Acts 28

Acts 28


After we had reached safety,I we then learnedII that the islandIII was calledIV Malta.V 

Notes on verse 1

I “reached safety” = diasozo. 8x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + sozo (to save, heal, rescue); {from sos (safe, well, rescued)}. This is thoroughly saved or delivered from danger. It can also be to make someone entirely whole, to cure, or preserve.
II “learned” = epiginosko. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.
III “island” = nesos. 9x in NT– all in Acts & Revelation. Perhaps from naus (a ship); from nao (to float). This is an island.
IV “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
V “Malta” = Melite. 1x in NT. Perhaps from meli (honey) OR from Phoenician Maleth (haven, port). This is Melita, which is now called Malta. It may mean “honey-sweet” or “haven” or “port.” See

The local peopleVI showedVII us unusualVIII kindness.IX

Notes on verse 2a

VI “local people” = barbaros. 6x in NT. Perhaps onomatopoetic mocking of the sounds of non-Greek languages. Used to refer to uncivilized, again any non-Greek, people. This could refer to someone not adopting Greek language or culture or both.
VII “showed” = parecho. 16x in NT– including Luke 6:29: “if anyone strikes you on the cheek, offer the other also.” From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is present, to show, bring, give, offer to hold near.
VIII “unusual” = ou + ho + tugchano. Literally, “not the ordinary.” Tugchano is 12x in NT. Root means to become ready. This word is to hit, meet, happen, obtain, chance, perhaps. Properly, it means to hit the mark or be spot on. Thus, it is the opposite of the Greek word for sin hamartano, which literally means to miss the mark.
IX “kindness” = philanthropia. 2x in NT. From the same as philanthropos (humanly, kindly, human, courteous); {from philos (beloved, dear, friendly, fried; someone that is loved or cared for in a personal sense – a confident; this is love based on personal engagement and not love in an abstract sense) + anthropos (person, humankind; refers to all genders); {probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}}}. This is love for humanity, kindness, benevolence. Literally, it refers to the level of kindness that one gives to a friend (but is extended to others). This is where the term “philanthropy” comes from.

Since it had begunX to rainXI and was cold,XII

Notes on verse 2b

X “begun” = ephistemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to stand upon, happen, be present. Usually, it is used in a literal sense.
XI “rain” = huetos. 5x in NT. From huo (to rain). This is rain or a shower.
XII “cold” = psuchos. 3x in NT. From psucho (to breathe, blow, breathe out, to cool or make cold). This is cold or coolness. It is connected to the root of psuche (psyche), which refers to the breathe of life and, by extension, life itself as expressed in individuality.

they kindledXIII a fireXIV and welcomedXV allXVI of us around it. 

Notes on verse 2c

XIII “kindled” = hapto. 5x in NT. This is to touch, cling, light on fire.
XIV “fire” = pura. 2x in NT – both in Acts 28. From pur (fire, fiery; figurative for strife or trials). This is burning fuel – a fire.
XV “welcomed” = proslambano. 12x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take aside, accept, receive, or welcome. It can be to take in a friendly or hospitable sense or to eat (i.e. take food).
XVI “all” = pas. This is all or every.

PaulXVII had gatheredXVIII a bundleXIX of brushwoodXX

Notes on verse 3a

XVII “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
XVIII “gathered” = sustrepho. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to roll or twist together, to gather or bundle.
XIX “bundle” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.
XX “brushwood” = phruganon. 1x in NT. Perhaps from phrugo (to parch, roast). This is something dried out – a stick or twig.

and was puttingXXI it on the fire when a viper,XXII drivenXXIII out

Notes on verse 3b

XXI “putting” = epitithemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
XXII “viper” = echidna. 5x in NT. From echis (viper, adder). This is some kind of poisonous snake or figuratively poisonous words.
XXIII “driven” = exerchomai. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.

by the heat,XXIV fastenedXXV itself on his hand.XXVI 

Notes on verse 3c

XXIV “heat” = therme. 1x in NT. Probably from the same as theros (summer; the heat, which implies summer); from thero (to heat). This is heat or warmth.
XXV “fastened” = kathapto. Related to “kindled” in v2. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout) + hapto (see note XIII above). This is to latch onto, seize, attack.
XXVI “hand” = cheir. Perhaps from cheimon (winter, storm – winter as the rainy season); related to the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn). This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.

When the local people sawXXVII the creatureXXVIII hangingXXIX from his hand, they saidXXX to one another,

Notes on verse 4a

XXVII “saw” = horao. Related to “kindness” in v2. See note IX above.
XXVIII “creature” = therion. From the same as thera (hunting, game, a net, trap, destruction); from ther (wild animal – particularly one that is hunted). This is wild animal or any creature. Figuratively, as wild animals are often dangerous, it can refer to a brutal nature.
XXIX “hanging” = kremannumi. 7x in NT. This is to hang or suspend. Figuratively, it means to depend.
XXX “said” = eiron. This is to speak say, answer, command.

