Acts 2:1-18

Acts 2:1-18
Narrative Lectionary


When the dayI of PentecostII had come,III

Notes on verse 1a

I “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
II “Pentecost” = Pentekoste. 3x in NT. From pentekonta (fifty); {from pente (five) + deka (ten or -teen)}. This is fiftieth, used specially for Pentecost, the fiftieth day after Passover.
III “come” = sumpleroo. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + pleroo (to fill, make full or complete; properly, filling something up to the maximum extent or induvial capacity; used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill); {from pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with)}. This is to fill entirely, a boat swamped with water, or fulfill. It can also be come or approach.

they wereIV allV togetherVI in one place. And suddenlyVII from heavenVIII

Notes on verses 1b-2a

IV “were” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
V “all” = pas. This is all or every.
VI “together” = homou. 4x in NT. From homos (the same). This is together.
VII “suddenly” = aphno. 3x in NT. Perhaps from aphanes (invisible, hidden, not apparent); {from a (not, without) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear); {perhaps from phos (light, radiance; light literal or figurative)}}. This is suddenly or unawares.
VIII “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

there cameIX a soundX like the rushXI of a violentXII wind,XIII

Notes on verse 2b

IX “came” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
X “sound” = echos. 4x in NT. From eche (noise or sound). This is a loud sound, roaring, or echo. It can also be a report, rumor, or fame. This is where the word “echo” comes from.
XI “rush” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
XII “violent” = biaios. 1x in NT. From bia (strength, force, violence). This is violent, strong, or mighty.
XIII “wind” = pnoe. 2x in NT. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is breath, blowing, gust, or wind.

and it filledXIV the entireXV houseXVI where they were sitting.XVII 

Notes on verse 2c

XIV “filled” = pleroo. Related to “come” in v1. See note III above.
XV “entire” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
XVI “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
XVII “sitting” = kathemai. Related to “day” in v1. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (see note I above). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.

DividedXVIII tongues,XIX as of fire,XX

Notes on verse 3a

XVIII “divided” = diamerizo. 12x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); {from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment)}. This is to divide up, distribute, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.
XIX “tongues” = glossa. Root refers to a point that sticks out. This is tongue in a literal sense, but can also refer to language or a nation that speaks a different language. Figuratively, it can also refer to speaking in tongues or speech inspired by the Spirit.
XX “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.

appearedXXI among them, and a tongue restedXXII onXXIII eachXXIV of them. 

Notes on verse 3b

XXI “appeared” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XXII “rested” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
XXIII {untranslated} = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XXIV “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.

All of them were filledXXV with the HolyXXVI SpiritXXVII

Notes on verse 4a

XXV “were filled” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
XXVI “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XXVII “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

and beganXXVIII to speakXXIX in otherXXX

Notes on verse 4b

XXVIII “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
XXIX “speak” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
XXX “other” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.

languages,XXXI as the Spirit gaveXXXII them ability.XXXIII

Notes on verse 4c

XXXI “languages” = glossa. Same as “tongues” in v3. See note XIX above.
XXXII “gave” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXIII “ability” = apophtheggomai. Related to “suddenly” in v2. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + phtheggomai (to speak out loud; can also be to speak in a way that cannot be understood or generally to speak out); {related to pheggos (light, radiance, splendor); related to phos (see note VII above)}. This is to declare, pronounce, or speak clearly.

Now there wereXXXIV devoutXXXV JewsXXXVI

Notes on verse 5a

XXXIV {untranslated} = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XXXV “devout” = eulabes. 4x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is literally handling well or grasping what is good. So, cautious or circumspect. By extension, it refers to devout, pious, or God fearing
XXXVI “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

from everyXXXVII peopleXXXVIII under heaven livingXXXIX in Jerusalem.XL 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXVII “every” = pas. Same as “all” in v1. See note V above.
XXXVIII “people” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XXXIX “living” = katoikeo. Related to “house” in v2. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); {from oikos (see note XVI above)}. This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.
XL “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

AndXLI at this soundXLII the crowdXLIII gatheredXLIV and was bewildered,XLV

Notes on verse 6a

XLI {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “came” in v2. See note IX above.
XLII “sound” = phone. Related to “suddenly” in v2 & “ability” in v4. Probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (see note VII above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
XLIII “crowd” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.
XLIV “gathered” = sunerchomai. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
XLV “was bewildered” = sugcheo. 5x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + cheo (to pour). This is literally to pour together, which is to say confuse, stir up, or bewilder. So, it could be to agitate a gathered group or inner perplexity.

because each oneXLVI heardXLVII them speaking in the nativeXLVIII languageXLIX of each. 

