Acts 19

Acts 19


IWhile ApollosII wasIII in Corinth,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
II “Apollos” = Apollos. 10x in NT. Probably from Apollonios (belonging to Apollo); from the same as apollonia (Apollonia, a Macedonian city); from Apollon (the Greek god Apollo, who was god of “light, music, medicine, poetry, prophecy, dance, manly beauty”); possibly from Pre-Greek (to drive away) OR from Greek apollumi (to destroy) OR apolouon (washing) OR apoluon (delivering) OR haploun (simple) OR aeiballon (always shooting) OR a (not) + polus (parts). This is Apollos. See
III “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
IV “Corinth” = Korinthos. 6x in NT. From “Pre-Greek Pelasgian kar (point, peak); perhaps named after Corinthos, a descendant of the god Zeus.” This is Corinth. See &

PaulV passed throughVI the interiorVII regionsVIII

Notes on verse 1b

V “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
VI “passed through” = dierchomai. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
VII “interior” = anoterikos. 1x in NT. From anoteros (higher, above, to the top; place of greater honor; earlier in a book); from ano (up, above, up to the top, things above, heaven); from ana (up, upwards, again, back, among, anew). This is upper, inland, higher up.
VIII “regions” = meros. From meiromai (to get your allotment or portion). This is a part, a share, or a portion.

and cameIX to Ephesus,X where he foundXI someXII disciples.XIII 

Notes on verse 1c

IX “came” = erchomai. Related to “passed through” in v1. See note VI above.
X “Ephesus” = Ephesos. 16x in NT. Perhaps from Luwian Apa-ša (“later-city”) OR from Hittite Apasa (capital of Arzawa – an allied group in western Anatolia); {from appa (behind, back, after)}. This is Ephesus, meaning the “later place,” which would perhaps have the sense of a city named Newtown or Lands End. See &
XI “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
XII “some” = tis. This is someone or something – in particular.
XIII “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

He said to them, “Did you receiveXIV the HolyXV SpiritXVI when you became believers?”XVII

Notes on verse 2a

XIV “receive” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XV “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XVI “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
XVII “became believers” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

They replied, “No, we have not even heardXVIII that there is a Holy Spirit.” 

Then he said, “Into what, then, were you baptized?”XIX

They answered, “Into John’sXX baptism.”XXI 

Notes on verses 2b-3

XVIII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XIX “baptized” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
XX “John’s” = Ioannes. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel); {from havah (to become); from hayah (to be, exist, happen)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
XXI “baptism” = baptisma. Related to “baptized” in v3. From baptizo (see note XIX above). This is dipping or sinking. Also, the rite of baptism.

Paul said, “John baptized with the baptism of repentance,XXII tellingXXIII the peopleXXIV to believeXXV in the one who was to come after him, that is, in Jesus.”XXVI 

Notes on verse 4

XXII “repentance” = metanoia. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience)}. This is literally to change one’s mind – to choose to think differently and so to act differently because of a moral compunction. It is an intentional change to the inner self. This word shares a root with the English “paranoia.”
XXIII “telling” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXIV “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
XXV “believe” = pisteuo. Same as “became believers” in v2. See note XVII above.
XXVI “Jesus” = Iesous. Related to “John’s” in v3. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (see note XX above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

On hearing this, they were baptized in the nameXXVII of the LordXXVIII Jesus. When Paul had laidXXIX his handsXXX on them,

Notes on verses 5-6a

XXVII “name” = onoma. Related to “repentance” in v4. May be from ginosko (see note XXII above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XXVIII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XXIX “laid” = epitithemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
XXX “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.

the Holy Spirit came upon them, and they spokeXXXI in tonguesXXXII and prophesied,XXXIII 

Notes on verse 6b

XXXI “spoke” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
XXXII “tongues” = glossa. Root refers to a point that sticks out. This is tongue in a literal sense, but can also refer to language or a nation that speaks a different language. Figuratively, it can also refer to speaking in tongues or speech inspired by the Spirit.
XXXIII “prophesied” = propheteuo. From prophetes (prophet or poet; one who speaks with inspiration from God); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}}. This is to prophesy, foretell, or tell forth.

altogetherXXXIV there were about twelveXXXV of them.XXXVI

He enteredXXXVII the synagogueXXXVIII

Notes on verses 7-8a

XXXIV “altogether” = pas. This is all or every.
XXXV “twelve” = dodeka. From duo (two, both) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.
XXXVI “them” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XXXVII “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “passed through” and “came” in v1. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note VI above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXVIII “synagogue” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.

and for threeXXXIX months spoke out boldlyXL and arguedXLI persuasivelyXLII

Notes on verse 8b

XXXIX “three” = treis. This is three.
XL “spoke out boldly” = parresiazomai. Related to “altogether” in v7. 9x in NT– 7 in the book of Acts. From parresia (confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness; can imply assurance – free speech); {from pas (see note XXXIV above) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (say, speak of, command)}}. This is to be confident, speak freely or with boldness. It can also refer to a confident spirit or manner.
XLI “argued” = dialegomai. Related to “telling” in v4. 13x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + lego (see note XXIII above)}. This is to discuss, preach, reason, argue, address, lecture.
XLII “persuasively” = peitho. Related to “became believers” in v2. See note XVII above.

about the kingdomXLIII of God.XLIV When some stubbornlyXLV refused to believeXLVI

Notes on verses 8c-9a

XLIII “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
XLIV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XLV “stubbornly” = skleruno. 6x in NT. From skleros (hard because dried, rough, difficult, fierce, harsh; stubborn or unyielding – unyieldingly hard); {from skello (to dry, parch)} OR from the same as skelos (leg, hip on down); {from skello (see above)}. This is to harden, make inflexible, make very stubborn.
XLVI “refused to believe” = apeitheo. Related to “became believers” in v2 & “persuasively” in v8. 14x in NT. From apeithes (unbelieving, disobedient, spiritually rebellious); {from a (not, without) + peitho (see note XVII above)}. This is to disobey or rebel. It refers to those who refuse to be convinced of something – willful disbelief.

and spoke evilXLVII of the WayXLVIII beforeXLIX the congregation,L he leftLI them,

