Exodus 16:2-15

Exodus 16:2-15
Proper 20A


The wholeI congregationII of the IsraelitesIII

Notes on verse 2a

I “whole” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
II “congregation” = edah. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.
III “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

complainedIV against MosesV and AaronVI in the wilderness.VII 

Notes on verse 2b

IV “complained” = lun. This is to stop – usually to lodge for the night. It can imply dwelling, enduring, or staying permanently. Figuratively, it can mean being obstinate, particularly with one’s words – to complain.
V “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
VI “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
VII “wilderness” = midbar. From dabar (to speak, command, declare). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.

The Israelites said to them, “If onlyVIII we had diedIX by the handX of the LordXI 

Notes on verse 3a

VIII “if only” = mi + natan. Mi is who, what, which, whoever. Natan is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
IX “died” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
X “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XI “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.

in the landXII of Egypt,XIII when we satXIV by the pots of meatXV

Notes on verse 3b

XII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XIII “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
XIV “sat” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
XV “pots of meat” = siyr + basar. Siyr is from a root that may mean to boil. So it is a pot or pan. It can also be a thorn because it grows quickly or a hook. Basar is from basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.

and ateXVI our fillXVII of bread,XVIII

Notes on verse 3c

XVI “ate” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
XVII “fill” = soba. 8x in OT. From saba (to be satisfied or full in a literal or figurative sense; to have plenty of). This is abundance, fullness, satisfaction. Properly, it is being sated – having enough food. Figuratively, it is fullness of joy.
XVIII “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.

for you have brought us outXIX into this wilderness to killXX this whole assemblyXXI with hunger.”XXII

Notes on verse 3d

XIX “brought…out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XX “kill” = mut. Same as “died” in v3. See note IX above.
XXI “assembly” = qahal. This is an assembly, congregation, or multitude.
XXII “hunger” = raab. From raeb (to be hungry). This is hunger, death, or hunger from famine.

Then the Lord said to Moses, “XXIIII am going to rain bread from heavenXXIV for you, and each day the peopleXXV

Notes on verse 4a

XXIII {untranslated} = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
XXIV “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
XXV “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

shall go outXXVI and gatherXXVII enoughXXVIII for that day.XXIX

Notes on verse 4b

XXVI “go out” = yatsa. Same as “brought…out” in v3. See note XIX above.
XXVII “gather” = laqat. This is to pick up, glean, gather.
XXVIII “enough” = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v2. From dabar (see note VII above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
XXIX “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

In that way I will testXXX them, whether they will followXXXI my instructionXXXII or not. 

Notes on verse 4c

XXX “test” = nasah. This is to test, prove, try, tempt, or attempt.
XXXI “follow” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XXXII “instruction” = torah. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach). This is law, instruction, teaching, or statute. It can also refer to the first five books of the Bible – the Torah.

XXXIIIOn the sixthXXXIV day, when they prepareXXXV what they bring in,XXXVI it will beXXXVII twiceXXXVIII as much as they gather on other days.” 

Notes on verse 5

XXXIII {untranslated} = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v3. See note XI above.
XXXIV “sixth” = shishshi. From shesh (six; figuratively, a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand). This is sixth.
XXXV “prepare” = kun. Properly, this means in a perpendicular position. So, it is set up in a literal sense – establish, fix, fasten, prepare. In a figurative sense, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous.
XXXVI “bring in” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XXXVII “be” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXIII above.
XXXVIII “twice” = mishneh. From shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is double, second, next, duplicate. It can also be second in rank or age.

So Moses and Aaron said to allXXXIX the Israelites, “In the eveningXL you shall knowXLI that it was the Lord who brought you out of the land of Egypt, and in the morningXLII you shall seeXLIII

Notes on verses 6-7a

XXXIX “all” = kol. Same as “whole” in v2. See note I above.
XL “evening” = ereb. This is dusk or night.
XLI “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XLII “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
XLIII “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.

the gloryXLIV of the Lord, because he has heardXLV your complainingXLVI against the Lord. For what are we, that you complain against us?” 

Notes on verse 7b

XLIV “glory” = kabod. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is weighty. Figuratively, glorious, abundant, riches, honor, splendor – a reference to one’s reputation or character. This word is often used to describe God and God’s presence.
XLV “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XLVI “complaining” = tlunah. Related to “complained” in v2. 9x in OT– all in Exodus & Numbers. From lun (see note IV above). This is grumbling or complaining. All occurrences are about the Hebrew people complaining in the wilderness.