“This manXXXI mustXXXII beXXXIII a murderer;XXXIV though he has escapedXXXV from the sea,XXXVI

Notes on verse 4b

XXXI “man” = anthropos. Related to “kindness” in v2 & to “kindness” in v2 & “saw” in v4. See note IX above.
XXXII “must” = pantos. Related to “all” in v2. 9x in NT. From pas (see note XVI above). This is entirely, all, altogether, undoubtedly.
XXXIII “be” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XXXIV “murderer” = phoneus. 7x in NT. From phonos (killing, murder, or slaughter; one of the crimes that Barabbas and Saul are accused of); from pheno (to slay). This is a murderer – a killing that is not justified and is done on purpose. It general refers to a criminal act.
XXXV “escaped” = diasozo. Same as “reached safety” in v1. See note I above.
XXXVI “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.

JusticeXXXVII has not allowedXXXVIII him to live.”XXXIX 

Notes on verse 4c

XXXVII “Justice” = Dike. 3x in NT. Perhaps from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is the principle of justice. It is what is right in a way that is very clear. It can be a decision or the execution of that decision. Originally, this word was for custom or usage. It evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance. It can also refer to the Goddess of justice (for Romans – Justitia). She was one of Zeus’s children, representing moral order and justice as a universal ideal or as derived from law or custom. See
XXXVIII “allowed” = eao. 11x in NT. This is to allow, leave, put up with something.
XXXIX “live” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

He,XL however, shook offXLI the creature into the fireXLII and sufferedXLIII no harm.XLIV 

Notes on verse 5

XL {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XLI “shook off” = apotinasso. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + tinasso (to shake or brandish). This is to shake or brush off.
XLII “fire” = pur. Related to “fire” in v2. See note XIV above.
XLIII “suffered” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
XLIV “harm” = kakos. This is bad, evil, harm, ill. It is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm. It refers to deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character. Can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue.

They were expectingXLV him toXLVI swell upXLVII or drop dead,XLVIII

Notes on verse 6a

XLV “expecting” = prosdokao. 16x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + dokeuo (to watch). This is to await, anticipate, expect, look for.
XLVI “to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
XLVII “swell up” = pimpremi. 1x in NT. This is to swell or fill up. It can refer to the heat of a fever or of passion.
XLVIII “drop dead” = katapipto + aphno + nekros. Katapipto is 3x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + pipto (to fall literally or figuratively). This is to fall, fall down flat. Aphno is 3x in NT. Perhaps from aphanes (invisible, hidden, not apparent); {from a (not, without) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear); {perhaps from phos (light, radiance; light literal or figurative)}}. This is suddenly or unawares. Nekros is perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

but after they had waitedXLIX a longL time and sawLI

Notes on verse 6b

XLIX “waited” = prosdokao. Same as “expecting” in v6. See note XLV above.
L “long” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
LI “saw” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.

that nothing unusualLII had happenedLIII to him, they changed their mindsLIV and began to say that he was a god.LV

Notes on verse 6c

LII “unusual” = atopos. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + topos (a place or region; a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people; figuratively, be an opportunity). This is literally out of place. It can be unusual, improper, or amiss. It can also be wrong in a moral sense, improper, harmful, unreasonable.
LIII “happened” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LIV “changed…minds” = metaballo. 1x in NT. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw over, change, alter an opinion.
LV “god” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

Now in the vicinityLVI of that placeLVII wereLVIII landsLIX

Notes on verse 7a

LVI “vicinity” = peri. Perhaps from peran (over, beyond, across); similar to pera (the side beyond); perhaps from peiro (to pierce). This is all-around, encompassing, comprehensive.
LVII “place” = topos. Related to “unusual” in v6. See note LII above.
LVIII “were” = huparcho. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
LIX “lands” = chorion. Related to “hand” in v. 10x in NT. From chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (see note XXVI above). This is place, estate, possession, piece of ground, property.

belonging to the leading manLX of the island, namedLXI Publius,LXII who receivedLXIII us

Notes on verse 7b

LX “leading man” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
LXI “named” = onoma. Related to “learned” in v1. May be from ginosko (see note II above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
LXII “Publius” = Poplios. 2x in NT. From Latin populus (a country’s people, the general public, a big group; it can also denote the Senate in contrast to the greater public; elite families in contrast to plebs; military and non-military); from Latin plenus (full). This is Publius, perhaps meaning “popular,” “of the people,” “public,” “of the common people.” See
LXIII “received” = anadechomai. 2x in NT. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is to receive, welcome, treat like a guest.

and entertainedLXIV us hospitablyLXV for threeLXVI days.LXVII 

Notes on verse 7c

LXIV “entertained” = xenizo. 10x in NT. From xenos (foreign or foreigner, an alien or guest; also something new, novel, or strange). This is to receive as a guest or act as a host – to give or receive lodging. It could also be surprise, bewilder, or entertain. Also, it can be to think something it strange.
LXV “hospitably” = philophronos. Related to “kindness” in v2. 1x in NT. From philophron (friendly, courteous, kind); {from tapeinophron (humble in spirit); {from tapeinos (low in position, depressed, low in circumstance; fig humiliated, low in spirit) + phren ((literally the diaphragm; used figuratively for heart, thought, or understanding; personal outlook we use to decide our actions, general outlook); {perhaps from phrao (to rein in, curb)}} OR from philos (see note IX above) + phren (see above). This is kindly or courteously – with affection.
LXVI “three” = treis. This is three, thrice.
LXVII “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.

It so happened that the fatherLXVIII of Publius lay sick in bedLXIX with feverLXX and dysentery.LXXI

Notes on verse 8a

LXVIII “father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
LXIX “lay sick in bed” = sunecho + katakeimai. Sunecho is related to “showed” in v2. 12x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + echo (see note VII above). This is to hold together or hold fast, to close or press together. It can also be to be struck by an illness, arrested, compressed as by a multitude or a siege. Figuratively, it can mean to compel, perplex, preoccupy, or generally afflict. Katakeimai is 12x in NT.  From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + keimai (to lie, recline, be placed, lie outstretched, be appointed). This is to lie down, whether for a meal or as one sick in bed.
LXX “fever” = puretos. Related to “fire” in v2 & “fire” in v5. 6x in NT. From pur (see note XIV above) OR from puresso (fever, on fire); {from pura (see note XIV above)}. This is inflamed or fever.
LXXI “dysentery” = dusenterion. 1x in NT. From dus (un-, mis-, dys-) + enteron (intestine, bowels) OR from dus (un-, mis-, dys-) + entos (within, among, inside); {from en (in, on, at, by, with)}. This is dysentery or a bloody flux. It is where the word “dysentery” comes from.

Paul visitedLXXII him and curedLXXIII him by prayingLXXIV and putting his hands on him. 

Notes on verse 8b

LXXII “visited” = eiserchomai. Related to “driven” in v3. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XXIII above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIII “cured” = iaomai. This is to heal, particularly from a physical illness, but it could also be a spiritual difficulty. This is to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIV “praying” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.

After this happened, the restLXXV of the people on the island who hadLXXVI diseasesLXXVII also cameLXXVIII and were cured.LXXIX 

Notes on verse 9

LXXV “rest” = loipos. From leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.
LXXVI “had” = echo. Related to “showed” in v2 & “lay sick in bed” in v8. See note VII above.
LXXVII “diseases” = astheneia. From asthenes (without strength, sick, deprivation; weak in a moral or physical sense); {From a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is weakness, frailty, illness, suffering, or calamity. It is any kind of sickness or injury that includes weakness or diminishes your ability to enjoy or accomplish what you would choose.
LXXVIII “came” = proserchomai. Related to “driven” in v3 & “visited” in v8. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note XXIII above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
LXXIX “cured” = therapeuo. Related to “heat” in v3. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (see note XXIV above). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.

10 They bestowed manyLXXX honorsLXXXI onLXXXII us,

Notes on verse 10a

LXXX “many” = polus. Same as “long” in v6. See note L above.
LXXXI “honors” = time. From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value). This has to do with worth or something’s perceived value. Literally, it means price, but figuratively, it means the honor or value one sees in someone or something else. It can be esteem or dignity. It can also mean precious or valuables.
LXXXII “bestowed…on” = timao. Related to “honors” in v10. From time (see note LXXXI above). Properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor.

and when we were about to sail,LXXXIII they put on board all the provisions we needed.LXXXIV

11 Three months later we set sailLXXXV on a shipLXXXVI that had winteredLXXXVII at the island,

Notes on verses 10b-11a

LXXXIII “sail” = anago. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go). This is to lead up, offer, set sail, bring out, depart, loose.
LXXXIV “needed” = chreia. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.
LXXXV “set sail” = anago. Same as “sail” in v10. See note LXXXIII above.
LXXXVI “ship” = ploion. From pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow). This is a boat, ship, or vessel.
LXXXVII “wintered” = paracheimazo. Related to “hand” in v3 & “lands” in v7. 4x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + cheimazo (to be in winter cold or driven by a storm); {from cheima (winter cold); from the same as cheimon (see note XXVI above)}. This is to spend the winter near.

an AlexandrianLXXXVIII ship with the Twin BrothersLXXXIX as its figurehead.XC 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXXVIII “Alexandrian” = Alexandrinos. Related to “kindness” in v2 & “man” in v4. 2x in NT. From Alexandreus (Alexandrian); from Alexandreia (Alexandria); from Alexandros (Alexander); {from alexo (to ward off) + aner (see note IX above)}. This is of Alexandria. See
LXXXIX “Twin Brothers” = Dioskouroi. 1x in NT. From Dios (related to Zeus); {from Zeus (Zeus)} + kouros (boy). This is the Dioscuri, twin brothers. It is the children of Zeus and Leda. They were considered patrons of sailors.
XC “as its figurehead” = parasemos. 1x in NT. from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); {from sema (a sign, mark)}. This is marked amiss or having a sign. It is a figurehead or label.

