1 Kings 2:10-24

1 Kings 2:10-24
A Women’s Lectionary – Proper 26


10 Then DavidA sleptB with his ancestorsC and was buriedD in the cityE of David. 

Notes on verse 10

A “David” = David. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
B “slept” = shakab. This is to lie down, lodge. It is lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons.
C “ancestors” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
D “buried” = qabar. This is to bury or inter. It could also refer to the person who does the burying.
E “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.

11 The timeF that David reignedG over IsraelH was fortyI years;J

Notes on verse 11a

F “time” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
G “reigned” = malak. To be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned. By implication, to take counsel. This word may be from the Hebrew word for king “melek” or vice versa.
H “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
I “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
J “years” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.

he reigned sevenK years in HebronL and thirtyM-threeN years in Jerusalem.O 

Notes on verse 11b

K “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
L “Hebron” = Chebron. From cheber (company, society, enchantment, wide); from chabar (to unite, ally, attach, touch; to join in a literal or figurative sense; also, specially, using magic knots or spells to fascinate or connect). This is Hebron, meaning “seat of association” or “league.”
M “thirty” = sheloshim. From the same as shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is thirty or thirtieth.
N “three” = shalosh. Related to “thirty” in v11. See note M above.
O “Jerusalem” = Yerushalaim. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

12 So SolomonP satQ on the throneR of his fatherS David,

Notes on verse 12a

P “Solomon” = Shelomoh. Related to “Jerusalem” in v11. From shalam (see note O above). This is Solomon or Shelomoh, meaning “peaceful.” It is the same word as the Hebrew word for peace – shalom.
Q “sat” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
R “throne” = kisse. From the same as kese (full moon); perhaps from kasah (to cover, conceal, overwhelm; to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret). This is throne – a seat that is covered or has a canopy. Thus, it is a seat that conveys authority.
S “father” = ab. Same as “ancestors” in v10. See note C above.

and his kingdomT was firmlyU established.V

Notes on verse 12b

T “kingdom” = melek. Related to “reigned” in v11. From malak (see note G above). This is king or royal.
U “firmly” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
V “established” = kun. Properly, this means in a perpendicular position. So, it is set up in a literal sense – establish, fix, fasten, prepare. In a figurative sense, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous.

13 Then AdonijahW sonX of HaggithY cameZ

Notes on verse 13a

W “Adonijah” = Adoniyyahu. From adon (lord, master, owner) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}. This is Adonijah or Adoniyyahu, meaning “my Lord is the Lord” or “worshipper of the Lord.”
X “son” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
Y “Haggith” = Chaggith. 5x in OT. From Chaggi (Haggi or Chaggi, meaning “festal” “exultation,” or “festive”); from chag (a feast, a sacrifice as part of a festival, or the gathering of the festival); from chagag (feast, celebrating a festival, making a pilgrimage; properly, going in a circle or marching in sacred procession; implies giddiness and dancing; reeling to and fro). This is Haggith or Chaggith, meaning “festal” or “festive.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Haggi.html
Z “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.

to Bathsheba,AA Solomon’s mother.BB

She asked, “Do you come peaceably?”CC

He said, “Peaceably.” 

14 Then he said, “May I have a wordDD with you?”

She said, “Go on.”EE 

Notes on verses 13b-14

AA “Bathsheba” = Bath-sheba. Related to “son” in v13 & “seven” in v11. 11x in OT. From bath (daughter in a literal or figurative sense; can also be branch) {from ben (see note X above)} + perhaps shaba (to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant; properly, to be complete; this is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times) {perhaps from sheba (see note K above)}. This is Bathsheba, perhaps meaning “daughter of oath.”
BB “mother” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
CC “peaceably” = shalom. Related to “Jerusalem” in v11 & “Solomon” in v12. From shalam (see note O above). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).
DD “word” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
EE “go on” = dabar. Related to “word” in v14. See note DD above.

