Deuteronomy 15

Deuteronomy 15


“EveryI seventhII yearIII you shall grantIV a remissionV of debts. 

Notes on verse 1

I “every” = qets. Literally, “at the end of.” From qatsats (to cut or chop off in a literal or figurative sense). This is outer border, end, or extremity. It can also mean infinite.
II “seventh” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
III “year” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
IV “grant” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
V “remission” = shemittah. 5x in OT– all in Deuteronomy. From shamat (to allow something to drop, release, stumble, upset, let alone, remit, lose). This is a release or remission. It can be a cancelling of debt or pause of labor.

And this is the mannerVI of the remission: everyVII creditorVIII shall remitIX

Notes on verse 2a

VI “manner” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
VII “every” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
VIII “creditor” = baal + mashsheh. Baal is from baal (to marry, have dominion, be master). This is lord, owner, ally, master, or archer. Mashsheh is 1x in OT. From nashah (to lend, be a usurer, borrow with a pledge, creditor); related to nashah (to forget, neglect, remove, deprive). This is a loan or a debt.
IX “remit” = shamat. Related to “remission” in v1. 9x in OT. See note V above.

the claimX that is heldXI against a neighbor,XII

Notes on verse 2b

X “claim” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XI “held” = nashah. Related to “creditor” in v2. 13x in OT.  See note VIII above.
XII “neighbor” = rearea + et + ach. Literally, “of a neighbor who is a member of the community.” Rea is from raah (to associate with). This is the same as neighbor in Leviticus 19:18 “love your neighbor as yourself.” This is friend, companion, fellow, neighbor. It is someone with whom you associate, whether more or less close. Ach is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.

not exactingXIII it, because the Lord’sXIV remission has been proclaimed.XV 

Notes on verse 2c

XIII “exacting” = nagas. This is driving an animal, worker, debtor, or an army. By implication, it can mean to tax, harass, distress, oppress, or tyrannize. This word can be used for taskmaster or overseer.
XIV “Lord’s” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XV “proclaimed” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.

Of a foreignerXVI you may exact it, but you must remit your claim on whatever any member of your communityXVII owesXVIII you. 

Notes on verse 3

XVI “foreigner” = nokri. From neker (strange; to act foreign or strange; to disguise; can also be misfortune or unexpected calamity); from nakar (to recognize, examine, take notice, show, scrutinize). This is foreign, alien, stranger, extraordinary, adulteress. It is strange in many different senses – foreign, not being one’s relative, different, wonderful, relating to adultery.
XVII “member of…community” = ach. Same as “neighbor” in v2. See note XII above.
XVIII “owes” = hayah. Related to “Lord’s” in v2. See note XIV above.

XIXThere will, however, beXX no one in needXXI among you, because the Lord is sure to blessXXII you

Notes on verse 4a

XIX {untranslated} = ephes. From aphes (to finish, fail, stop, come to nothing, disappear). This is an end, ceasing, no further. It is often used to refer to the ends of the earth.
XX “be” = hayah. Same as “owes” in v3. See note XVIII above.
XXI “in need” = ebyon. From abah (to consent, obey, want, yield, accept). This is needy, poor, beggar. Someone who is wanting.
XXII “sure to bless” = barak + barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

in the landXXIII that the Lord your GodXXIV is givingXXV you as a possessionXXVI to occupy,XXVII 

Notes on verse 4b

XXIII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XXIV “God” = Elohim.
XXV “giving” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XXVI “possession” = nachalah. Related to nachal (to inherit, occupy, distribute, take as heritage). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.
XXVII “occupy” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.

if onlyXXVIII you will obeyXXIX, XXX the Lord your God

Notes on verse 5a

XXVIII “only” = raq. From the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is but, except, at least. In the sense of being thin, it figuratively refers to some kind of limit.
XXIX “obey” = shama + shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
XXX {untranslated} = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.

by diligently observingXXXI this entireXXXII commandmentXXXIII

Notes on verse 5b

XXXI “diligently observing” = shamar + asah. Shamar is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something. Asah is the same as “grant” in v1. See note IV above.
XXXII “entire” = kol. Same as “every” in v2. See note VII above.
XXXIII “commandment” = mitsvah. From tsavah (to charge, command, order, enjoin). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.

that I commandXXXIV you today.XXXV When the Lord your God has blessed you, as he promisedXXXVI you, you will lendXXXVII

Notes on verses 5c-6a

XXXIV “command” = tsavah. Related to “commandment” in v5. See note XXXIII above.
XXXV “today” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XXXVI “promised” = dabar. Related to “manner” in v2. See note VI above.
XXXVII “lend” = abat. 6x in OT – 5x in Deuteronomy & 1x in Joel 2. From abot (pledge, pawn, debt security). This is to borrow or lend. It can involve something taken as a pledge. Figuratively, it can mean to entangle.

to manyXXXVIII nations,XXXIX but you will not borrow;XL you will ruleXLI over many nations, but they will not rule over you.