Notes on verse 9b

XLVII “spoke evil” = kakologeo. Related to “telling” in v4 & “argued” in v8. 4x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill. It is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm. It refers to deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note XXIII above)}. This is to curse, speak evil of, abuse. It is words chosen specifically to cause harm or misconstrue – to make evil look like good or wrong like right.
XLVIII “Way” = Hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
XLIX “before” = enopios. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is literally “in sight of.” It means before in a literal or figurative sense.
L “congregation” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.
LI “left” = aphistemi. 14x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm). This is to remove, repel, refrain, depart from, foment a revolt, repel.

taking the disciples withLII him, and argued dailyLIII in the lecture hallLIV of Tyrannus.LV 

Notes on verse 9c

LII “taking…with” = aphorizo. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + horizo (to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined; literally, this is setting horizons); {from the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary)}. This is to set off by a boundary – to divide, separate, exclude. It can also mean ostracize or keep aloof.
LIII “daily” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
LIV “lecture hall” = schole. 1x in NT. Perhaps from echo (have, hold, possess). This is leisure, which is to say how you spend your free time – school. It is where the word “school” comes from.
LV “Tyrannus” = Turannos. Related to “Lord” in v5. 1x in NT. It may be a loanword from Lydian or another Asia Minor language OR related to kurios (see note XXVIII above). This is Tyrannus or Turannos, meaning “absolute rule” or “tyrant.” See

10 This continuedLVI for twoLVII years,LVIII so that allLIX the residentsLX of Asia,LXI

Notes on verse 10a

LVI “continued” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
LVII “two” = duo. Related to “twelve” in v7. See note XXXV above.
LVIII “years” = etos. This is year or age.
LIX “all” = pas. Same as “altogether” in v7. See note XXXIV above.
LX “residents” = katoikeo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); {from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.
LXI “Asia” = Asia. 18x in NT. Perhaps from Hittite assuwa (22 allied ancient states in Anatolia) OR Aegean asis (muddy, silty) OR Semitic root asu (rising or light; Asia as land to the east). This is Asia, the Roman province, which consisted of western Asia Minor. See

both JewsLXII and Greeks,LXIII heard the wordLXIV of the Lord.

Notes on verse 10b

LXII “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
LXIII “Greeks” = Hellenes. From Hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is Greek, but was used for Gentiles, broader populations that spoke Greek and were a part of Greek culture regardless of their heritage. See
LXIV “word” = logos. Related to “telling” in v4 & “argued” in v8 & “spoke evil” in v9. See note XLVII above.

11 God didLXV extraordinaryLXVI miraclesLXVII throughLXVIII Paul, 

Notes on verse 11

LXV “did” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
LXVI “extraordinary” = ou + ho + tugchano. Literally, “not being ordinary.” Tugchano is 12x in NT. Root means to become ready. This word is to hit, meet, happen, obtain, chance, perhaps. Properly, it means to hit the mark or be spot on. Thus, it is the opposite of the Greek word for sin hamartano, which literally means to miss the mark.
LXVII “miracles” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power eor ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
LXVIII {untranslated} = cheir. Same as “hands” in v6. See note XXX above.

12 so that when the handkerchiefsLXIX or apronsLXX that had touched his skinLXXI

Notes on verse 12a

LXIX “handkerchiefs” = soudarion.  4x in NT. From Latin sudarium (sweat cloth) This is a napkin, face cloth, or handkerchief. It can be used as a towel to wipe sweat from the face or a cloth for the head of a corpse.
LXX “aprons” = simikinthion. 1x in NT. From Latin semicinctium (“half girdle” or “narrow apron”). It is an apron or other narrow covering.
LXXI “skin” = chros. 1x in NT. Perhaps similar to chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is the skin in particular and not the body more broadly.

were broughtLXXII to the sick,LXXIII their diseasesLXXIV

Notes on verse 12b

LXXII “brought” = apophero. 6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry off or away. It can mean carry off violently.
LXXIII “sick” = astheneo. From asthenes (not having strength or weak in a moral sense; sick); {from a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is sick, feeble, languishing, impotent. Can also refer to moral weakness.
LXXIV “diseases” = nosos. 11x in NT. This refers to a disease that is chronic and enduring. It can also be used for a moral failing.

leftLXXV them, and the evilLXXVI spirits came outLXXVII of them. 

Notes on verse 12c

LXXV “left” = apallasso. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + allasso (to change, transform) {from allos (other, another; another of a similar kind or type)}. This is to remove, release, or depart. It can be to free somebody, to settle a case, to heal a disease, or otherwise release.
LXXVI “evil” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
LXXVII “came out” = ekporeuomai. From ek (from, from out of) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. This is to go forth, depart from, be spoken, flow out, project. This word emphasizes the result a process or passage – how it impacts the person or thing.

13 Then some itinerantLXXVIII JewishLXXIX exorcistsLXXX triedLXXXI

Notes on verse 13a

LXXVIII “itinerant” = perierchomai. Related to “passed through” and “came” in v1 & “entered” in v8. 3x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + erchomai (see note VI above). This is to go around, visit, sail around, stroll, veer.
LXXIX “Jewish” = Ioudaios. Same as “Jews” in v10. See note LXII above.
LXXX “exorcists” = exorkistes. Related to “taking…with” in v9. 1x in NT. From exorkizo (to make a strict oath, exorcise); {from ek (from, from out of) + horkizo (to charge or cause someone to swear an oath, to adjure); {from horkos (an oath or vow; something with limits, done for a sacred purpose); akin to erkos (fence, enclosure); akin to horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary)}}. This is someone who uses names or spells to drive evil spirits from others or otherwise binding them. It is where the word “exorcist” comes from.
LXXXI “tried” = epicheireo. Related to “hands” in v6. 3x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + cheir (see note XXX above). This is to take in hand, i.e. to try or undertake.

to useLXXXII the name of the Lord Jesus over those who hadLXXXIII evil spirits, saying,LXXXIV “I adjureLXXXV you by the Jesus whom Paul proclaims.”LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXXII “use” = onomazo. Related to “repentance” in v4 & “name” in v5. 10x in NT. From onoma (see note XXVII above). This is to name – either to name someone or call out their name. More broadly, it can mean to mention or utter.
LXXXIII “had” = echo. Related to “lecture hall” in v9. See note LIV above.
LXXXIV “saying” = lego. Same as “telling” in v4. See note XXIII above.
LXXXV “adjure” = horkizo. Related to “taking…with” in v9 & “exorcists” in v13. 3x in NT. See note LXXX above.
LXXXVI “proclaims” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.