Notes on verse 6b

XLVI “one” = heis. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XXIII above.
XLVII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XLVIII “native” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
XLIX “language” = dialektos. 6x in NT. From dialegomai (to discuss, preach, reason, argue, lecture); {from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is speech, language, tongue, or dialect. It can also be mode of discourse. It is the root where “dialect” and “dialogue” come from.

AmazedL and astonished,LI they asked,LII

Notes on verse 7a

L “amazed” = existemi. 17x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is to displace or take something or someone from standing. Figuratively, it is to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself. By extension, it is astonished, amazed, or mad.
LI “astonished” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
LII “asked” = lego. Related to “language” in v6. See note XLIX above.

“Are notLIII all these who are speaking Galileans?LIV And how is it that we hear, each of us, in our ownLV nativeLVI language?LVII 

Notes on verses 7b-8

LIII {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LIV “Galileans” = Galilaios. 11x in NT. From galilaia (Galilee, the region and the sea); from Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilean.
LV “own” = idios. Same as “native” in v6. See note XLVIII above.
LVI “native” = en + hos + gennao. Literally, “in which we were born.” Gennao is related to “came” in v2. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note IX above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.
LVII “language” = dialektos. Same as “language” in v6. See note XLIX above.

Parthians,LVIII Medes,LIX Elamites,LX

Notes on verse 9a

LVIII “Parthians” = Parthos. 1x in NT. From Old Persian Parthava (of the Parthians; perhaps meaning “strong man” or “champion”). This is Parthian, east of the Roman Empire. See
LIX “Medes” = Medos. 1x in NT. From Old Persian Mada (Mede); possibly from Proto-Iranian madyah (“in the middle”). This is Mede or Median. Someone from east of Assyria. See
LX “Elamites” = Elamites. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Elam (Elam, his lineage, and their land; meaning hidden or distant); probably from alam (to conceal, hide, melt, shut, neglect, escape, or melt). This is Elamite, one from north of the Persian Gulf.

and residentsLXI of Mesopotamia,LXII JudeaLXIII

Notes on verse 9b

LXI “residents” = katoikeo. Same as “living” in v5. See note XXXIX above.
LXII “Mesopotamia” = Mesopotamia. 2x in NT. From mesos (middle, among, center); {perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action)} + potamos (river, stream, water, flooded waterbed following heavy rain or snow that has melted); {from pino (to drink literally or figuratively)}. This is Mesopotamia – the land between two rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates.
LXIII “Judea” = Ioudaia. Related to “Jews” in v5. From Hebrew Yehudah (see note XXXVI above). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.

and Cappadocia,LXIV PontusLXV and Asia,LXVI 

Notes on verse 9c

LXIV “Cappadocia” = Kappadokia. 2x in NT. From Old Persian Katpatuka (Cappadocia); from Luwian (low country) or Hittite (place below). This is Cappadocia, a province in central-eastern Asia Minor. See
LXV “Pontus” = Pontos. 2x in NT. This is Pontus, which means “sea” – a region on the Black Sea.
LXVI “Asia” = Asia. 18x in NT. Perhaps from Hittite Assuwa (22 allied ancient states in Anatolia) OR Aegean Asis (muddy, silty) OR Semitic root Asu (rising or light; Asia as land to the east). This is Asia, the Roman province, which consisted of western Asia Minor. See

10 PhrygiaLXVII and Pamphylia,LXVIII EgyptLXIX

Notes on verse 10a

LXVII “Phrygia” = Phrugia. 3x in NT. “Phrygia” = phrugia. 3x in NT. From phrux (Phrygian); perhaps from Phrygian Bryges (ancient Balkan tribe); perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *bʰerǵʰ- (“high, mountain, hill”). This is Phrygia or Phrygian. It was northeastern Asia Province (Asia Minor). See
LXVIII “Pamphylia” = Pamphulia. Related to “all” in v1. 5x in NT. From pas (see note V above) + phule (clan, tribe, lineage); {from phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow)}. This is Pamphylia, meaning every tribe. It is a province on the southern coast of Asia Minor
LXIX “Egypt” = Aiguptos. From Egyptian ḥwt-kꜣ-ptḥ (Egypt; literally “the temple of the ka of Ptah in Memphis, Egypt”); from ḥwt (hut, large structure, palace, temple, estate) + ka (“a spiritual part of the soul in Egyptian mythology, which survived after death”; “something like ‘life-force’; the part of the soul which the living have and the dead do not…goodwill – especially of the king) + ptah (“a god of creativity and craftsmen, sometimes also identified with gods of death and the birth of the sun”; “Ptah, creator god and patron of craftsmen, worshipped at Memphis”). This is Egypt, meaning “the temple of the ka of Ptah.” See