Notes on verse 6b

XXXVIII “many” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
XXXIX “nations” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.
XL “borrow” = abat. Same as “lend” in v6. See note XXXVII above.
XLI “rule” = mashal. This is to rule, reign, govern, have authority, wield.

“If there is among you anyoneXLII in need, a member of your community in anyXLIII of your townsXLIV within the land that the Lord your God is giving you,

Notes on verse 7a

XLII “anyone” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
XLIII “any” = echad. Same as “anyone” in v7. See note XLII above.
XLIV “towns” = shaar. May be related to sha’ar (to calculate or reckon; may come from a root that means to open up or split). This is a gate, door, or other opening like a port.

do not be hard-heartedXLV or tight-fistedXLVI toward your needyXLVII neighbor.XLVIII 

Notes on verse 7b

XLV “be hard-hearted” = amets + et + lebab. Amets is to be strong, stout, alert, or bold, It can also mean harden, make firm, be courageous or mighty, fortify, or establish. It can refer to physical alertness or mental courage or steadfastness. Lebab may be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
XLVI “tight-fisted” = qaphats + et + yad. Literally, “close your hand.” Qaphats is 7x in OT. This is to close, shut, contract. It can be used of hand or mouth, withdrawing compassion, or the way one contracts in death. It can also mean leaping as the body contracts over and over. Yad is the same as “claim” in v2. See note X above.
XLVII “needy” = ebyon. Same as “in need” in v4. See note XXI above.
XLVIII “neighbor” = ach. Same as “neighbor” in v2. See note XII above.

You should rather openXLIX your hand,L willingly lendingLI

Notes on verse 8a

XLIX “open” = patach + patach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
L “hand” = yad. Same as “claim” in v2. See note X above.
LI “willingly lending” = abat + abat. Same as “lend” in v6. See note XXXVII above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

enoughLII to meet the need,LIII whatever it may be.LIV Be carefulLV that you do notLVI entertainLVII

Notes on verses 8b-9a

LII “enough” = day. This is enough, plenty, overflow, or ability.
LIII “need” = machsor. 13x in OT. From chaser (to lack, need, become empty, to fail). Related to “I shall not want” from Psalm 23:1. This is something needed so it could be lack, poverty, or deficiency.
LIV “be” = chaser. Related to “need” in v8. See note LIII above.
LV “be careful” = shamar. Same as “diligently observing” in v5. See note XXXI above.
LVI “that…not” = pen. Perhaps from panah (to turn, face, appear). This is lest, if, or.
LVII “entertain” = hayah. Same as “owes” in v3. See note XVIII above.

a meanLVIII thought,LIX, LX thinking,LXI ‘The seventh year, the year of remission, is near,’LXII

Notes on verse 9b

LVIII “mean” = beliyyaal. From beli (lack, nothing, without, wearing out, failure, destruction); {from balah (to grow old, wear out, waste away, consume, spend)} + yaal (to gain, profit, do good, ascend, be useful or valuable; benefitted). This is lacking profit i.e. worthlessness, destruction, evil, ungodly person, wickedness, or Belial.
LIX “thought” = dabar. Same as “manner” in v2. See note VI above.
LX {untranslated} = lebab. Same as “be hard-hearted” in v7. See note XLV above.
LXI “thinking” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.
LXII “is near” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.

and therefore view your needy neighborLXIII with hostilityLXIV and give nothing; your neighbor might cryLXV to the Lord against you, and you would incurLXVI guilt.LXVII 

Notes on verse 9c

LXIII “neighbor” = ach. Same as “neighbor” in v2. See note XII above.
LXIV “view…with hostility” = ra’a’ + ayin. Literally, “let your eye be evil.” Ra’a’ is to be evil, bad, afflict. Properly, it means to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces. Figuratively, it is to cause something to be worthless. It is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense – something that displeases, does harm or mischief, punishes or vexes. Ayin is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
LXV “cry” = qara. Same as “proclaimed” in v2. See note XV above.
LXVI “incur” = hayah. Same as “owes” in v3. See note XVIII above.
LXVII “guilt” = chet. From chata (to miss, sin, bear blame, to forfeit, lack). This is sin, fault, or punishment of sin.