14 SevenLXXXVII sonsLXXXVIII of a Jewish high priestLXXXIX named ScevaXC were doing this. 

Notes on verse 14

LXXXVII “seven” = hepta. This is seven or seventh. Figuratively, seven is the number of completeness or perfection.
LXXXVIII “sons” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
LXXXIX “high priest” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
XC “Sceva” = Skeuas. 1x in NT. Perhaps from Latin OR from skeuos(); {related to skia ()}. This is Sceva, whose name may mean “left-handed” or “pragmatist” or “handy man” or “sorcerer’s apprentice” or “tinkerer.” See

15 But the evil spirit said to them in reply,XCIXCIIJesus I know,XCIII and Paul I know,XCIV but who are you?” 

Notes on verse 15

XCI “in reply” = apokrinomai. From apo (from, away from) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.
XCII {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XCIII “know” = ginosko. Related to “repentance” in v4 & “name” in v5 & “use” in v13. See note XXII above.
XCIV “know” = epistamai. Related to “left” in v9. 14x in NT. From epihistemi (to stand upon, be present, stand by, be urgent; to attack, confront, appear); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + histemi (see note LI above)}. This is to know, stand on, get knowledge face to face or with personal effort, comprehend, be acquainted. It is related to “epistemology.”

16 Then the manXCV with the evil spirit leapedXCVI on them, masteredXCVII them all,XCVIII

Notes on verse 16a

XCV “man” = anthropos. Related to “them” in v7 & to “before” in v9. Probably from aner (see note XXXVI above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (see note XLIX above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XCVI “leaped” = ephallomai. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + hallomai (to leap or leap up; when referring to water, springing up or bubbling up; to jump or figuratively to gush). This is to spring upon or assault.
XCVII “mastered” = katakurieuo. Related to “Lord” in v5 & “Tyrannus” in v9. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, throughout) + kurieuo (to rule, have authority or dominion); {from kurios (see note XXVIII above). This is to exercise lordship authority, over dominion. It can also mean to overpower or master. It is having control and authority for that control. Generally the negative sense of control – to subjugate.
XCVIII “all” = amphoteroi. 14x in NT. From ampho (around, both sides). This is both or all.

and so overpoweredXCIX them that they fledC out of the houseCI nakedCII and wounded.CIII 

Notes on verse 16b

XCIX “overpowered” = ischuo. Related to “lecture hall” in v9 & “had” in v13. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); {perhaps from is (force) + echo (see note LIV above)}. This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.
C “fled” = ekpheugo. 8x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + pheugo (to run away in a literal or figurative sense; to flee, escape, shun, or vanish). This is to flee away or escape.
CI “house” = oikos. Related to “residents” in v10. See note LX above.
CII “naked” = gumnos. 15x in NT. This is naked. Generally, it refers to someone who is not completely clothed i.e. only wearing the undergarment and not the complete attire for going out. Rarely, it can mean completely naked. It can be naked in a literal or figurative sense – open, bare, ill-clad. This is where “gymnasium” comes from.
CIII “wounded” = traumatizo. 2x in NT. From trauma (a wound); derived from titrosko (to wound). This is to wound someone.

17 When this becameCIV knownCV to allCVI residents of Ephesus, both Jews and Greeks,

Notes on verse 17a

CIV “became” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CV “known” = gnostos. Related to “repentance” in v4 & “name” in v5 & “use” in v13 & “know” in v15. 15x in NT. From ginosko (see note XXII above). This is known or acquaintance.  
CVI “all” = pas. Same as “altogether” in v7. See note XXXIV above.

everyoneCVII wasCVIII awestruck,CIX and the name of the Lord Jesus was praised.CX 

Notes on verse 17b

CVII “everyone” = pas + autos. Literally, “all them.” Pas is the same as “altogether” in v7. See note XXXIV above.
CVIII “was” = epipipto. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is fall upon. It could be in the sense of pressing in on, being seized with fear, being embraced (as in the parable of the prodigal son in Luke 15:20), bending over, being insulted, or the Spirit falling on people. So, it is coming upon someone with more or less affection or violence.
CIX “awestruck” = phobos. From phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect.
CX “praised” = megaluno. 8x in NT. From megas (big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.). This is the same word used in Mary’s song of praise in Luke 1:46 “my soul magnifies the Lord.” This is to make great, increase, extoll, magnify. It is increase in a literal or figurative sense.

18 Also manyCXI of those who became believersCXII confessedCXIII and disclosedCXIV their practices.CXV 

Notes on verse 18

CXI “many” = polus. Related to “Apollos” in v1. See note II above.
CXII {untranslated} = erchomai. Same as “came” in v1. See note IX above.
CXIII “confessed” = exomologeo. Related to “telling” in v4 & “argued” in v8 & “spoke evil” in v9 & “word” in v10. 10x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + homologeo (to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate; to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse); {from homologos (of one mind); {from homos (the same) + lego (see note XXIII above)}}. This is agree, consent, or acknowledge. It can also be confess, give thanks, or praise. It includes an open, public, unabashed declaration.
CXIV “disclosed” = anaggello. Related to “synagogue” in v8. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, by, anew) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (see note XXXVIII above)}. This is returning with word, reporting, declaring, announcing. It is to tell something all the way, which is to say to tell it clearly.
CXV “practices” = praxis. 6x in NT. From prasso (to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit; to accomplish, attend, or commit). This is an action, deed, business, practice, or function. It implies ongoing activity or responsibility.