And Moses said, “When the Lord givesXLVII you meat to eat in the evening and your fillXLVIII of bread in the morning, because the Lord has heard the complaining that you utterXLIX against him—what are we? Your complaining is not against us but against the Lord.”

Then Moses said to Aaron, “Say to the whole congregation of the Israelites: ‘Draw nearL toLI the Lord, for he has heard your complaining.’” 

Notes on verses 8-9

XLVII “gives” = natan. Same as “if only” in v3. See note VIII above.
XLVIII “fill” = saba. Related to “fill” in v3. See note XVII above.
XLIX “utter” = tlunah. Same as “complaining” in v7. See note XLVI above.
L “draw near” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
LI “to” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

10 AndLII as Aaron spokeLIII to the whole congregation of the Israelites, they lookedLIV toward the wilderness, andLV the glory of the Lord appearedLVI in the cloud.LVII 

Notes on verse 10

LII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXIII above.
LIII “spoke” = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v2 & “enough” in v4. See note VII above.
LIV “looked” = panah. Related to “to” in v9. See note LI above.
LV {untranslated} = hinneh. Related to {untranslated} in v4. From hen (see note XXIII above). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
LVI “appeared” = raah. Same as “see” in v7. See note XLIII above.
LVII “cloud” = anan. May be from anan (cover, cloud over; figuratively, acting in a secret way, practicing magic or soothsaying). This is a cloud as something that covers the sky.

11 The Lord spoke to Moses, 12 “I have heard the complaining of the Israelites; sayLVIII to them, ‘AtLIX twilightLX you shall eat meat, and in the morning you shall have your fill of bread; then you shall know that I am the Lord your God.’”LXI

Notes on verses 11-12

LVIII “say” = dabar. Same as “spoke” in v10. See note LIII above.
LIX “at” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
LX “twilight” = ereb. Same as “evening” in v6. See note XL above.
LXI “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israelites” in v2. See note III above.

13 LXIIIn the evening quailsLXIII came upLXIV

Notes on verse 13a

LXII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXIII above.
LXIII “quails” = selav. 4x in OT– all in reference to the quails in the wilderness wanderings. Perhaps related to Arabic (“to be fat”) OR related to shalah (to be quiet, safe, tranquil; can imply success or happiness; could also mean to deceive or be negligent). This is a quail as a slow-moving bird. See https://www.biblicalcyclopedia.com/Q/quail.html
LXIV “came up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.

and coveredLXV the camp,LXVI and in the morning there was a layerLXVII of dewLXVIII aroundLXIX the camp. 

Notes on verse 13b

LXV “covered” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
LXVI “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
LXVII “layer” = shekabah. 9x in OT. From shakab (to lie down, lodge; lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons). This is an act of lying so it could be a layer, the act of copulation, or an emission.
LXVIII “dew” = tal. Perhaps from talal (to cover, roof, strew). This is dew or mist as something that covers plants.
LXIX “around” = sabib. From sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.

14 When the layer of dew lifted,LXX thereLXXI on the surfaceLXXII of the wilderness was a fineLXXIII flaky substance,LXXIV as fine as frostLXXV on the ground.LXXVI 

Notes on verse 14

LXX “lifted” = alah. Same as “came up” in v13. See note LXIV above.
LXXI {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v10. See note LV above.
LXXII “surface” = paneh. Same as “to” in v9. See note LI above.
LXXIII “fine” = daq. 15x in OT. From daqaq (to crush, crumble, make dust, be very small). This is thin, crushed, small, very little.
LXXIV “flaky substance” = chaspas. 1x in OT. This is something flaky like a scale or round. Root may mean to peel.
LXXV “frost” = kphor. 12x in OT. From kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel). This is a cover, which could imply a basin or goblet or a frost that covers the ground.
LXXVI “ground” = erets. Same as “land” in v3. See note XII above.

15 When the Israelites saw it, they said to one another,LXXVII “What is it?”LXXVIII For they did not know what it was. Moses said to them, “It is the bread that the Lord has given you to eat.LXXIX

Notes on verse 15

LXXVII “to one another” = ish + el + ach. Literally, “a man to his brother.” Ish is perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind. Ach is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
LXXVIII “what is it” = man + hu. 14x in OT. From mah (what, how, how long, why – a question or exclamation). This is what. Hu is he, she, or it.
LXXIX “eat” = oklah. Literally, “for food.” Related to “ate” in v3. 18x in OT. From okel (food, prey, meat, eating); from akal (see note XVI above). This is food, eating, fuel, meat, consume.

Image credit: “Shores of the Unknown 5” by Diwan Manna, 2006.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply