Acts 24

Acts 24


FiveI daysII later the high priestIII AnaniasIV

Notes on verse 1a

I “five” = pente. This is five. It may be symbolically associated with the Temple or redemption.
II “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
III “high priest” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
IV “Ananias” = Hananias. 11x in NT. From Hebrew Chananyah (Hananiah, “the Lord has been gracious” or “the Lord has favored”); {from Chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}}}. This is Ananias, meaning “the Lord has been gracious” or “graciously given of the Lord.” See 

came downV with some eldersVI and an attorney,VII a certain Tertullus,VIII

Notes on verse 1b

V “came down” = katabaino. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (to walk, go). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
VI “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
VII “attorney” = rhetor. 1x in NT. From ereo (to say, tell, speak). This is a public speaker, an advocate.
VIII “Tertullus” = Tertullos. 2x in NT – both in this passage. Perhaps from Latin tertius (third). This is Tertullus, meaning “little third.” See

and they reported their caseIX against PaulX to the governor.XI 

Notes on verse 1c

IX “reported…case” = emphanizo. 10x in NT. From emphanes (visible, apparent, openly, understood); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is to declare, make visible, or exhibit in person. It can also be to report against or notify.
X “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
XI “governor” = hegemon. From hegeaomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go). This is a leader in general, but also specifically a governor or commander. This is where “hegemony” comes from.

When Paul had been summoned,XII Tertullus beganXIII to accuseXIV him, saying:XV

Notes on verse 2a

XII “summoned” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
XIII “began” = archomai. Related to “high priest” in v1. See note III above.
XIV “accuse” = kategoreo. From kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR {from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}}. This is to accuse, charge, or prosecute. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.
XV “saying” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

“Because of you, most excellent Felix, we have longXVI enjoyedXVII peace,XVIII

Notes on verse 2b

XVI “long” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XVII “enjoyed” = tugchano. 12x in NT. Root means to become ready. This word is to hit, meet, happen, obtain, chance, perhaps. Properly, it means to hit the mark or be spot on. Thus, it is the opposite of the Greek word for sin hamartano, which literally means to miss the mark.
XVIII “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)

and reformsXIX have been madeXX for this peopleXXI because of your foresight.XXII 

Notes on verse 2c

XIX “reforms” = diorthosis. 2x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + orthos (straight, direct, honest); {from oros ((mountain, hill); probably from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to straighten, so it implies improvement or reformation.
XX “made” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XXI “people” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XXII “foresight” = pronoia. 2x in NT. From pronoeo (to foresee, provide for, practice, respect; act with forethought); {from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}}. This is foresight, providence, forethought.

In every wayXXIII and everywhereXXIV we welcomeXXV

Notes on verse 3a

XXIII “every way” = pante. 1x in NT. From pas (all, every). This is entirely, always, everywhere.
XXIV “everywhere” = pantachou. Related to “every way” in v3. 8x in NT. Probably from pas (see note XXIII above). This is everywhere, universally.
XXV “welcome” = apodechomai. 7x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is to welcome, embrace, receive, approve of. It can also mean to show hospitality.

XXVIthis with utmostXXVII gratitude.XXVIII 

Notes on verse 3b

XXVI Some manuscripts add “most excellent Felix” = kratistos + Phelix. Kratistos is 4x in NT. From kratus (strong) OR from kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is strongest, noblest – high in dignity or honor; used to speak to a high ranking Roman. It can also differentiate an equestrian from a senator. Phelix is 9x in NT– all in Acts. From Latin felix (fruitful, fertile, abundant, lucky, happy); from feo (to bear, produce). This is Felix, meaning “fortunate” or “happy” or “lucky” or “fruitful.” See
XXVII “utmost” = pas. Related to “every way” and “everywhere” in v3. See note XXIII above.
XXVIII “gratitude” = eucharistia. 15x in NT. From eucharistos (thankful, well favored); {from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards)}}. This is thankfulness or thanksgiving. It is active gratitude. It is related to the word “eucharist.”