19 A numberCXVI of those who practicedCXVII magicCXVIII

Notes on verse 19a

CXVI “number” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
CXVII “practiced” = prasso. Related to “practices” in v18. See note CXV above.
CXVIII “magic” = periergos. 2x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + ergon (word, task, action, employment); {from ergo (to work, accomplish) or from erdo (to do)}. This is overworking, being overly careful, officious, curious, meddling, magic.

collectedCXIX their booksCXX and burnedCXXI them publicly;CXXII

Notes on verse 19b

CXIX “collected” = sumphero. Related to “brought” in v12. 17x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + phero (see note LXXII above). This is to collect, bring together, or be profitable to. It is combining things such that there is gain or profit or advantage.
CXX “books” = biblos. 10x in NT– 5x in reference to books of the Bible, 3x of the book of life, 1x of genealogical account of Jesus, 1x of books of magic. Perhaps from bublos (papyrus); from Phoenician Byblos (a Phoenician city that exported papyrus for writing); {from gb (well, origin) + I (God)}; from Proto-Canaanite g-b-l (Gubla – maybe meaning to border). This is the inside bark of papyrus so it could refer to anything that was written on – a scroll, book, record, roll. It could also have an association with the sacred. See
CXXI “burned” = katakaio. 12x in NT. From kata (down, against, among) + kaio (to burn, light, kindle). This is to burn up – entirely consume.
CXXII “publicly” = enopios + pas. Literally, “before all.” Enopios is the same as “before” in v9. See note XLIX above. Pas is the same as “altogether” in v7. See note XXXIV above.

when the valueCXXIII of these books was calculated,CXXIV it was found to come to fifty thousandCXXV silver coins.CXXVI 

Notes on verse 19c

CXXIII “value” = time. From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value). This has to do with worth or something’s perceived value. Literally, it means price, but figuratively, it means the honor or value one sees in someone or something else. It can be esteem or dignity. It can also mean precious or valuables.
CXXIV “calculated” = sumpsephizo. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + psephizo (to count or calculate; refers to the stones as counters); {from psephos (smooth pebble; used to cast a vote or as a counter); from the same as psallo (to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp); {from psao (to rub) or pselaphao (to feel about for, investigate by touching; figuratively, to seek to discover); {from psallo (see above) + haphao (to handle)}}}. This is to compute or count together.
CXXV “fifty thousand” = murias + pente. Murias is 9x in NT. From murios (can mean a large number, countless; in the plural, ten thousand; its root may mean numerous). This is many thousands or a big number that cannot be counted. It is where the word “myriad” comes from. Pente is five. It may be symbolically associated with the Temple or redemption.
CXXVI “silver coins” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); from argos (shining). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.

20 So the word of the Lord grewCXXVII mightilyCXXVIII and prevailed.CXXIX

Notes on verse 20

CXXVII “grew” = auxano. From auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is growing whether in size or mature or greatness or some other metric.
CXXVIII “mightily” = kratos. 12x in NT. This is strength, power, or dominion. It is vigor in a literal or figurative sense or power that is exercised.
CXXIX “prevailed” = ischuo. Same as “overpowered” in v16. See note XCIX above.

21 Now after these things had been accomplished,CXXX Paul resolvedCXXXI in the Spirit to go throughCXXXII

Notes on verse 21a

CXXX “accomplished” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
CXXXI “resolved” = tithemi. Related to “laid” in v6. See note XXIX above.
CXXXII “go through” = dierchomai. Same as “passed through” in v1. See note VI above.

MacedoniaCXXXIII and AchaiaCXXXIV and then to go onCXXXV to Jerusalem.CXXXVI

Notes on verse 21b

CXXXIII “Macedonia” = Makedonia. From makedonia (Macedonia, highland); from makednos (high or tall). This is Macedonia in Greece. See
CXXXIV “Achaia” = Achaia. 10x in NT. Perhaps from achos (pain, distress, or grief). This is Achaia, perhaps meaning pain or trouble. Achaia was also a name used to refer to Demeter. See
CXXXV “go on” = poreuomai. Related to “came out” in v12. See note LXXVII above.
CXXXVI “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

He said, “After I have goneCXXXVII there, I mustCXXXVIII also seeCXXXIX Rome.”CXL 

Notes on verse 21c

CXXXVII “gone” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CXXXVIII “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
CXXXIX “see” = horao. Related to “before” in v9 & “man” in v16. See note XLIX above.
CXL “Rome” = Rhome. 8x in NT. From the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This is Rome. See

22 So he sentCXLI two of his helpers,CXLII TimothyCXLIII

Notes on verse 22a

CXLI “sent” = apostello. Related to “left” in v9 & “know” in v15. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note LI above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CXLII “helpers” = diakoneo. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); {perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute); {related to dio (put to flight)}}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.
CXLIII “Timothy” = Timoutheou. Related to “value” in v19 & to “God” in v8. From time (see note CXXIII above) + Theos (see note XLIV above). This is Timothy, literally “dear to God.”

and Erastus,CXLIV to Macedonia, while he himself stayedCXLV for some timeCXLVI longer in Asia.

Notes on verse 22b

CXLIV “Erastus” = Erastos. 3x in NT. From erao (to love). This is Erastus, meaning “beloved” or “desired” or “lovely.” See
CXLV “stayed” = epecho. Related to “lecture hall” in v9 & “had” in v13 & “overpowered” in v16. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + echo (see note LIV above). This is to hold fast, pay attention, retain, stop, wait.
CXLVI “time” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.

23 About that timeCXLVII no littleCXLVIII disturbanceCXLIX broke outCL concerning the Way. 

Notes on verse 23

CXLVII “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
CXLVIII “little” = oligos. This is few or small – it can be a short time or extent, low light, amount, or worth.
CXLIX “disturbance” = tarachos. 2x in NT– both in Acts. From tarache (`disorder) OR from tarasso (trouble, agitate, stir up; motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water). This is trouble, commotion, or tumult.
CL “broke out” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.