12 We put inXCI at SyracuseXCII and stayedXCIII there for three days; 

Notes on verse 12

XCI “put in” = katago. Related to “sail” in v10. 9x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + ago (see note LXXXIII above). This is to bring or lead down. It could be from higher to lower ground or from out to sea closer to the land.
XCII “Syracuse” = Surakousai. 1x in NT. From Phoenician šhrʾḥ (to feel sick) OR from Phoenician Sour-ha-Koussim (“stone of the seagulls”). This is Syracuse. See &,_Sicily
XCIII “strayed” = epimeno. 17x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure; to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition; to continue with hope and expectation). This is to remain, terry, continue, or persevere. It denotes persistence in pursing a goal or task.

13 then we weighed anchorXCIV and cameXCV to Rhegium.XCVI

Notes on verse 13a

XCIV “weighed anchor” = periaireo. 5x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to take away, strip off, separate, leave behind, to weigh anchor, to expiate.
XCV “came” = katantao. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among); + antao (to meet with personally) OR from kata (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to come down, reach, arrive. It can be to descend from a higher elevation to a lower one or, more specifically, go to the coast or from out in the waters back to the coast. Figuratively, it is arriving at one’s destination or receiving inheritance.
XCVI “Rhegium” = Rhegion. 1x in NT. From Latin rex (king) OR from Greek rhegma (breach, ruin); from rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is Rhegium, perhaps meaning “royal place,” “place of the breach,” “ruin,” “ripped asunder place.” See

After oneXCVII day there a south windXCVIII sprang up,XCIX and on the second dayC we cameCI to Puteoli.CII 

Notes on verse 13b

XCVII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XCVIII “south wind” = notos. 7x in NT. This is south wind, hence, a reference to the South.
XCIX “sprang up” = epiginomai. Related to “happened” in v6. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + ginomai (see note LIII above). This is to arrive, spring up.
C “second day” = deuteraios. 1x in NT. From deuteros (second, twice, again) from duo (two, both). This is secondary, next day.
CI “came” = erchomai. Related to “driven” in v3 & “visited” in v8 & “came” in v9. See note XXIII above.
CII “Puteoli” = Potioloi. 1x in NT. From Latin puteus (a well) OR Latin puteo (to stink, rot). This is Puteoli, meaning “little wells, which is to say “mineral springs,” “well,” “hole,” “putrid,” “stinking,” “pure well,” or “stink hole.” See

14 There we foundCIII brothersCIV and sisters and were invitedCV to stay with them

Notes on verse 14a

CIII “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CIV “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
CV “invited” = parakaleo. Related to “called” in v1. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note IV above). This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.

for sevenCVI days. And so we cameCVII to Rome.CVIII 

Notes on verse 14b

CVI “seven” = hepta. This is seven or seventh. Figuratively, seven is the number of completeness or perfection.
CVII “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v13. See note CI above.
CVIII “Rome” = Rhome. 8x in NT. From the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This is Rome. See

15 The brothers and sisters from there, when they heardCIX of us, cameCX as far as the ForumCXI of AppiusCXII

Notes on verse 15a

CIX “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CX “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v13. See note CI above.
CXI “Forum” = Phoron. 1x in NT. From Latin forum (forum, public square); “from Proto-Italic *fworom; from Proto-Indo-European *dʰworom (“enclosure, courtyard, i.e. something enclosed by the door, or the place outside, i.e. through the door”), from *dʰwer– (“door, gate”).” This is forum or marketplace. See See
CXII “of Appius” = Appiou. 1x in NT. From Latin Appius (Appius, a praenomen) OR from Mycenaean Greek Iapygia (Iapygia); {perhaps from ion (violet) or ios (arrow) + pous (foot, literal or figurative)}. This is Appian, related to Appius, which may mean “Arrow Feet” or “Violet Feet.” See &

and Three TavernsCXIII to meetCXIV us. On seeingCXV them,

Notes on verse 15b

CXIII “Taverns” = taberne. 1x in NT. From Latin taberna (shop, inn, tavern, hut); from trabs (timber, rafter, penis). This is hut, tavern, inn with reference to the walls being made of wood. It is where the word “tavern” comes from. See
CXIV “meet” = apantesis. Related to “came” in v13. 3x in NT. From apantao (to meet or encounter); {from apo (from, away from) + antao (see note XCV above)}. This is a meeting. It can be used specifically to refer to welcoming an official who has just arrived. 
CXV “seeing” = horao. Same as “saw” in v4. See note XXVII above.

Paul thankedCXVI GodCXVII and tookCXVIII courage.CXIX

Notes on verse 15c

CXVI “thanked” = eucharisteo. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards)}. This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.
CXVII “God” = Theos. Same as “god” in v6. See note LV above.
CXVIII “took” = lambano. Related to “welcomed” in v2. See note XV above.
CXIX “courage” = tharsos. 1x in NT. From thrasus (bold, daring). This is courage, confidence, boldness.