But, to detainXXIX you no further,XXX I begXXXI you

Notes on verse 4a

XXIX “detain” = egkopto. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is literally to cut into. So it refers to an obstacle that impedes progress. It is to interrupt, detain, block, prevent.
XXX “further” = pleion. Related to “long” in v2. From polus (see note XVI above). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
XXXI “beg” = parakaleo. Related to “summoned” in v2. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note XII above). This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.

to hearXXXII us brieflyXXXIII with your customary graciousness.XXXIV 

Notes on verse 4b

XXXII “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XXXIII “briefly” = suntomos. 2x in NT. From suntomos (cut short); from suntemno (cut shot, decide, contract with a slice; figuratively, do quickly); {from sun (with, together with) + the same as tomos (sharp or keener); {from temno (to cut with a as with a single slice)}}. This is briefly or concisely.
XXXIV “graciousness” = epieikeia. 2x in NT. From epieikes (yielding, gentle, reasonable, moderate, patient, equitable, forbearing); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + eoika (to be like); {related to eiko (be like, resemble); perhaps akin to eiko (to be weak, submit, yield, give way)}}. This is graciousness, gentleness, kindness, equity.

We have, in fact, foundXXXV this manXXXVI a pestilent fellow,XXXVII an agitatorXXXVIII

Notes on verse 5a

XXXV “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
XXXVI “man” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XXXVII “pestilent fellow” = loimos. 2x in NT – in Luke + Acts. This is a plague or pest.
XXXVIII “agitator” = kineo + stasis. Literally, “stirring insurrection.” Kineo is 8x in NT. This is to move, excite, or provoke. It is to stir in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “kinetic” comes from. Stasis is 9x in NT– including Barabbas’s crime. From histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is standing – the act of standing, a place, an uprising, insurrection, dissension, or controversy.

among allXXXIX the JewsXL throughout the world,XLI

Notes on verse 5b

XXXIX “all” = pas. Same as “utmost” in v3. See note XXVII above.
XL “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XLI “world” = oikoumene. 15x in NT. From oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is the world – the part where people live. It was used specifically for the Roman world. It is the root of the word “ecumenic.”

and a ringleaderXLII of the sectXLIII of the Nazarenes.XLIV 

Notes on verse 5c

XLII “ringleader” = protostates. Related to “agitator” in v5. 1x in NT. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); {from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier)} + histemi (see note XXXVIII above). This is someone who comes first. It was a leader of soldiers, a captain. It could also be a ringleader or champion.
XLIII “sect” = hairesis. Related to “reforms” in v2. 9x in NT. From haireo (to take, choose, or prefer); {probably related to airo (see note XIX above)}. This is a choice, contention, heresy, or sect. It is making a person choice so, by implication, choice of a separate party or faction. It is where the word “heresy” comes from.
XLIV “Nazarenes” = Nazoraios. 13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See

He even triedXLV to profaneXLVI the temple,XLVII so we seizedXLVIII him. 

Notes on verse 6a

XLV “tried” = peirazo. From peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative of peiro (to pierce). This is to test, try, tempt, or make proof of. It is to test, scrutinize, or assay something. It could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline.
XLVI “profane” = bebeloo. Related to “came down” in v1. 2x in NT. From bebelos (able to be walked on i.e. accessible; it can also mean non-hallowed and so profane or wicked); from belos (threshold); OR {from baino (see note V above) + belos (see above)} This is to walk over in an improper way, crossing a threshold that one is not permitted to cross. So, to desecrate, pollute, break, or violate.
XLVII “temple” = hieron. Related to “high priest” in v1. From hieros (see note III above). This is the word for temple.
XLVIII “seized” = krateo. Related to {untranslated} in v3. From kratos (see note XXVI above). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control.

[and we would haveXLIX judgedL him according to our law.LI

Notes on verse 6b

XLIX “would have” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
L “judged” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
LI “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.