24 A manCLI namedCLII Demetrius,CLIII a silversmithCLIV

Notes on verse 24a

CLI “man” = tis. Same as “some” in v1. See note XII above.
CLII “named” = onoma. Same as “name” in v5. See note XXVII above.
CLIII “Demetrius” = Demetrios. 3x in NT. From Greek Demetrios (belonging to Demeter); from Demeter (Greek goddess of agriculture; Romans called her Ceres); {from de (same as ge – earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area) + meter (mother, origin)}. This is Demetrius, “belonging to Demeter.” See
CLIV “silversmith” = argurokopos. Related to “silver coins” in v19. 1x in NT. From arguros (see note CXXVI above) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is someone who beats or cuts silver, which is to say a silversmith.

who madeCLV silverCLVI shrinesCLVII of Artemis,CLVIII

Notes on verse 24b

CLV “made” = poieo. Same as “did” in v11. See note LXV above.
CLVI “silver” = argurous. Related to “silver coins” in v19 & “silversmith” in v24. 3x in NT. See note CXXVI above.
CLVII “shrines” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
CLVIII “Artemis” = Artemis. 5x in NT– all in this passage. Perhaps from the same as artemon (something hung up, a mainsail or jib); {from artao (to fasten to) or from arti (now, in the moment); {from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}} OR from artames (safe and sound) Or from artemia (soundness or recovery) OR from artamos (butcher) OR from artemes (“safe, unharmed, pure, maiden”). This is Artemis, the Greek goddess of the hunt. In Ephesus, she was celebrated for fertility. The Roman goddess version is Diana. Her name may mean “healer” or “security.” See &

broughtCLIX no little businessCLX to the artisans.CLXI 

Notes on verse 24c

CLIX “brought” = parecho. Related to “lecture hall” in v9 & “had” in v13 & “overpowered” in v16 & “stayed” in v22. 16x in NT– including Luke 6:29: “if anyone strikes you on the cheek, offer the other also.” From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + echo (see note LIV above). This is present, to show, bring, give, offer to hold near.
CLX “business” = ergasia. Related to “magic” in v19. 6x in NT. From ergon (see note CXVIII above). This is work, effort, business, performance, profit, or activity.
CLXI “artisans” = technites. Related to “value” in v19 & “Timothy” in v22. 4x in NT. From techne (art, craft, skill, or trade); {from tekton (craftsman; particularly one who works with wood); from the base of timoria (penalty, punishment, vengeance); from timoreo (to punish, protect honor); {perhaps from time (see note CXXIII above)}. This is a craftsman, architect, builder. It can also mean creator figuratively.

25 These he gathered together,CLXII with the workersCLXIII of the same trade, and said, “Men,CLXIV

Notes on verse 25a

CLXII “gathered together” = sunathroizo. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + athroizo (to be disheartened, dismayed, broken in spirit); {from a (not, without) + thumos (passion, actions that stem from passion or impulse; can be rage, indignation); {from thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general)}. This is to assemble or gather together.
CLXIII “workers” = ergates. Related to “magic” in v19 & “business” in v24. 16x in NT. From ergazomai (to work, labor); {from ergon (see note CXVIII above)}. This is a field laborer – later used to refer to workers in general. It can also be used figuratively for teachers.
CLXIV “men” = aner. Same as “them” in v7. See note XXXVI above.

you knowCLXV that we getCLXVI our wealthCLXVII from this business. 

Notes on verse 25b

CLXV “know” = epistamai. Same as “know” in v15. See note XCIV above.
CLXVI “get” = eimi. Same as “was” in v1. See note III above.
CLXVII “wealth” = euporia. Related to “came out” in v12 & “go on” in v21. 1x in NT. From the same as euporeo (to prosper, have financial resources, ability); {from eu (good, well, rightly) + akin to poreuomai (see note LXXVII above)} OR from euporeo (see above); {from hetoimazo (to prepare, provide); {from hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge)} + poreia (journey, undertaking, progress); {from poreuomai (see note LXXVII above)}}. This is prosperity, resources, plenty.

26 You also seeCLXVIII and hear that not onlyCLXIX in Ephesus but in almostCLXX

Notes on verse 26a

CLXVIII “see” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
CLXIX “only” = monon. From monos (alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate); from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is merely, only, simply, sole. It can also imply alone.
CLXX “almost” = schedon. Related to “lecture hall” in v9 & “had” in v13 & “overpowered” in v16 & “stayed” in v22 & “brought” in v24. 3x in NT. From echo (see note LIV above). This is near, nearly, or almost.

the wholeCLXXI of Asia this Paul has persuadedCLXXII and drawn awayCLXXIII a considerable numberCLXXIV of peopleCLXXV by saying that godsCLXXVI madeCLXXVII with hands are not gods. 

Notes on verse 26

CLXXI “whole” = pas. Same as “altogether” in v7. See note XXXIV above.
CLXXII “persuaded” = peitho. Same as “persuasively” in v8. See note XLII above.
CLXXIII “drawn away” = methistemi. Related to “left” in v9 & “know” in v15 & “sent” in v22. 5x in NT. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + histemi (see note LI above). This is to change, remove, transfer, dismiss, carry away, seduce.
CLXXIV “considerable number” = hikanos. Same as “number” in v19. See note CXVI above.
CLXXV “people” = ochlos. Related to “lecture hall” in v9 & “had” in v13 & “overpowered” in v16 & “stayed” in v22 & “brought” in v24 & “almost” in v26. Perhaps from echo (see note LIV above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
CLXXVI “gods” = theos. Same as “God” in v8. See note XLIV above.
CLXXVII “made” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.

27 And there is dangerCLXXVIII not only that this tradeCLXXIX of ours may comeCLXXX into disreputeCLXXXI

Notes on verse 27a

CLXXVIII “is danger” = kinduneuo. 4x in NT. From kindunos (danger, risk). This is being in danger or in jeopardy.
CLXXIX “trade” = meros. Same as “regions” in v1. See note VIII above.
CLXXX “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v1. See note IX above.
CLXXXI “disrepute” = apelegmos. 1x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + elegmos (rebuke, reproof, refutation); {from elegcho (to expose, reprove, discipline, convict, or rebuke; using convincing evidence to expose a wrong)}. This is rejection, disrepute, discredit.

but also that the templeCLXXXII of the greatCLXXXIII goddessCLXXXIV Artemis will be scorned,CLXXXV