10 Give liberallyLXVIII and be ungrudgingLXIX when you doLXX so, for onLXXI this accountLXXII

Notes on verse 10a

LXVIII “give liberally” = natan + natan. Same as “giving” in v4. See note XXV above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
LXIX “be ungrudging” = lo + ra’a’ + lebab. Literally, “not let your heart be grieved.” Ra’a’ is the same as “view…with hostility” in v9. See note LXIV above. Lebab is the same as “be hard-hearted” in v7. See note XLV above.
LXX “do” = natan. Same as “giving” in v4. See note XXV above.
LXXI “on” = galal. 10x in OT. Perhaps from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense). This is an account or because.
LXXII “account” = dabar. Same as “manner” in v2. See note VI above.

the LordLXXIII your God will bless you in allLXXIV your workLXXV and in all that you undertake.LXXVI 

Notes on verse 10b

LXXIII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Lord’s” in v2 & “owes” in v3. From the same as YHVH (see note XIV above). This is a secondary spelling of the Lord, the name of the God of Israel. It has the same meaning.
LXXIV “all” = kol. Same as “every” in v2. See note VII above.
LXXV “work” = maaseh. Related to “grant” in v1. From asah (see note IV above). This is a work – any action whether positive or negative. It can also be a transaction, construction, activity, property, or something that is produced.
LXXVI “undertake” = mishloach + yad. Literally, “to which you put your hand.” Mishloach is 10x in OT. From shalach (to send, send for, forsake, give a slave freedom). This is a sending out, an undertaking, a putting forth. Yad is the same as “claim” in v2. See note X above.

11 Since there will never ceaseLXXVII to be some in need onLXXVIII the earth,LXXIX I thereforeLXXX command you,LXXXI

Notes on verse 11a

LXXVII “cease” = chadal. This is properly to be flabby – it implies, to stop, fall, end, rest, leave alone, forsake, or desist. Figuratively this can be lacking or idle.
LXXVIII “on” = qereb. Related to “is near” in v9. Perhaps from qarab (see note LXII above). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.
LXXIX “earth” = erets. Same as “land” in v4. See note XXIII above.
LXXX “therefore” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
LXXXI {untranslated} = amar. Same as “thinking” in v9. See note LXI above.

‘OpenLXXXII your hand to the poorLXXXIII and needy neighborLXXXIV in your land.’

Notes on verse 11b

LXXXII “open” = patach + patach. Same as “open” in v8. See note XLIX above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
LXXXIII “poor” = ani. From anah (to be bowed down; humility or being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed; literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance). This is humble, lowly, poor, or afflicted.
LXXXIV “neighbor” = ach. Same as “neighbor” in v2. See note XII above.

12 “If a member of your community, whether a Hebrew manLXXXV or a Hebrew woman,LXXXVI is soldLXXXVII to you and worksLXXXVIII for you

Notes on verse 12a

LXXXV “Hebrew man” = ibri. From Eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Hebrew, perhaps meaning a descendant of Eber.
LXXXVI “Hebrew woman” = ibri. Same as “Hebrew man” in v12. See note LXXXV above.
LXXXVII “sold” = makar. This is to sell – could be commerce/trade, a daughter to be married, someone into slavery. Figuratively, it can mean to surrender.
LXXXVIII “works” = abad. This is to work, serve, or compel. It can describe any kind of work or service (including religious devotion).  Also, till or cultivate. Used causatively, it can mean to enslave or keep in bondage.

sixLXXXIX years, in the seventhXC year you shall setXCI that person free.XCII 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXXIX “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.
XC “seventh” = shebii. Related to “seventh” in v1. From sheba (see note II above). This is seventh.
XCI “set” = shalach. Related to “undertake” in v10. See note LXXVI above.
XCII “free” = chophshi. 17x in OT. From chaphash (to be free or loose; figuratively used for freeing slaves). This is free, liberty, or a free person. It can mean exempt from bondage, taxation, or worry.

