
CXVI “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CXVII {untranslated} = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.

Image credit: “Cherry Blossom (Watercolor and paper mâché)” by Hailey E. Herrera, 2011.

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