and the partsLXX of LibyaLXXI belonging to Cyrene,LXXII

Notes on verse 10b

LXX “parts” = meros. Related to “divided” in v3. See note XVIII above.
LXXI “Libya” = Libue. 1x in NT. Perhaps from lips (southwest wind – which carries rain, the southwest). This is Libya, west of the Nile in North Africa.
LXXII “Cyrene” = Kurene. 1x in NT. Perhaps from kure (a spring); from kuros (power). This is a city in North Africa on the Mediterranean. Cyrene means perhaps “powerful one” or” high social standing.” See

and visitorsLXXIII from Rome,LXXIV both Jews and proselytes,LXXV 

Notes on verse 10c

LXXIII “visitors” = epidemeo. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + demos district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); {from deo (to tie, bind, compel, declare unlawful)}. This is to be at home – so, to sojourn, visit, or otherwise live temporarily in a foreign city.
LXXIV “Rome” = Rhomaios. 12x in NT. From Rhome (Rome); from the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This is Rome, Roman, or Roman citizen. See
LXXV “proselytes” = proselutos. Related to “gathered” in v6. 4x in NT. From proserchomai (to approach, draw near, come up to; figuratively to worship); {from pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note XLIV above)}. This is a proselyte as a newcomer to Judaism. A convert to Judaism would have been circumcised and a begun to follow the Law. It could also be a foreigner.

11 CretansLXXVI and ArabsLXXVII—in our ownLXXVIII

Notes on verse 11a

LXXVI “Cretans” = Kres. 2x in NT. From Krete (Crete, a Mediterranean island); {from krus (a hero of myth) OR from Luwian kursatta or kursawar (island) or Luwian kursattar (cutting, silver)}. This is Crete or Cretan. See
LXXVII “Arabs” = Araps. 1x in NT. From Arabia (Arabia); from Hebrew Arab (Arabia, “steppe dwellers”); from arab (grow dark, become evening); from ereb (evening, sunset, night) OR from Arabic ‘arab (Arabic, declare, trade). This is Arabia. See
LXXVIII “own” = hemeteros. 8x in NT. From hemeis (we ourselves); from ego (I, me). This is our, our own – it is not a simple possessive pronounce, but one that is intensified.

languagesLXXIX we hear them speaking about God’sLXXX deeds of power.”LXXXI 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXIX “languages” = glossa. Same as “tongues” in v3. See note XIX above.
LXXX “God’s” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
LXXXI “deeds of power” = megaleios. 1x in NT. From megas (great, exceeding, abundant; big in a literal or figurative sense). This is magnificent, grand, perfection, mighty deed.

12 All were amazed and perplexed,LXXXII sayingLXXXIII to oneLXXXIV another, LXXXV“What does this mean?”LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 12

LXXXII “perplexed” = diaporeo. 4x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + aporeo (perplexed, in doubt; mentally at a loss); {from a (not, without) + poros (way, resource)}. This is in trouble or doubt, having difficulty. This is being perplexed because you can’t find a solution.
LXXXIII “saying” = lego. Same as “asked” in v7. See note LII above.
LXXXIV “one” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
LXXXV “another” = allos. Same as “one” in v12. See note LXXXIII above.
LXXXVI “what does this mean” = tis + thelo + houtos + eimi. Literally, “what does this wish to be?” Thelo is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question. Eimi is the same as “were” in v1. See note IV above.

13 But others sneeredLXXXVII and said, “They are filledLXXXVIII with new wine.”LXXXIX

Notes on verse 13

LXXXVII “sneered” = cheluazo. 2x in NT. From chleue (jest or joke) OR from a derivative of cheilos (lip, shore, brink; figuratively, language or dialect, brim of a pitcher); from the same as chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn); from chao (to gape or yawn). This is to throw one’s lip at, jeer, joke, sneer, mock, ridicule.
LXXXVIII “filled” = mestoo. 1x in NT. From mestos (full or filled with in a literal or figurative sense). This is to fill or replenish, used to imply intoxication.
LXXXIX “new wine” = gleukos. 1x in NT. From glukus (sweet, fresh). This is sweet new wine. This root is where “glucose” comes from.

14 But Peter,XC standingXCI with the eleven,XCII raisedXCIII his voiceXCIV and addressedXCV them,

Notes on verse 14a

XC “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XCI “standing” = histemi. Related to “amazed” in v7. See note L above.
XCII “eleven” = hendeka. Related to “Pentecost” in v1 & to {untranslated} in v3. 6x in NT– all referring to the apostles minus Judas. From heis (see note XXIII above) + deka (see note II above). This is eleven.
XCIII “raised” = epairo. Related to “heaven” in v2. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (see note VIII above). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself.
XCIV “voice” = phone. Same as “sound” in v6. See note XLII above.
XCV “addressed” = apophtheggomai. Same as “ability” in v4. See note XXXIII above.