Notes on verse 27b

CLXXXII “temple” = hieron. Related to “high priest” in v14. From hieros (see note LXXXIX above). This is the word for temple.
CLXXXIII “great” = megas. Related to “praised” in v17. See note CX above.
CLXXXIV “goddess” = thea. Related to “God” in v8 & “Timothy” in v22. 1x in NT. From Theos (see note XLIV above). This is a goddess.
CLXXXV “scorned” = eis + oudeis + logizomai. Literally, “reckoned for nothing.” Oudeis is from oude (not, neither, not even); {from ou (not, no, never) + de (but, and, indeed)} + heis (one, a person, only, some). This is none, nothing, nobody. Logizomai is related to “telling” in v4 & “argued” in v8 & “spoke evil” in v9 & “word” in v10 & “confessed” in v18. From logos (see note XLVII above). This is this is to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense.

and she will beCLXXXVI deprivedCLXXXVII of her majestyCLXXXVIII

Notes on verse 27c

CLXXXVI “be” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
CLXXXVII “deprived” = kathaireo. 9x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to take down, destroy, depose, forcibly yank. It is to lower violently, whether literally or figuratively.
CLXXXVIII “majesty” = megaleiotes. Related to “praised” in v17 & “great” in v27. 3x in NT. From megaleios (splendid, grand, perfection); from megas (see note CX above). This is magnificence, glory, splendor.

that brought allCLXXXIX Asia and the worldCXC to worshipCXCI her.”

Notes on verse 27d

CLXXXIX “all” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CXC “world” = oikoumene. Related to “residents” in v10 & “house” in v16. 15x in NT. From oikeo (see note LX above). This is the world – the part where people live. It was used specifically for the Roman world. It is the root of the word “ecumenic.”
CXCI “worship” = sebo. 10x in NT. This is to worship, revere, adore, be devout. Properly this is personally placing a high value on someone or something, showing respect.

28 When they heard this, they wereCXCII enragedCXCIII and shouted,CXCIV, CXCV “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!”CXCVI 

Notes on verse 28

CXCII “were” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CXCIII “enraged” = pleres + thumos. Literally, “full of rage.” Pleres is related to “congregation” in v9 & “accomplished” in v21. 16x in NT. From pletho (see note L above). This is to be full, complete, abounding in, or occupied with. Thumos is related to “gathered together” in v25. 18x in NT. See note CLXII above.
CXCIV “shouted” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
CXCV {untranslated} = lego. Same as “telling” in v4. See note XXIII above.
CXCVI “Ephesians” = Ephesios. Related to “Ephesus” in v1. 5x in NT – all in Acts 19 & Acts 21. From Ephesos (see note X above). This is Ephesian or someone who lives in Ephesus. See &

29 The cityCXCVII was filledCXCVIII with the confusion,CXCIX

Notes on verse 29a

CXCVII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CXCVIII “filled” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
CXCIX “confusion” = sugchusis. 1x in NT. From sugcheo (literally to pour together, which is to say confuse, stir up, or bewilder; to agitate a gathered group or inner perplexity); {from sun (with, together with) + cheo (to pour)}. This is confusion or disturbance. It can refer figuratively to riotous behavior.

and people rushedCC togetherCCI to the theater,CCII draggingCCIII with them GaiusCCIV

Notes on verse 29b

CC “rushed” = hormao. 5x in NT. From horme (onrush, quick motion forward, attempt, inclination, attempt). This is to rush, run, start, or spur on.
CCI “together” = homothumadon. Related to “confessed” in v18 & to “gathered together” in v25 & “enraged” in v28. 11x in NT. From homou (together); {from homos (see note CXIII above)} + thumos (see note CLXII above)}. This is having one mind or a shared passion. It is people who share the same desire.
CCII “theater” = theatron. Related to “see” in v26. 3x in NT. From theaomai (see note CLXVIII above). This is a theater or spectacle. It is where the word “theater” comes from.
CCIII “dragging” = sunarpazo. Related to “deprived” in v27. 4x in NT– all in Luke and Acts. From sun (with, together with) + harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (see note CLXXXVII above). This is to seize, drag with force, catch.
CCIV “Gaius” = Gaios. 5x in NT. Probably from Latin Gavius (Gavius); from the same as gaudere (to rejoice); from “Proto-Indo-European geh-w-” (to rejoice) OR from gaia (earth, land). This is Gaius or Caius. I may mean “of the land” or “made of earthly material” or “rejoice.”  See &

and Aristarchus,CCV MacedoniansCCVI who were Paul’s travel companions.CCVII 

Notes on verse 29c

CCV “Aristarchus” = Aristarchos. Related to “high priest” in v14 & to “Artemis” in v24. 5x in NT. From aristos (best); {from aristeuo (“to be the best)} + archos (leader); {from archo (see note LXXXIX above)}. This is Aristarchus, meaning “best leader” or “best ruling.” 
CCVI “Macedonians” = Makedon. Related to “Macedonia” in v21. 5x in NT. Related to makednos (see note CXXXIII above). This is Macedonian, someone who lives in Macedonia. See
CCVII “travel companions” = sunekdemos. Related to “must” in v21. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + from ekdemeo (to be distant from home, absent; it can mean to quit or emigrate); {from ek (from, from out of) + demos (district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); {from deo (see note CXXXVIII above)}}. This is someone with you who is also away from home – a travelling companion.

30 Paul wishedCCVIII to goCCIX into the crowd,CCX but the disciples would not letCCXI him; 

Notes on verse 30

CCVIII “wished” = boulomai. This is to wish, desire, intend. Also, to plan with great determination.
CCIX “go” = eiserchomai. Same as “entered” in v8. See note XXXVII above.
CCX “crowd” = demos. Related to “must” in v21 & “travel companions” in v29. 4x in NT. See note CCVII above.
CCXI “let” = eao. 11x in NT. This is to allow, leave, put up with something.

31 even some officials of the province of AsiaCCXII who were friendlyCCXIII to him sent him a messageCCXIV urgingCCXV him not to ventureCCXVI into the theater. 

Notes on verse 31

CCXII “officials of the province of Asia” = Asiarches. Related to “Asia” in v10 & to “high priest” in v14 & “Aristarchus” in v29. 1x in NT. From Asia (see note LXI above) + archo (see note LXXXIX above). This is a leader of the Asian Province of the Roman empire. See
CCXIII “friendly” = philos. This is dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person.
CCXIV “sent…a message” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
CCXV “urging” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
CCXVI “venture” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.

32 Meanwhile,CCXVII someCCXVIII were shouting one thing, someCCXIX another,CCXX for the assemblyCCXXI was in confusion,CCXXII

Notes on verse 32a

CCXVII {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note XCII above.
CCXVIII “some” = allos. Related to “left” in v12. See note LXXV above.
CCXIX “some” = allos. Same as “some” in v32. See note CCXVIII above.
CCXX “another” = tis. Same as “some” in v1. See note XII above.
CCXXI “assembly” = ekklesia. Related to “urging” in v31. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo (see note CCXV above). This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.
CCXXII “was in confusion” = sugcheo. Related to “hands” in v6 & “tried” in v13 & “confusion” in v29. 5x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + cheo (see note CXCIX). This is literally to pour together, which is to say confuse, stir up, or bewilder. So, it could be to agitate a gathered group or inner perplexity.

and mostCCXXIII of them did not knowCCXXIV why they had come together.CCXXV 

Notes on verse 32b

CCXXIII “most” = pleion. Related to “Apollos” in v1 & “many” in v18. From polus (see note II above). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
CCXXIV “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
CCXXV “come together” = sunerchomai. Related to “passed through” and “came” in v1 & “entered” in v8 & “itinerant” in v13. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (see note VI above). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.

33 Some of the crowdCCXXVI gave instructionsCCXXVII to Alexander,CCXXVIII whom the Jews had pushed forward.CCXXIX

Notes on verse 33a

CCXXVI “crowd” = ochlos. Same as “people” in v26. See note CLXXV above.
CCXXVII “gave instructions” = sumbibazo. Related to “kingdom” in v8. 7x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + the same as basis (foot, step, pace) {from baino (see note XLIII above)} OR sun (with, together with) + bibazo (to force); {from the same as basis (see above)}. This is joining together, considering, uniting, concluding, proving, or teaching. It is building reasoning – working through the steps to grasp truth by weaving ideas together to form a judgment or a conclusion. By extension, it is applying that understanding to showing or teaching.
CCXXVIII “Alexander” = Alexandros. Related to “them” in v7 & “man” in v16. 6x in NT. From alexo (to ward off) + aner (see note XXXVI above). This is Alexander, meaning “man-defender.”
CCXXIX “pushed forward” = proballo. 2x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw before, sprout, put forward, produce.

And Alexander motioned for silenceCCXXX and triedCCXXXI to make a defenseCCXXXII before the people.CCXXXIII 

Notes on verse 33b

CCXXX “motioned for silence” = kataseio + ho + cheir. Kataseio is 4x in NT– all in Acts. From kata (down, against, according to) + seio (to shake, vibrate; figuratively to agitate or show fear). This is to shake in order to call for quiet, to motion or signal. Cheir is the same as “hands” in v6. See note XXX above.
CCXXXI “tried” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
CCXXXII “make a defense” = apologeomai. Related to “telling” in v4 & “argued” in v8 & “spoke evil” in v9 & “word” in v10 & “confessed” in v18 & “scorned” in v27. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + logos (see note XLVII above). This is to make an accounting or defend oneself – particularly in court. It is to present proof or evidence using sound logic.
CCXXXIII “people” = demos. Same as “crowd” in v30. See note CCX above.

34 But when they recognizedCCXXXIV that he was a Jew, for about two hoursCCXXXV all of them shoutedCCXXXVI in unison,CCXXXVII “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!” 

Notes on verse 34

CCXXXIV “recognized” = epiginosko. Related to “repentance” in v4 & “name” in v5 & “use” in v13 & “know” in v15 & “known” in v17. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (see note XXII above). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.
CCXXXV “hours” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
CCXXXVI “shouted” = phone + ginomai. Literally, “a voice emerged…crying out.” Phone is related to “prophesied” in v6. Probably from phemi (see note XXXIII above); {from phao (see note XXXIII above) or phaino (see note XXXIII above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect. Ginomai is the same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CCXXXVII “in unison” = heis + ek + pas. Literally, “one from all.” Heis is related to “scorned” in v27. See note CLXXXV above. Pas is the same as “altogether” in v7. See note XXXIV above.

35 But when the town clerkCCXXXVIII had quietedCCXXXIX the crowd,CCXL he said,CCXLI

Notes on verse 35a

CCXXXVIII “town clerk” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
CCXXXIX “quieted” = katastello. Related to “left” in v9 & “know” in v15 & “sent” in v22 & “drawn away” in v26. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + stello (see note CXLI above). This is to quell, lower, pacify, make quiet.
CCXL “crowd” = ochlos. Same as “people” in v26. See note CLXXV above.
CCXLI “said” = phemi. Related to “prophesied” in v6 & “shouted” in v34. See note XXXIII above.

“CitizensCCXLII of Ephesus, whoCCXLIII is there who does not knowCCXLIV that the city of the Ephesians is the temple keeperCCXLV of the great Artemis and of the statue that fell from heaven?CCXLVI 

Notes on verse 35b

CCXLII “citizens” = aner. Same as “them” in v7. See note XXXVI above.
CCXLIII {untranslated} = anthropos. Same as “man” in v16. See note XCV above.
CCXLIV “know” = ginosko. Same as “know” in v15. See note XCIII above.
CCXLV “temple keeper” = neokoros. Related to “shrines” in v24. 1x in NT. From naos (see note CLVII above) + koreo (to sweep). This is someone who sweeps the temple. It is not literal, but a title for one who keeps, guards, or serves in a temple. It could also be applied to a worshiper.
CCXVLI “fell from heaven” = diopetes. Related to “was” in v17. 1x in NT. From Dios (related to Zeus) + akin to pipto (see note CLVIII above). This is one who fell from where Zeus is, which is to say heaven or the sky.

36 Since these things cannot be denied,CCXLVII you oughtCCXLVIII to be quietCCXLIX, CCL

Notes on verse 36a

CCXLVII “cannot be denied” = anantirretos. Related to “spoke out boldly” in v8. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + anti (opposite, instead of, against) + rhetos (stated, specified); {or rheo (see note XL above)}. This is indisputable – something that cannot be contradicted.
CCXLVIII “ought” = dei. Same as “must” in v21. See note CXXXVIII above.
CCXLIX “be quiet” = katastello. Same as “quieted” in v35. See note CCXXXIX above.
CCL {untranslated} = huparcho. Related to “high priest” in v14 & “Aristarchus” in v29 & “officials of the province of Asia” in v31. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (see note LXXXIX above). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.

and doCCLI nothingCCLII rash.CCLIII 

Notes on verse 36b

CCLI “do” = prasso. Same as “practiced” in v19. See note CXVII above.
CCLII “nothing” = medeis. Related to “scorned” in v27 & “in unison” in v34. From mede (but not, not even); {from me (neither, never) + de (see note CLXXXV above)} + heis (see note CLXXXV above). This is not even one, never, or least.
CCLIII “rash” = propetes. Related to “was” in v17 & “fell from heaven” in v35. 2x in NT. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + pipto (see note CLVIII above). This is falling headlong, impulsive, headstrong, unrestrained passion.

37 You have broughtCCLIV these menCCLV here who are neither temple robbersCCLVI nor blasphemersCCLVII of our goddess.CCLVIII 

Notes on verse 37

CCLIV “brought” = ago. Related to “synagogue” in v8 & “disclosed” in v18. See note XXXVIII above.
CCLV “men” = aner. Same as “them” in v7. See note XXXVI above.
CCLVI “temple robbers” = hierosulos. Related to “high priest” in v14 & “temple” in v27. 1x in NT. From hieros (see note LXXXIX above) + sulao (to rob, take as plunder in war); {from sule (plunder) or from sullo (to strip)}. This is someone who robs a temple and thereby commits sacrilege.
CCLVII “blasphemers” = blasphemeo. Related to “prophesied” in v6 & “shouted” in v34 & “said” in v35. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (see note XXXIII above)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
CCLVIII “goddess” = theos. Same as “God” in v8. See note XLIV above.

38 IfCCLIX therefore Demetrius and the artisans with him have a complaintCCLX against anyone,CCLXI the courtsCCLXII are open,CCLXIII

Notes on verse 38a

CCLIX {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note XCII above.
CCLX “complaint” = logos. Same as “word” in v10. See note LXIV above.
CCLXI “anyone” = tis. Same as “some” in v1. See note XII above.
CCLXII “courts” = agoraios. 2x in NT. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); {from ageiro (to gather)}. This is related to the marketplace. So, it could be a ruffian or someone who loiters in the marketplace. It could also be related to the courts.
CCLXIII “are open” = ago. Same as “brought” in v37. See note CCLIV above.

and there are proconsuls;CCLXIV let them bring chargesCCLXV there against one another.CCLXVI 

Notes on verse 38b

CCLXIV “proconsuls” = anthupatos. 5x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + hupatos (highest); {from huper (by, under, over, above, under the authority of another)}. This is a proconsul, a deputy.
CCLXV “bring charges” = egkaleo. Related to “urging” in v31 & “assembly” in v32. 7x in NT. From en (en, on, at, by, with) + kaleo (see note CCXV above). This is to bring charges, accuse, or call something into question. It can also mean to bring to account.
CCLXVI “one another” = allelon. Related to “left” in v12 & “some” in v32. From allos (see note LXXV above). So, this is each, another, together, or mutual. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).

39 If there is anythingCCLXVII further you want to know,CCLXVIII it must be settledCCLXIX in the regularCCLXX assembly. 

Notes on verse 39

CCLXVII “anything” = tis. Same as “some” in v1. See note XII above.
CCLXVIII “want to know” = epizeteo. 13x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is to desire, search for, seek, or want. It is following through on a personal goal by seeking.
CCLXIX “be settled” = epiluo. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is to loose, solve, explain, decide, interpret.
CCLXX “regular” = ennomos. 2x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}. This is lawful or duly constituted.

40 For we are in dangerCCLXXI of being chargedCCLXXII with riotingCCLXXIII today,CCLXXIV

Notes on verse 40a

CCLXXI “are in danger” = kinduneuo. Same as “is danger” in v27. See note CLXXVIII above.
CCLXXII “being charged” = egkaleo. Same as “bring charges” in v38. See note CCLXV above.
CCLXXIII “rioting” = stasis. Related to “left” in v9 & “know” in v15 & “sent” in v22 & “drawn away” in v26 & “quieted” in v35. 9x in NT– including Barabbas’s crime. From histemi (see note LI above). This is standing – the act of standing, a place, an uprising, insurrection, dissension, or controversy.
CCLXXIV “today” = semeron. Related to “daily” in v9. From hemera (see note LIII above). This is today, now, at present.

since there isCCLXXV no causeCCLXXVI that we canCCLXXVII giveCCLXXVIII

Notes on verse 40b

CCLXXV “is” = huparcho. Same as {untranslated} in v36. See note CCL above.
CCLXXVI “cause” = aitios. 5x in NT. From the same as aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is the cause of something. So it could refer to someone who begins or originates something – as the source or author. It could also be the accused or culprit as one who caused a crime to happen.
CCLXXVII “can” = dunamai. Related to “miracles” in v11. See note LXVII above.
CCLXXVIII “give” = apodidomi. Related to “venture” in v31. From apo (from, away from) + didomi (see note CCXVI above). This is to give back, return, give away. It is to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell.

to justifyCCLXXIX this commotion.”CCLXXX 41 When he had said this, he dismissedCCLXXXI the assembly.

Notes on verses 40c-41

CCLXXIX “justify” = logos. Same as “word” in v10. See note LXIV above.
CCLXXX “commotion” = sustrophe. 2x in NT. From sustrepho (to gather, twist together, bundle, crowd); {from sun (with, together with) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}}. This is a riotous mob, conspiracy, commotion, secret coalition.
CCLXXXI “dismissed” = apoluo. Related to “be settled” in v39. From apo (from, away from) + luo (see note CCLXIX above). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.

Image credit: “Yuri Khanon: book ‘Scriabane as a Face,’ second volume, separate series, last copy, 2002-2012 (winter auto-da-fé).”

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