16 When we cameCXX into Rome,CXXI Paul was allowedCXXII

Notes on verse 16a

CXX “came” = eiserchomai. Same as “visited” in v8. See note LXXII above.
CXXI Some manuscripts add “the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard” = ho + hekatontarches + paradidomi + ho + desmios + ho + stratopedarches. Hekatontarches is related to “were” in v7. From hekaton (hundred) + archo (see note LVIII above). This is a centurion from the Roman army, leader a captain of one hundred soldiers. Paradidomi is from para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement. Desmios is 17x in NT. From desomon (a chain, bond, impediment; being in jail, a ligament); from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is a binding or one who is bound. So, it can be a prisoner or captive. Stratopedarches is related to “of Appius” in v15 & to “were” in v7 & {untranslated} in v16. 1x in NT. From stratopedon (military camp, camping ground, group of troops); {from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); {from stratos (encamped army) or from stratia (army; used figuratively for large, organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars) or from stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed)}} + pedon (ground, site) OR from stratia (see above) + pedinos (level, plain); {from pedion (a plain) or pous (see note CXII above)} + archo (see note LVIII above). This is captain of the guard, particularly for a Praetorian prefect.
CXXII “allowed” = epitrepo. Related to “gathered” in v3. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + the same as trope (see note XVIII above). This is to allow, permit, yield, entrust, give license.

to liveCXXIII by himself, with the soldierCXXIV who was guardingCXXV him.

17 CXXVIThree days later he called togetherCXXVII

Notes on verses 16b-17a

CXXIII “live” = meno. Related to “stayed” in v12. See note XCIII above.
CXXIV “soldier” = stratiotes. Related to {untranslated} in v16. From stratia (see note CXXI above). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXV “guarding” = phulasso. This is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly. This is being on guard in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXVI {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “happened” in v6. See note LIII above.
CXXVII “called together” = sugkaleo. Related to “called” in v1 & “invited” in v14. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + kaleo (see note IV above). This is to summon or call together.

theCXXVIII local leadersCXXIX of the Jews.CXXX When they had assembled,CXXXI

Notes on verse 17b

CXXVIII {untranslated} = eimi. Same as “be” in v4. See note XXXIII above.
CXXIX “leaders” = protos. Same as “leading man” in v7. See note LX above.
CXXX “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
CXXXI “assembled” = sunerchomai. Related to “driven” in v3 & “visited” in v8 & “came” in v9 & “came” in v13. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (see note XXIII above). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.

he said to them, “CXXXIIBrothers, though I had doneCXXXIII nothing against our peopleCXXXIV or the customsCXXXV of our ancestors,CXXXVI

Notes on verse 17c

CXXXII {untranslated} = aner. Related to “kindness” in v2 & “man” in v4 & “Alexandrian” in v11. See note IX above.
CXXXIII “done” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
CXXXIV “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
CXXXV “customs” = ethos. 12x in NT. From etho (custom, what is customary). This is custom, habit, rite – also, doing something that the law requires. It can be an unwritten custom, acting in accordance with tradition.
CXXXVI “of our ancestors” = patroos. Related to “father” in v8. 3x in NT – all in Acts. From pater (see note LXVIII above). This is heriditary or related to one’s ancestors.

yet I was arrestedCXXXVII in JerusalemCXXXVIII and handed overCXXXIX to theCXL Romans.CXLI 

Notes on verse 17d

CXXXVII “arrested” = desmios. Same as {untranslated} in v16. See note CXXI above.
CXXXVIII “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
CXXXIX “handed over” = paradidomi. Same as {untranslated} in v16. See note CXXI above.
CXL {untranslated} = cheir. Same as “hand” in v3. See note XXVI above.
CXLI “Romans” = Rhomaios. Related to “Rome” in v14. 12x in NT. From Rhome (see note CVIII above). This is Rome, Roman, or Roman citizen. See

18 When they had examinedCXLII me, the Romans wantedCXLIII to releaseCXLIV me

Notes on verse 18a

CXLII “examined” = anakrino. 16x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). 16x in NT. This is to scrutinize, examine, investigate, judge, or discern. Properly, it refers to very thorough investigation or careful study. It was used to talk about investigating crimes in the ancient world. It can also be used to talk about interrogation that uses torture.
CXLIII “wanted” = boulomai. This is to wish, desire, intend. Also, to plan with great determination.
CXLIV “release” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.

because there wasCXLV no reasonCXLVI for the deathCXLVII penalty in my case. 19 But when the Jews objected,CXLVIII I was compelledCXLIX

Notes on verses 18b-19a

CXLV “was” = huparcho. Same as “were” in v7. See note LVIII above.
CXLVI “reason” = aitia. From aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.
CXLVII “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CXLVIII “objected” = antilego. 11x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is literally to speak against – so, to contradict, oppose, resist. It is being argumentative, especially with a hostile bent through opposition. It can indicate attempts to thwart.
CXLIX “compelled” = anagkazo. 9x in NT. From anagke (necessity – something that happensaper that requires an immediate response; generally associated with pain or distress.); {from ana (up, again, anew) + agcho (to press tightly, compress)} or {from ana (up, again, anew) + agkale (the arm, particularly one that is bent to carry a load); {from agkos (a bend)}}. This is to urge, compel, or force.