But the chief captainLII LysiasLIII cameLIV

Notes on verse 7a

LII “chief captain” = chiliarchos. Related to “high priest” in v1 & “began” in v2. From chilioi (thousand literal and figurative; can mean total inclusion) + archos (chief, leader); {from archo (see note III above)}. This is chiliarch – one who commands a thousand.
LIII “Lysias” = Lusias. 3x in NT. Perhaps from lusis (loosing, releasing, freeing through a ritual or expiation, emptying, end of a fever); from luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is Lysias, a name meaning “deliverance.” See &
LIV “came” = parerchomai. From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (to come, go). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.

and with greatLV violenceLVI tookLVII him out of our hands,LVIII commandingLIX his accusersLX to comeLXI before you.]

Notes on verses 7b-8a

LV “great” = polus. Same as “long” in v2. See note XVI above.
LVI “violence” = bia. 4x in NT – all in Acts. This is strength or force.
LVII “took” = apago. Related to “governor” in v1. 16x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ago (see note XI above). This is to lead away, take away, or bring. Figuratively, it can refer to being led astray or put to death.
LVIII “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
LIX “commanding” = keleuo. Related to “summoned” in v2 & “beg” in v4. See note XII above.
LX “accusers” = kategoros. Related to “accuse” in v2. 7x in NT. See note XIV above.
LXI “come” = erchomai. Related to “came” in v7. See note LIV above.

By examiningLXII him yourself you will be ableLXIII to learnLXIV from him concerning everythingLXV of which we accuse him.”

Notes on verse 8b

LXII “examining” = anakrino. Related to “judged” in v6. 16x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + krino (see note L above). 16x in NT. This is to scrutinize, examine, investigate, judge, or discern. Properly, it refers to very thorough investigation or careful study. It was used to talk about investigating crimes in the ancient world. It can also be used to talk about interrogation that uses torture.
LXIII “be able” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
LXIV “learn” = epiginosko. Related to “foresight” in v2. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (see note XXII above). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.
LXV “everything” = pas. Same as “utmost” in v3. See note XXVII above.

The Jews also joined in the chargeLXVI by assertingLXVII that all this was true.LXVIII

Notes on verse 9

LXVI “joined in the charge” = suntithemi. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish). This is literally to set together – to make an agreement, bargain, stipulate, observe.
LXVII “asserting” = phasko. Related to “reported…case” in v1. 3x in NT. Probably related to phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); {from phao (to shine) or phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative) or phaino (see note IX above)}. This is to assert, affirm, or profess a specific view.
LXVIII “was true” = houtos + echo. Literally, “thus to be.” Echo is to have, hold, possess.

10 When the governor motionedLXIX to him to speak,LXX Paul replied:LXXI “I cheerfullyLXXII make my defense,LXXIII

Notes on verse 10a

LXIX “motioned” = neuo. 2x in NT. This is to nod or signal.
LXX “speak” = lego. Same as “saying” in v2. See note XV above.
LXXI “replied” = apokrinomai. Related to “judged” in v6 & “examining” in v8. From apo (from, away from) + krino (see note L above). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.
LXXII “cheerfully” = euthumos. Related to “gratitude” in v3. 2x in NT – both in Acts. From eu (see note XXVIII above) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}. This is cheerful, encouraged, in good spirits.
LXXIII “make…defense” = apologeomai. Related to “saying” in v2. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note XV above)}. This is to make an accounting or defend oneself – particularly in court; present proof or evidence using sound logic.

knowingLXXIV that for manyLXXV yearsLXXVI you have beenLXXVII a judgeLXXVIII over this people. 

Notes on verse 10b

LXXIV “knowing” = epistamai. Related to “agitator” and “ringleader” in v5. 14x in NT. From epihistemi (to stand upon, be present, stand by, be urgent; to attack, confront, appear); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + histemi (see note XXXVIII above)}. This is to know, stand on, get knowledge face to face or with personal effort, comprehend, be acquainted. It is related to “epistemology.”
LXXV “many” = polus. Same as “long” in v2. See note XVI above.
LXXVI “years” = etos. This is year or age.
LXXVII “been” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
LXXVIII “judge” = krites. Related to “judged” in v6 & “examining” in v8 & “replied” in v10. 19x in NT. From krino (see note L above). This is judge or ruler.