15 He said, “You know that the kingdomFF wasGG mine and that all Israel expected meHH to reign;

Notes on verse 15a

FF “kingdom” = melukah. Related to “reigned” in v11 & “kingdom” in v12. From the same as melek (see note T above). This is kingship, kingdom, reign. It can also mean royalty.
GG “was” = hayah. Related to “Adonijah” in v13. See note W above.
HH “all Israel expected me” = al + sim + kol + Yisrael + paneh. Literally, “all Israel had set their faces on me.” Sim is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things. Kol is from kalal (to complete). This is all or every. Yisrael is the same as “Israel” in v11. See note H above. Paneh is. from panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

however, the kingdomII has turned aboutJJ and becomeKK my brother’s,LL for it was his from the Lord.MM 

Notes on verse 15b

II “kingdom” = melukah. Same as “kingdom” in v15. See note FF above.
JJ “turned about” = sabab. This is turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch. It is to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense.
KK “become” = hayah. Same as “was” in v15. See note GG above.
LL “brother’s” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
MM “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Adonijah” in v13 & “was” in v15. See note W above.

16 And now I have oneNN requestOO to makePP of you; do not refuseQQ me.”RR

She said to him, “Go on.” 

Notes on verse 16

NN “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
OO “request” = sheelah. 14x in OT. From shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is something that is requested like a petition, request, or loan. Used frequently in the book of Esther.
PP “make” = shaal. Related to “request” in v16. See note OO above.
QQ “refuse” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
RR “me” = paneh. Same as “all Israel expected me” in v15. See note HH above.

17 He said, “PleaseSS ask KingTT Solomon—he will not refuse youUU—to giveVV me

Notes on verse 17a

SS “please” = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
TT “King” = melek. Same as “kingdom” in v12. See note T above.
UU “you” = paneh. Same as “all Israel expected me” in v15. See note HH above.
VV “give” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.

AbishagWW the ShunammiteXX as my wife.”YY 

18 Bathsheba said, “Very well;ZZ I will speakAAA to the king on your behalf.”

Notes on verses 17b-18

WW “Abishag” = Abishag. Related to “ancestors” in v10. 5x in OT. From ab (see note C above) + shagah (to go astray, wander, mislead, sin; to reel as if drunk; figuratively being enraptured). This is Abishag, meaning “my father is a wanderer” or “father of error.”
XX “Shunammite” = Shunammit. 8x in OT. From Shunem (Shunem, a city meaning “uneven” or “two resting places” or “quietly”); probably from the same as Shuni (Shuni, a name; root may mean to rest or to quiet); from sha’an (be quiet, relaxed, not disturbed) or from shanan (to sharpen by breaking apart as when one sharpens a blade; to point or pierce; fig. increasing mental astuteness, teach) or from shana (to change, repeat). This is a female resident of Shunam. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Shunem.html
YY “wife” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.
ZZ “very well” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
AAA “speak” = dabar. Same as “go on” in v14. See note EE above.

19 So Bathsheba wentBBB to King Solomon, to speak to him on behalf of Adonijah.

The king roseCCC to meetDDD her and bowed downEEE to her; then he sat on his throne and had a throne broughtFFF for the king’s mother, and she sat on his right.GGG 

Notes on verse 19

BBB “went” = bo. Same as “came” in v13. See note Z above.
CCC “rose” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
DDD “meet” = qirah. From the same as qara (to happen, meet, bring about). This is any kind of encounter, whether peaceful, hostile, or incidental. It can also mean help or seek.
EEE “bowed down” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.
FFF “brought” = sim. Same as “all Israel expected me” in v15. See note HH above.
GGG “right” = yamin. May be from yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm). This can mean right hand, right side, or south. Since most people are right-handed, the metaphorical usage of this word presumes that the right hand is stronger and more agile. Thus, it is the instrument of power and action.

20 Then she said, “I have one smallHHH request to make of you; do not refuse me.”III

And the king said to her, “Make your request, my mother, for I will not refuse you.”JJJ 

21 She said, “Let Abishag the Shunammite be given to your brother Adonijah as his wife.” 

22 King Solomon answeredKKK his mother, “And why do you askLLL Abishag the Shunammite for Adonijah? Ask for him the kingdomMMM as well!

Notes on verses 20-22a

HHH “small” = qatan. From quwt (grieved, cut off, to detest). This is least, small, young, little one. It is literally smaller whether in amount or size. Figuratively it is smaller in the sense of younger or less important.
III “me” = paneh. Same as “all Israel expected me” in v15. See note HH above.
JJJ “you” = paneh. Same as “all Israel expected me” in v15. See note HH above.
KKK “answered” = anah. This is answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify. It means to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk. Used in a specific sense for singing, shouting, testifying, etc.
LLL “ask” = shaal. Same as “make” in v16. See note PP above.
MMM “kingdom” = melukah. Same as “kingdom” in v15. See note FF above.

For he is my elderNNN brother, and the priestOOO AbiatharPPP and JoabQQQ son of ZeruiahRRR are on his side!” 

Notes on verse 22b

NNN “elder” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
OOO “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
PPP “Abiathar” = Ebyathar. Related to “ancestors” in v10 & “Abishag” in v17. From ab (see note C above) + yathar (to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel). This is Abiathar or Ebyathar, meaning “the great one is father” or “father of abundance” or “father of a remnant” or “father of preeminence” or “father of plenty.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Abiathar.html
QQQ “Joab” = Yoab. Related to “Adonijah” in v13 & “was” and “Lord” in v15 & “ancestors” in v10 & “Abishag” in v17 & “Abiathar” in v22 From YHVH (see note W above) + ab (see note C above). This is Joab or Yoab, meaning “the Lord is father.”
RRR “Zeruiah” = Tseruyah. Related to “Adonijah” in v13 & “was” and “Lord” in v15 & “Joab” in v22. From the same as tsori (this is the balm in Gilead in Jeremiah 8:22; root might be to crack as under pressure, to leak; gum from the balsam tree – perhaps commiphora gileadensis) + Yah (see note W above) OR from tsuwr (rock, stone, cliff, boulder, rocky; a refuge, a way to refer to God); {from tsur (to confine, cramp, or bind in a literal or figurative sense; to besiege, assault, or distress)} + Yah (see note W above). This is Zeruiah, meaning “wounded” or “balsam of the Lord” or “his rock is the Lord.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Zeruiah.html &  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balsam & https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balm_of_Gilead.

23 Then King Solomon sworeSSS by the Lord, “So may GodTTT doUUU to me, and moreVVV also, for Adonijah has devisedWWW this schemeXXX at the risk of his life!YYY 

Notes on verse 23

SSS “swore” = shaba. Related to “seven” in v11 & “Bathsheba” in v13. See note AA above.
TTT “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v11. See note H above.
UUU “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
VVV “more” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
WWW “devised” = dabar. Same as “go on” in v14. See note EE above.
XXX “scheme” = dabar. Same as “word” in v14. See note DD above.
YYY “life” = nephesh.  Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.

24 Now therefore as the Lord lives,ZZZ who has established me and placedAAAA me on the throne of my father David and who has madeBBBB me a houseCCCC as he promised,DDDD todayEEEE Adonijah shall be put to death.”FFFF

Notes on verse 24

ZZZ “lives” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
AAAA “placed” = yashab. Same as “sat” in v12. See note Q above.
BBBB “made” = asah. Same as “do” in v23. See note UUU above.
CCCC “house” = bayit. Related to “son” and “Bathsheba” in v13. Probably from banah (see note X above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
DDDD “promised” = dabar. Same as “go on” in v14. See note EE above.
EEEE “today” = yom. Same as “time” in v11. See note F above.
FFFF “put to death” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

Image credit: “A Traditional Dancer in China Bows before her Audience” by Steve Evans, 2009.

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