13 And when you sendXCIII a male slave out from you a free person, you shall not send him out empty-handed.XCIV 14 Provide for him liberallyXCV out of your flock,XCVI

Notes on verses 13-14a

XCIII “send” = shalach. Same as “set” in v12. See note XCI above.
XCIV “empty-handed” = reqam. 16x in OT. From riq (this is to be empty or to make empty; also vanity, emptiness, something worthily, in vain); from ruq (to pour out in a literal or figurative sense, hence, to be or make empty). This is emptily, empty-handed, without cause, in vain, ineffectually, or undeservedly.
XCV “provide…liberally” = anaq + anaq. 3x in OT. From anaq (necklace, ornament, chain). This is to encircle like a necklace or function as a necklace. Figuratively, it can be to furnish with supplies. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
XCVI “flock” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.

your threshing floor,XCVII and your winepress,XCVIII thus giving to him some of the bounty with which the LordXCIX your God has blessed you. 15 RememberC that you were a slaveCI in the land of Egypt,CII

Notes on verses 14b-15a

XCVII “threshing floor” = goren. Root may mean to smooth. It is a threshing floor, barn, or open areas more generally.
XCVIII “winepress” = yeqeb. 16x in OT. This is wine vat or wine press. Root may mean to excavate – so it would be the trough as excavated. Specifically, it could refer to a vat that collects wine or an upper vat where grapes are crushed.
XCIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XIV above.
C “remember” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
CI “slave” = ebed. Related to “works” in v12. From abad (see note LXXXVIII above). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
CII “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.

and the LordCIII your God redeemedCIV you; for this reasonCV I layCVI this commandCVII upon you today. 

Notes on verse 15b

CIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XIV above.
CIV “redeemed” = padah. This is to sever, which is to say to ransom. To secure someone’s release (by paying their debt to free them from slavery) and thus redeem, rescue, deliver, preserve. Can also be the redemption price.
CV “this reason” = ken. Same as “therefore” in v11. See note LXXX above.
CVI “lay” = tsavah. Same as “command” in v5. See note XXXIV above.
CVII “command” = dabar. Same as “manner” in v2. See note VI above.

16 ButCVIII if he saysCIX to you, ‘I will not go outCX from you,’ because he lovesCXI you and your household,CXII since he is well offCXIII with you, 

Notes on verse 16

CVIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “owes” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CIX “says” = amar. Same as “thinking” in v9. See note LXI above.
CX “go out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CXI “loves” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
CXII “household” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
CXIII “is well off” = tob. This is to be good, go well, please.

17 then you shall takeCXIV an awlCXV and thrustCXVI it through his earlobeCXVII into the door,CXVIII

Notes on verse 17a

CXIV “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CXV “awl” = martsea. 2x in OT. From ratsa (to bore, pierce). This is an awl or some other tool that bores.
CXVI “thrust” = natan. Same as “giving” in v4. See note XXV above.
CXVII “earlobe” = ozen. This is ear, hearing, audience, show. Properly, it is broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape.
CXVIII “door” = delet. From dalah (to draw, lift up; properly, to dangle; draw water; figuratively, to deliver). This is something that swings like a door, gate, leaf, lid, or other opening.

and he shall be your slave forever.CXIXCXXYou shall doCXXI the sameCXXII with regard to your female slave.CXXIII

Notes on verse 17b

CXIX “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
CXX {untranslated} = aph. This is also, furthermore, even.
CXXI “do” = asah. Same as “grant” in v1. See note IV above.
CXXII “same” = ken. Same as “therefore” in v11. See note LXXX above.
CXXIII “female slave” = amah. This is female servant or slave, handmaid.

18 “Do not consider it a hardshipCXXIV when you send them out from you free persons, because for six years they have given you servicesCXXV worthCXXVI the wagesCXXVII of hired laborers,CXXVIII and the LordCXXIX your God will bless you in all that you do.

Notes on verse 18

CXXIV “consider…a hardship” = qashah + ayin. Qashah is to be fierce, cruel, dense, tough, severe. Ayin is the same as “view…with hostility” in v9. See note LXIV above.
CXXV “given…services” = abad. Same as “works” in v12. See note LXXXVIII above.
CXXVI “worth” = mishneh. From shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is double, second, next, duplicate. It can also be second in rank or age.
CXXVII “wages” = sakar. From sakar (to hire, reward, earn). This is wages, payment, service, salary, worth, reward, or benefit.
CXXVIII “hired laborers” = sakir. Related to “wages” in v18. 17x in OT. From sakar (see note CXXVII above). This is someone who earns a wage, a laborer. It could be one a day by day basis or for a longer term.
CXXIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XIV above.

19 “EveryCXXX firstlingCXXXI maleCXXXII bornCXXXIII of your herdCXXXIV and flock

Notes on verse 19a

CXXX “every” = kol. Same as “every” in v2. See note VII above.
CXXXI “firstling” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.
CXXXII “male” = zakar. Related to “remember” in v15. From zakar (see note C above). This is male. Properly, perhaps, it means one who is remembered, which is to say a male.
CXXXIII “born” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.
CXXXIV “herd” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.

you shall consecrateCXXXV to the LordCXXXVI your God; you shall not do work with your firstling oxCXXXVII nor shearCXXXVIII the firstling of your flock. 

Notes on verse 19b

CXXXV “consecrate” = qadash. From qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy). This is set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified. This is something or someone that is set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean.
CXXXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XIV above.
CXXXVII “ox” = shor. Perhaps from shur (to travel, turn, journey; travelling like a prostitute or a merchant). This is bull, ox, head of cattle, cow.
CXXXVIII “shear” = gazaz. 15x in OT. This is to cut off, shave, shear sheep. figuratively, it can mean to conquer an enemy.

20 You shall eatCXXXIX it, you together with your household, in the presenceCXL of the LordCXLI your God year by year

Notes on verse 20a

CXXXIX “eat” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
CXL “presence” = paneh. Related to “that…not” in v9. From panah (see note LVI above). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
CXLI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XIV above.

at the placeCXLII that the LordCXLIII will choose.CXLIV 

Notes on verse 20b

CXLII “place” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
CXLIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XIV above.
CXLIV “choose” = bachar. This is to choose, appoint, try, excellent.

21 But if it hasCXLV any defectCXLVI—anyCXLVII seriousCXLVIII defect,

Notes on verse 21a

CXLV “has” = hayah. Same as “owes” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CXLVI “defect” = mum. This is a blemish or defect, whether in a literal sense or a moral one.
CXLVII “any” = kol. Same as “every” in v2. See note VII above.
CXLVIII “serious” = ra’. Related to “view…with hostility” in v9. From ra’a’ (see note LXIV above). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.

such as lamenessCXLIX or blindnessCL—you shall not sacrificeCLI it to the LordCLII your God; 

Notes on verse 21b

CXLIX “lameness” = pisseach. 13x in OT. From pasach (to limp, hesitate). This is lameness or someone who is lame.
CL “blindness” = ivver. From avar (to blind, put out). This is blindness or someone who is blind. It can be used literally or figuratively.
CLI “sacrifice” = zabach. This is slaughtering an animal, generally for the purpose of sacrifice. It can mean kill or offer.
CLII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XIV above.

22 within your towns you may eat it, the uncleanCLIII and the cleanCLIV alike,CLV as you would a gazelleCLVI or deer.CLVII 

Notes on verse 22

CLIII “unclean” = tame. From tame (to defile, be unclean, pollute in a ritual or ethical sense). This is unclean, ill, or ritually impure.
CLIV “clean” = tahor. From taher (bright, which implies being pure or clean; to purge, cleanse, or purify; clean in a ritual sense or a moral one (i.e. moral or holy)). This is clean or pure in a literal, ritual, or ethical sense.
CLV “alike” = yachad. From yachad (to join, be united). This is a unit, both, altogether, unitedness, alike.
CLVI “gazelle” = tsbiy. From tsabah (to swell, amass like an army). This is beauty, honor, glorious, pleasant. It could refer to a decoration that is silver or gold. It can refer to a gazelle as something that is beautiful or splendor is being readily noticed.
CLVII “deer” = ayyal. 11x in OT. From the same as ulam (porch, hall); from the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power); from alam (to bind or tie fast; to be silent or speechless, whether voluntary or involuntary) or from ayil (strength; things that are strong or powerful: political chiefs, rams, posts, trees, oaks). This is deer, hart. It can symbolize leaping, looking for pasture or sustenance. It can also be used to refer to princes.

23 Its blood,CLVIII however,CLIX you must not eat; you shall pour it outCLX on the groundCLXI like water.CLXII

Notes on verse 23

CLVIII “blood” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.
CLIX “however” = raq. Same as “only” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CLX “pour…out” = shaphak. This is to pour out, gust, or slip. It can be to pour as blood, a drink offering, or molten metal. It can also mean to create a mound. Figuratively, it can refer to killing, or spending money.
CLXI “ground” = erets. Same as “land” in v4. See note XXIII above.
CLXII “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.

Image credit: “Stamp from the Verigar issue issued 1919 in the Slovenian regions of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. Design : Ivan Vavpotič. Personal item scanned by User:Sebjarod, september 2006.”

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