11 As you canLXXIX find out,LXXX it is not more thanLXXXI twelveLXXXII days

Notes on verse 11a

LXXIX “can” = dunamai. Same as “be able” in v8. See note LXIII above.
LXXX “find out” = epiginosko. Same as “learn” in v8. See note LXIV above.
LXXXI “more than” = pleion. Same as “further” in v4. See note XXX above.
LXXXII “twelve” = dodeka. From duo (two, both) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.

since I went upLXXXIII to worshipLXXXIV in Jerusalem.LXXXV 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXXIII “went up” = anabaino. Related to “came down” in v1 & “profane” in v6. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (see note V above)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
LXXXIV “worship” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.
LXXXV “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

12 They did not findLXXXVI me disputingLXXXVII with anyone in the temple or stirring upLXXXVIII

Notes on verse 12a

LXXXVI “find” = heurisko. Same as “found” in v5. See note XXXV above.
LXXXVII “disputing” = dialegomai. Related to “saying” in v2 & “make…defense” in v10. 13x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + lego (see note XV above)}. This is to discuss, preach, reason, argue, address, lecture.
LXXXVIII “stirring up” = episustasis + poieo. Episustasis is related to “agitator” and “ringleader” in v5 & “knowing” in v10. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + sunistemi (to establish, exhibit, demonstrate, stand together, prove); {from sun (with, together with) + histemi (see note XXXVIII above)}. This is a gathering, whether friendly or sinister. So, it could also be conspiracy or a tumult. Poieo is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.

a crowdLXXXIX either in the synagoguesXC or throughout the city.XCI 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXXIX “a crowd” = ochlos. Related to “was true” in v9. Perhaps from echo (see note LXVIII above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
XC “synagogue” = sunagoge. Related to “governor” in v1 & “took” in v7. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note XI above). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
XCI “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.

13 Neither can they proveXCII to you the charge that they nowXCIII bringXCIV against me. 14 But this I admitXCV to you, that according to the Way,XCVI

Notes on verses 13-14a

XCII “prove” = paristemi. Related to “agitator” and “ringleader” in v5 & “knowing” in v10 & “stirring up” in v12. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note XXXVIII above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
XCIII “now” = nuni. From nun (simply now, at the present moment, immediately; now as the logical next step of what has already happened). This is just now, immediately.
XCIV “charge…bring” = kategoreo. Same as “accuse” in v2. See note XIV above.
XCV “admit” = homologeo. Related to “saying” in v2 & “make…defense” in v10 & “disputing” in v12. From homologos (of one mind); {from homos (the same) + lego (see note XV above)}. This is to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate. It can mean to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse.
XCVI “Way” = Hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.

which they callXCVII a sect, I worshipXCVIII the GodXCIX of our ancestors,C

Notes on verse 14b

XCVII “call” = lego. Same as “saying” in v2. See note XV above.
XCVIII “worship” = latreuo. From latris (a hired servant; someone who is qualified to perform a technical task). Properly, this is giving good, technical service because qualified or equipped to do so. It can be serve, minister, worship, or give homage.
XCIX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
C “of…ancestors” = patroos. 3x in NT – all in Acts. From pater (father, ancestor, elder, senior; father in a literal or figurative sense). This is paternal or hereditary.

believingCI everything laid down according to the law or writtenCII in the prophets.CIII 

Notes on verse 14c

CI “believing” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CII “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
CIII “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “reported…case” in v1 & “asserting” in v9. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note LXVII above); {from phao (see note LXVII above) or phaino (see note IX above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.

15 I haveCIV a hopeCV in God—a hope that they themselves also acceptCVI—that there willCVII be

Notes on verse 15a

CIV “have” = echo. Same as “was true” in v9. See note LXVIII above.
CV “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.
CVI “accept” = prosdechomai. Related to “welcome” in v3. 14x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + dechomai (see note XXV above). This is to receive, welcome, expect, accept. It is reception with a warm, personal welcome or active waiting. It can also mean endurance or patience.
CVII “will” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.

a resurrectionCVIII of both the righteousCIX and the unrighteous.CX 

Notes on verse 15b

CVIII “resurrection” = anastasis. Related to “agitator” and “ringleader” in v5 & “knowing” in v10 & “stirring up” in v12 & “prove” in v13. From anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XXXVIII above). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.
CIX “righteous” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
CX “unrighteous” = adikos. Related to “righteous” in v15. 12x in NT. From a (not, without) + dike (see note CIX above). This is unjust, unrighteous, wicked, treacherous.

16 Therefore I do my bestCXI always to have a clearCXII conscienceCXIII toward God and all people.CXIV 

Notes on verse 16

CXI “do…best” = askeo. 1x in NT. Perhaps from the same as skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense); (from skeuazo (to prepare using a tool). This is to practice, train, or strive.
CXII “clear” = aproskopos. Related to “detain” in v4. 3x in NT. From a (not, without) + proskopto (to kick against, stumble, strike, beat on, surge against like water does, or take offense; to trip up in a literal or figurative sense); {from pros (at, towards, for) + kopto (see note XXIX above)}. This is not stumbling, inoffensive, without fault, blameless. It can also be unharmed.
CXIII “conscience” = suneidesis. From suneidon (to see together and so know, realize, consider, be conscious of); {from sun (with, together with) + eidon (shape, appearance, kind; something observable; form in a literal or figurative sense); from eido (to know, remember, perceive – to see and so understand)}. This is properly to know together. The conscience, found in all, is a moral and spiritual capacity granted by God so that we can understand together what is good and right.
CXIV “people” = anthropos. Related to “man” in v5. Probably from aner (see note XXXVI above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

17 Now after someCXV years I cameCXVI to bringCXVII almsCXVIII to my people and to offer sacrifices.CXIX 

Notes on verse 17

CXV “some” = pleion. Same as “further” in v4. See note XXX above.
CXVI “came” = paraginomai. Related to “made” in v2. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note XX above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
CXVII “bring” = poieo. Same as “stirring up” in v12. See note LXXXVIII above.
CXVIII “alms” = eleemosune. 13x in NT. From eleos (mercy, compassion). This is compassion – particularly in giving to the poor. Often, it is translated as alms or charity.
CXIX “sacrifices” = prosphora. 9x in NT. From prosphero (to bring up, give a gift or bring a sacrifice); {from pros (for, at, towards) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is an offering, oblation, or sacrifice.

18 While I was doing this, they foundCXX me in the temple completing the rite of purification,CXXI without any crowd or disturbance.CXXII 

Notes on verse 18

CXX “found” = heurisko. Same as “found” in v5. See note XXXV above.
CXXI “completing the rite of purification” = hagnizo. 7x in NT. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). This is to purify, or sanctify. It is to clean in a ritual, literal, or ethical sense.
CXXII “disturbance” = thorubos. 7x in NT. From the same as thoreo (to be troubled, agitated, alarmed, be unsettled, be frightened); from throos (clamor, noise) or from threomai (to wail). This is an uproar, noise, outcry, riot, disturbance, trouble. It can also be used figuratively for a very emotional wailing or hysteria. It is a commotion that leads to panic or terror.

19 But there were some Jews from AsiaCXXIII—they oughtCXXIV to beCXXV here before you to make an accusation,CXXVI if they have anything against me. 