“FellowXCVI Jews and all who live in Jerusalem, let this be knownXCVII to you, and listenXCVIII to what I say.XCIX 

Notes on verse 14b

XCVI “fellow” = aner. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXIV above.
XCVII “known” = gnostos. 15x in NT. From ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is known or acquaintance.
XCVIII “listen” = enotizomai. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ous (the ear, the ability to hear/perceive). This is to listen or give ear.
XCIX “say” = rhema. Literally, “my words.” From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.

15 Indeed, these are not drunk,C as you suppose,CI for it is only nine o’clock in the morning.CII 

Notes on verse 15

C “drunk” = methuo. 6x in NT. From methu (wine) OR from methe (drunkenness, an intoxicant). This is to drink freely, be drunk.
CI “suppose” = hupolambano. Related to “devout” in v5. 5x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + lambano (see note XXXV above). This is to take up or bear up, to receive. It can also mean to welcome or entertain. Further, it can mean to take up discussion of a topic, to suppose, or imagine.
CII “nine o’clock in the morning” = hora + tritos + ho + hemera. Literally, “third hour of the day.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from. Tritos is from treis (three). This is third. Hemera is the same as “day” in v1. See note I above.

16 No, this is what was spokenCIII through the prophetCIV Joel:CV

Notes on verse 16

CIII “spoken” = ereo. Related to “say” in v14. See note XCIX above.
CIV “prophet” = prophetes. Related to “suddenly” in v2 & “sound” in v6. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note XLII above). This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CV “Joel” = Ioel. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Yo’el (Joel, meaning “the Lord is God”); {from YHVH (the holy name of the God of Israel, generally designated Lord; the self-existent and eternal one; the tetragrammaton); {from havah (to become); or from hayah (to be become, happen)}) + El (God, a god)}. This is Joel, meaning “the Lord is God.”

17 ‘In the lastCVI days it will be, God declares,CVII
that I will pour outCVIII my Spirit upon all flesh,CIX

Notes on verse 17a

CVI “last” = eschatos. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (to have, possess, hold). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
CVII “declares” = lego. Same as “asked” in v7. See note LII above.
CVIII “pour out” = ekcheo. Related to “was bewildered” in v6. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (see note XLV above). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.
CIX “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).

    and your sonsCX and your daughtersCXI shall prophesy,CXII
and your young menCXIII shall seeCXIV visions,CXV

Notes on verse 17b

CX “sons” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CXI “daughters” = thugater. This is daughter, a related female or one who lives with you.
CXII “prophesy” = propheteuo. Related to “suddenly” in v2 & “sound” in v6 & “prophet” in v16. From prophetes (see note CIV above). This is to prophesy, foretell, or tell forth.
CXIII “young men” = neaniskos. 11x in NT. From neanias (youth, young man; someone in their prime to the age of 40); from neos (young, new, youth, person). This is a youth or young man in their prime up to 40.
CXIV “see” = horao. Same as “appeared” in v3. See note XXI above.
CXV “visions” = horasis. Related to “appeared” in v3. 4x in NT. From horao (see note XXI above). This is gazing, appearance, sight.

    and your old menCXVI shall dreamCXVII dreams.CXVIII

Notes on verse 17c

CXVI “old men” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
CXVII “dream” = enupniazomai. Related to “dreams” in v17. 2x in NT. From enupnion (see note CXVIII below). This is to dream as a vision in sleep or a dreamer.
CXVIII “dreams” = enupnion. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + hupnos (sleep literal or figurative); {perhaps related to hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to)}. This is a dream or vision.

18 EvenCXIX upon my slaves,CXX both men and women,CXXI
    in those days I will pour out my Spirit,
        and they shall prophesy.

Notes on verse 18

CXIX “even” = ge. 16x in NT. This is a particle of emphasis – indeed, besides, doubtless, yet, at least.
CXX “slaves” = doulos. Related to “visitors” in v10. Perhaps from deo (see note LXXIII above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
CXXI “women” = doule. Related to “visitors” in v10 & “slaves” in v18. 3x in NT– 2x of Mary, 1x of Pentecost. From doulos (see note CXX above). This is female slave or bondservant.

Image credit: A stained glass window with a Pentecost theme by Hans Stocker at the Catholic church of St. Peter in Büsserach. Photo by Roland Zumbuehl, 2017.

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