to appeal toCL the emperorCLI—even though I had no charge to bring againstCLII my people.CLIII 

Notes on verse 19b

CL “appeal to” = epikaleo. Related to “called” in v1 & “invited” in v14 & “called together” in v17. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (see note IV above). This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
CLI “emperor” = Kaisar. From Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors. See
CLII “bring against” = kategoreo. From kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR {from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}}. This is to accuse, charge, or prosecute. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.
CLIII “people” = ethnos. Related to “customs” in v17. Probably from etho (see note CXXXV above). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

20 For this reason therefore I askedCLIV to seeCLV you and speakCLVI with you, since it is for the sake of the hopeCLVII

Notes on verse 20a

CLIV “asked” = parakaleo. Same as “invited” in v14. See note CV above.
CLV “see” = horao. Same as “saw” in v4. See note XXVII above.
CLVI “speak” = proslaleo. 2x in NT – both in Acts. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + laleo (to talk, say, preach); {from lalos (talkative)}. This is to speak or converse with.
CLVII “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.

of IsraelCLVIII that I am boundCLIX with this chain.”CLX 

Notes on verse 20b

CLVIII “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.
CLIX “bound” = perikeimai. Related to “lay sick in bed” in v8. 5x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + keimai (see note LXIX above). This is to lie around, surround, be clothed in, be bound, hang, be subject to.
CLX “chain” = halusis. 11x in NT. This is a chain or fetter.

21 They replied,CLXI “We have receivedCLXII no lettersCLXIII from JudeaCLXIV about you,

Notes on verse 21a

CLXI “replied” = eiron. Same as “said” in v4. See note XXX above.
CLXII “received” = dechomai. Related to “received” in v7. See note LXIII above.
CLXIII “letters” = gramma. 15x in NT. From grapho (to write, describe). This is something drawn or written. So, it could be a letter of the alphabet, an epistle, a book, literature, etc.
CLXIV “Judea” = Ioudaia. Related to “Jews” in v17. From Hebrew Yehudah (see note CXXX above). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.

and none of the brothers comingCLXV here has reportedCLXVI or spokenCLXVII anything evilCLXVIII about you. 

Notes on verse 21b

CLXV “coming” = paraginomai. Related to “happened” in v6 & “sprang up” in v13. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note LIII above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
CLXVI “reported” = apaggello. Related to “sail” in v10 & “put in” in v12. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (see note LXXXIII above)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
CLXVII “spoken” = laleo. Related to “speak” in v20. See note CLVI above.
CLXVIII “evil” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.

22 But we would likeCLXIX to hear from you what you think,CLXX for with regard to CLXXIthis sectCLXXII

Notes on verse 22a

CLXIX “would like” = axioo. Related to “sail” in v10 & “put in” in v12 & “reported” in v21. 7x in NT. From axios (related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward); from ago (see note LXXXIII above). This is to consider worthy or deserve. It is to see something as good.
CLXX “think” = phroneo. Related to “hospitably” in v7. From phren (see note LXV above). This is to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action. It refers to one’s insight or inner perspective expressing itself through behavior.
CLXXI {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XL above.
CLXXII “sect” = hairesis. Related to “weighed anchor” in v13. 9x in NT. From haireo (see note XCIV above). This is a choice, contention, heresy, or sect. It is making a person choice so, by implication, choice of a separate party or faction. It is where the word “heresy” comes from.

we knowCLXXIII that everywhereCLXXIV it is spoken against.”CLXXV

Notes on verse 22b

CLXXIII “know” = gnostos…eimi. Gnostos is related to “learned” in v1 & “named” in v7. 15x in NT. From ginosko (see note II above). This is known or acquaintance. Eimi is the same as “be” in v4. See note XXXIII above.
CLXXIV “everywhere” = pantachou. Related to “all” in v2 & “must” in v4. 8x in NT. Probably from pas (see note XVI above). This is everywhere, universally.
CLXXV “spoken against” = antilego. Same as “objected” in v19. See note CXLVIII above. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + lego (see note CXLVIII above). This is literally to speak against – so, to contradict, oppose, resist. It is being argumentative, especially with a hostile bent through opposition. It can indicate attempts to thwart.

23 After they had setCLXXVI a day to meetCLXXVII with him, they came to him at his lodgingsCLXXVIII in great numbers.CLXXIX

Notes on verse 23a

CLXXVI “set” = tasso. 9x in NT. This word was common in military settings to mean appoint or commission to a certain status. It referred to arranging in a specified order, setting in place, or sending to a specific task.
CLXXVII “meet” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v13. See note CI above.
CLXXVIII “lodgings” = xenia. Related to “entertained” in v7. 2x in NT. From xenos (see note LXIV above). This is hospitality, guest room, or lodging.
CLXXIX “great numbers” = pleion. Related to “long” in v6. From polus (see note L above). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.