Notes on verse 19

CXXIII “Asia” = Asia. 18x in NT. Perhaps from Hittite assuwa (22 allied ancient states in Anatolia) OR Aegean asis (muddy, silty) OR Semitic root asu (rising or light; Asia as land to the east). This is Asia, the Roman province, which consisted of western Asia Minor. See
CXXIV “ought” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
CXXV “be” = pareimi. Related to “been” in v10. From para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + eimi (see note LXXVII above). This is to be near, to be there, to come.
CXXVI “make an accusation” = kategoreo. Same as “accuse” in v2. See note XIV above.

20 Or let these men here tell what crimeCXXVII they had foundCXXVIII when I stoodCXXIX before the council,CXXX 

Notes on verse 20

CXXVII “crime” = adikema. Related to “righteous” and “unrighteous” in v15. 3x in NT. From adikeo (to harm, damage, behave in an unjust way; an offender; a moral wrong, especially caused by neglecting justice); {from adikos (see note CX above). This is a wrong, injury, sin, crime.
CXXVIII “found” = heurisko. Same as “found” in v5. See note XXXV above.
CXXIX “stood” = histemi. Related to “agitator” and “ringleader” in v5 & “knowing” in v10 & “stirring up” in v12 & “prove” in v13 & “resurrection” in v15. See note XXXVIII above.
CXXX “council” = sunedrion. From sun (with, together with) + hedra (convening, siting together, being firm and faithful); {from aphedron (seat, well-seated; figuratively, this is firm in purpose, steadfast); from hedra (a seat)}. This is Sanhedrin – literally a sitting together. It was the high court for Jews and had 71 members. This term could also mean council or meeting place and was used for the lower courts that were throughout the land and had 23 members.

21 unless it was this oneCXXXI sentenceCXXXII that I called outCXXXIII while standing before them, ‘It is about the resurrection of the deadCXXXIV that I am on trialCXXXV before you today.’”CXXXVI

Notes on verse 21

CXXXI “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
CXXXII “sentence” = phone. Related to “reported…case” in v1 & “asserting” in v9 & “prophets” in v14. Probably from phemi (see note LXVII above); {from phao (see note LXVII above) or phaino (see note IX above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
CXXXIII “called out” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
CXXXIV “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
CXXXV “am on trial” = krino. Same as “judged” in v6. See note L above.
CXXXVI “today” = semeron. Related to “days” in v1. From hemera (see note II above). This is today, now, at present.

22 But Felix, who was rather wellCXXXVII informedCXXXVIII about the Way, adjourned the hearingCXXXIX with the comment, “When Lysias the tribuneCXL comes down,CXLI I will decideCXLII your case.” 

Notes on verse 22

CXXXVII “rather well” = akribos. 9x in NT. From akriboo (examine carefully, learn diligently); from akribes (high point, extreme) OR from akros (the point, end); from akrib– (learning precise information with as much accuracy as possible; probing inquiry to gain a comprehensive, exact sense of the facts). This is carefully, strictly, diligently, with great accuracy. This is investigated to the finest point and so precise.
CXXXVIII “was…informed” = eido. Related to “conscience” in v16. See note CXIII above.
CXXXIX “adjourned the hearing” = anaballo. 1x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, rush, drop). This is to put off or defer.
CXL “tribune” = chiliarchos. Same as “chief captain” in v7. See note LII above.
CXLI “comes down” = katabaino. Same as “came down” in v1. See note V above.
CXLII “decide” = diaginosko. Related to “foresight” in v2 & “learn” in v8. 2x in NT – both in Acts. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + ginosko (see note XXII above). This is to determine, decide, examine.

23 Then he orderedCXLIII the centurionCXLIV to keep him in custodyCXLV

Notes on verse 23a

CXLIII “ordered” = diatasso. 16x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to arrange thoroughly, charge, appoint, give orders to. It is a command that is a proper order, given with the chain of command and so binding. This is from ancient military language.
CXLIV “centurion” = hekatontarches. Related to “high priest” in v1 & “began” in v2 & “chief captain” in v7. From hekaton (hundred) + archo (see note III above). This is a centurion from the Roman army, leader a captain of one hundred soldiers.
CXLV “keep…in custody” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used f iguratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.

but to let him have some libertyCXLVI and not to preventCXLVII any of his friendsCXLVIII from taking care of his needs.CXLIX

Notes on verse 23b

CXLVI “liberty” = anesis. 5x in NT. From aniemi (to send up, loosen, sink, abandon, forbear, slacken, desert); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + hiemi (to send)}. This is some kind of loosening or ease. It can also be a relief, freedom, or indulgence.
CXLVII “prevent” = koluo. Perhaps from the same as kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked, dwarf). This is to hinder or prevent, restrain, refuse. It can be prevent, whether through words or actions.
CXLVIII “friends” = idios. Literally, “his own.”
CXLIX “taking care of…needs” = hupereteo. 3x in NT. From huperetes (originally a rower or someone who crewed a boat on the lower deck; underling, servant, or attendant; in the New Testament, disciples); {from huper (by, under, subordinate to another) + eresso (to row)}. This is to work as a rower. So, it means to work under someone’s immediate authority. Figuratively, it means to minister to, take care of, or serve.

24 Some days later when Felix cameCL with hisCLI wifeCLII Drusilla,CLIII who was Jewish,

Notes on verse 24a

CL “came” = paraginomai. Same as “came” in v17. See note CXVI above.
CLI “his” = idios. Same as “friends” in v23. See note CXLVIII above.
CLII “wife” = gune. Related to “made” in v2 & “came” in v17. Perhaps from ginomai (see note XX above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CLIII “Drusilla” = Drousilla. 1x in NT. From Latin Drusus (Drusus); from ros (newness, tenderness, dew) OR from Greek drosos (freshness, youngness). This is Drusilla, meaning “dew” or “tender” or “fresh” or “newborn.” See

he sent forCLIV Paul and heard him speak concerning faithCLV in ChristCLVI Jesus.CLVII 

Notes on verse 24b

CLIV “sent for” = metapempo. 9x in NT. From meta (with, among, behind, beyond) + pempo (to send, put forth, or dispatch; often a temporary errand; sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from). This is to send after, summon, invite.
CLV “faith” = pistis. Related to “believing” in v14. See note CI above.
CLVI “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CLVII “Jesus” = Iesous. Related to “Ananias” in v1. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (see note IV above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

25 And as he discussedCLVIII justice,CLIX self-control,CLX

Notes on verse 25a

CLVIII “discussed” = dialegomai. Same as “disputing” in v12. See note LXXXVII above.
CLIX “justice” = dikaiosune. Related to “righteous” and “unrighteous” in v15 & “crime” in v20. From dikaios (see note CIX above). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
CLX “self-control” = egkrateia. Related to {untranslated} in v3 & “seized” in v6. 4x in NT. From egkrates (self-controlled, one who has power over, controlling, temperate); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, within) + kratos (see note XXVI above)}. This is self-control – mastery coming from within, dominion. It can also be continence or temperance.

and the comingCLXI judgment,CLXII Felix becameCLXIII frightenedCLXIV

Notes on verse 25b

CLXI “coming” = mello. Same as “will” in v15. See note CVII above.
CLXII “judgment” = krima. Related to “judged” in v6 & “examining” in v8 & “replied” and “judge” in v10. From krino (see note L above). This is judgment, sentence, verdict. Sometimes, this can have a negative sense – condemnation. It is the decision and the full force of its effect negative and positive.
CLXIII “became” = ginomai. Same as “made” in v2. See note XX above.
CLXIV “frightened” = emphobos. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); {from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight)}. This is to be afraid, fully terrified.

and said,CLXV “Go awayCLXVI for the present;CLXVII, CLXVIII

Notes on verse 25c

CLXV “said” = apokrinomai. Same as “replied” in v10. See note LXXI above.
CLXVI “go away” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
CLXVII “present” = nun. Related to “now” in v13. See note XCIII above.
CLXVIII {untranslated} = echo. Same as “was true” in v9. See note LXVIII above.

when I haveCLXIX an opportunity,CLXX I will send forCLXXI you.” 

Notes on verse 25d

CLXIX “have” = metalambano. 7x in NT. From meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is take a or partake, to share, or participate.
CLXX “opportunity” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
CLXXI “send for” = metakaleo. Related to “summoned” in v2 & “beg” in v4 & “commanding” in v8. 4x in NT– all in Acts. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + kaleo (see note XII above). This is to send for, invite, summon.

26 At the same timeCLXXII he hopedCLXXIII that moneyCLXXIV would be givenCLXXV him by Paul,

Notes on verse 26a

CLXXII “at the same time” = hama. 10x in NT. This is closely related – at once, together, at the same time.
CLXXIII “hoped” = elpizo. Related to “hope” in v15. From elpis (see note CV above). This is to expect, trust, hope for, or to wait in an active way.
CLXXIV “money” = chrema. 7x in NT. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is something one uses or needs. It could be money, possessions, or wealth.
CLXXV “given” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.

and for that reason he used to send forCLXXVI him very oftenCLXXVII and converseCLXXVIII with him.

Notes on verse 26b

CLXXVI “send for” = metapempo. Same as “sent for” in v24. See note CLIV above.
CLXXVII “often” = puknos. 3x in NT. From the same as pugme (the fist; figuratively, carefully); from pux (a fist of aggression). This is literally clasped like a fist. Figuratively, it means often or frequently.
CLXXVIII “converse” = homileo. Related to “admit” in v14 & to “reforms” in v2 & “sect” in v5. 4x in NT– 2x in Luke & 2x in Acts. From homilos (crowd) OR from homichle (mist, multitude); {from homou (together); {from homos (see note XCV above)} + haireomai (see note XLIII above)}. This is to talk, converse, associate with.

27 After two yearsCLXXIX had passed,CLXXX Felix was succeededCLXXXI

Notes on verse 27a

CLXXIX “two years” = dietia. Related to “twelve” in v11 & to “years” in v10. 2x in NT. From dietes (a duration of two years; two years old); {from dis (twice, utterly, again); {from duo (see note LXXXII above)} + etos (see note LXXVI above)}. This is a length of two years. It might also be any time between one and two years.
CLXXX “passed” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
CLXXXI “succeeded” = lambano + diadochos. Literally, “received [as] successor.” Lambano is related to “have” in v25. See note CLXIX above. Diadochos is related to “welcome” in v3 & “accept” in v15. 1x in NT. From diadechomai (to come after, to receive by way of someone else; to be a successor); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + dechomai (see note XXV above)}. This is a successor in office.

by PorciusCLXXXII Festus,CLXXXIII and since he wantedCLXXXIV

Notes on verse 27b

CLXXXII “Porcius” = Porkios. 1x in NT. From Latin porcus (pig). This is Porcius, meaning “belonging to swine” or “swinish” or “with swine.” See
CLXXXIII “Festus” = Phestos. 13x in NT – all in Acts. From Latin festus (festive, related to holidays). This is Festus, meaning “festal” or “festive” or “joyful.” See
CLXXXIV “wanted” = thelo. Same as “would have” in v6. See note XLIX above.

to grantCLXXXV the Jews a favor,CLXXXVI Felix leftCLXXXVII Paul in prison.CLXXXVIII

Notes on verse 27c

CLXXXV “grant” = katatithemi. Related to “joined in the charge” in v9. 2x in NT – both in Acts. From kata (down, according to, by way of) + tithemi (see note LXVI above). This is to lay down, seek favor, deposit.
CLXXXVI “favor” = charis. Related to “gratitude” in v3. See note XXVIII above.
CLXXXVII “left” = kataleipo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing). This is to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve.
CLXXXVIII “in prison” = deo. Related to “ought” in v19. See note CXXIV above.

Image credit: “Paul in Bondage” by John Paul Stanley of YoMinistry.

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