From morningCLXXX until eveningCLXXXI he explained the matter to them, testifyingCLXXXII

Notes on verse 23b

CLXXX “morning” = proi. 12x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior). This is early, at dawn, during the daybreak watch.
CLXXXI “evening” = hespera. 3x in NT – 1x in Luke & 2x in Acts. From hesperos (of evening). This is eve or evening.
CLXXXII “testifying” = diamarturomai. 15x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + marturomai (to witness, testify, call as a witness, affirm, charge, protest); {from martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr)}. This is to affirm, give evidence, testify thoroughly. It is giving full testimony.

to the kingdomCLXXXIII of God and trying to convinceCLXXXIV them about JesusCLXXXV

Notes on verse 23c

CLXXXIII “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CLXXXIV “trying to convince” = peitho. This is to have confidence, to urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust. It is the root from which the Greek word for faith is drawn (pistis).
CLXXXV “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

both from the lawCLXXXVI of MosesCLXXXVII and from the prophets.CLXXXVIII 

Notes on verse 23d

CLXXXVI “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
CLXXXVII “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
CLXXXVIII “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “drop dead” in v6. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (see note XLVIII above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.

24 SomeCLXXXIX were convincedCXC by what he had said,CXCI while others refused to believe.CXCII 

Notes on verse 24

CLXXXIX {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XL above.
CXC “convinced” = peitho. Same as “trying to convince” in v23. See note CLXXXIV above.
CXCI “said” = lego. Related to “objected” in v19. See note CXLVIII above.
CXCII “refused to believe” = apisteo. Related to “trying to convince” in v23. 8x in NT. From apistos (unbelieving, incredulous, faithless; someone who rejects faith); {from a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); {from peitho (see note CLXXXIV above)}}. This is to intentionally disbelieve, prove false. It can be one who has never believed or a believer who goes astray.

25 So they disagreedCXCIII with each other, and as they were leavingCXCIV Paul madeCXCV one further statement:CXCVI

Notes on verse 25a

CXCIII “disagreed” = asumphonoseimi. Asumphonos is related to “drop dead” in v6 & “prophets” in v23. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + sumphonos (to harmonize with, agree, have a shared opinion, an accord); {from sun (with, together with) + phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi (see note CLXXXVIII above)}}. This is discordant. Figuratively, it is something that is inharmonious, i.e. disagreeing. Eimi is the same as “be” in v4. See note XXXIII above.
CXCIV “leaving” = apoluo. Same as “release” in v18. See note CXLIV above.
CXCV “made” = eiron. Same as “said” in v4. See note XXX above.
CXCVI “statement” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.

“The HolyCXCVII SpiritCXCVIII was rightCXCIX

Notes on verse 25a

CXCVII “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CXCVIII “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CXCIX “right” = kalos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably.

in sayingCC to your ancestorsCCI through the prophet Isaiah,CCII

26 CCIII‘GoCCIV to this peopleCCV and say,CCVI

Notes on verses 25b-26a

CC “saying” = laleo. Same as “spoken” in v21. See note CLXVII above.
CCI “ancestors” = pater. Same as “father” in v8. See note LXVIII above.
CCII “Isaiah” = Esaias. Related to “Jesus” in v23. From Hebrew Yeshayahu (Isaiah, “salvation of the Lord”); {from yasha (see note CLXXXV above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note CLXXXV above)}. This is Isaiah, meaning “salvation of the Lord.”
CCIII {untranslated} = lego. Same as “said” in v24. See note CXCI above.
CCIV “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
CCV “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v17. See note CXXXIV above.
CCVI “say” = eiron. Same as “said” in v4. See note XXX above.

You will indeed listenCCVII but never understand,CCVIII
    and you will indeed lookCCIX but never perceive.CCX

Notes on verse 26b

CCVII “indeed listen” = akoe + akouo. Literally, “in hearing you will hear.” Akoe is related to “heard” in v15. From akouo (see note CIX above). This is hearing, ear, audience, fame, report, rumor. Akouo is the same as “heard” in v1. See note CIX above.
CCVIII “understand” = suniemi. From sun (with, together with) + hiemi (to send, put). This is to put together – used figuratively to mean understand, consider, gain insight. It is bringing together facts or notions and synthesizing them into a whole. It is making a summary to arrive at a final conclusion that includes how to apply the insight to life. It can also imply acting piously or being wise.
CCIX “indeed look” = blepo + blepo. Literally, “in seeing you will see.”  This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
CCX “perceive” = horao. Same as “saw” in v4. See note XXVII above.

27 For this people’sCCXI heartCCXII has grown dull,CCXIII

Notes on verse 27a

CCXI “people’s” = laos. Same as “people” in v17. See note CXXXIV above.
CCXII “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CCXIII “grown dull” = pachuno. 2x in NT. From pachus (thick) OR from pegnumi (to fasten, to set up a tent). This is to fatten or thicken. Figuratively, it can mean being insensitive, stupid, unfeeling, obtuse.

    and their earsCCXIV are hardCCXV of hearing,
        and they have shutCCXVI their eyes;CCXVII

Notes on verse 27b

CCXIV “ears” = ous. This is the physical ear, or the perception of hearing, whether physical or cognitive.
CCXV “hard” = bareos. Related to “kingdom” in v23. 2x in NT. From barus (heavy, burdensome; figuratively, violent, oppressive; that which presses down on someone so that they cannot move freely); from the same as baros (weight, burden in a literal or figurative sense; authority); perhaps from baino (see note CLXXXIII above). This is heavily, with difficulty. It can also mean dull.
CCXVI “shut” = kammuo. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + muo (shutting eyes or mouth) OR from kata (see above) + musterion (a mystery or a secret doctrine that requires initiation to learn); {from mustes (an initiate); from mueo (to initiate someone into the secrets or mysteries of an order; to instruct learn, be disciples; properly, shutting your mouth and eyes to experience mystery); from muo (see above)}.This is to shut down, close one’s eyes.
CCXVII “eyes” = ophthalmos. Related to “kindness” in v2 & “saw” and “man” in v4. From optanomai (see note IX above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.

 otherwise they might lookCCXVIII with their eyes
    and listenCCXIX with their ears
and understand with their heart and turnCCXX
    and I would healCCXXI them.’

Notes on verse 27c

CCXVIII “look” = horao. Same as “saw” in v4. See note XXVII above.
CCXIX “listen” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v15. See note CIX above.
CCXX “turn” = epistrepho. Related to “gathered” in v3 & “allowed” in v16. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (see note XVIII above). This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
CCXXI “heal” = iaomai. Same as “cured” in v8. See note LXXIII above.

28 “Let it be known to you, then, that this salvationCCXXII of God has been sentCCXXIII to the gentiles;CCXXIV they will listen.”

Notes on verse 28

CCXXII “salvation” = soterios. Related to “reached safety” in v1. 5x in NT. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (see note I above). This is salvation, defender, something or someone saving.
CCXXIII “sent” = apostello. Related to “begun” in v2. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note X above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CCXXIV “gentiles” = ethnos. Same as “people” in v19. See note CLIII above.

29 [And when he had saidCCXXV these words, the Jews departed,CCXXVI arguingCCXXVII vigorouslyCCXXVIII among themselves]

Notes on verse 29

CCXXV “said” = eiron. Same as “said” in v4. See note XXX above.
CCXXVI “departed” = aperchomai. Related to “driven” in v3 & “visited” in v8 & “came” in v9 & “came” in v13 & “assembled” in v17. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note XXIII above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXXVII “arguing” = echosuzetesis. Echo is the same as “had” in v9. See note LXXVI above. Suzetesis is 1x in NT. From suzeteo (to seek together so a joint investigation, to argue, discuss, or debate); {from sun (with, together with) + zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God)}. This is disputation, discussion, reasoning.
CCXXVIII “vigorously” = polus. Same as “long” in v6. See note L above.

30 He livedCCXXIX there two wholeCCXXX yearsCCXXXI

Notes on verse 30a

CCXXIX “lived” = emmeno. Related to “stayed” in v12 & “live” in v16. 4x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + meno (see note XCIII above) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw, consume); {from masso (to handle, squeeze)}. This is to live, observe, continue, abide by, persevere.
CCXXX “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CCXXXI “two…years” = dietia. Related to “second day” in v13. 2x in NT. From dietes (a duration of two years; two years old); {from dis (twice, utterly, again); {from duo (see note C above)} + etos (year, age)}. This is a length of two years. It might also be any time between one and two years.

at his ownCCXXXII expenseCCXXXIII and welcomedCCXXXIV all who cameCCXXXV to him, 

Notes on verse 30b

CCXXXII “his own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
CCXXXIII “expense” = misthoma. 1x in NT. From misthoo (to hire for a wage, engage); {from misthos (wages, pay, salary; reward, recompense, punishment; pay for services rendered in a literal or figurative way, good or bad)}. This is rent, a rented living space.
CCXXXIV “welcomed” = apodechomai. Related to “received” in v7 & “received” in v21. 7x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + dechomai (see note LXIII above). This is to welcome, embrace, receive, approve of. It can also mean to show hospitality.
CCXXXV “came” = eisporeuomai. Related to “go” in v26. 18x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + poreuomai (see note CCIV above). 18x in NT. This is to enter or journey in in a literal or figurative sense.

31 proclaimingCCXXXVI the kingdom of God and teachingCCXXXVII about the LordCCXXXVIII

Notes on verse 31a

CCXXXVI “proclaiming” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
CCXXXVII “teaching” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
CCXXXVIII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

Jesus ChristCCXXXIX with all boldnessCCXL and without hindrance.CCXLI

Notes on verse 31b

CCXXXIX “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CCXL “boldness” = parresia. Related to “all” in v2 & “must” in v4 & “everywhere” in v22 & to “statement” in v25. From pas (see note XVI above) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (see note CXCVI above)}. This is confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness. It can imply assurance – free speech.
CCXLI “without hindrance” = akolutos. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + koluo (to hinder or prevent, restrain, refuse; to prevent, whether through words or actions); {perhaps from the same as kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked, dwarf)}. This is freely, unhindered.

Image credit: “Malta – Valletta – St. Paul’s Celebrations” by Mike Finn, 2019.

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