Exodus 33

Exodus 33


The LordI saidII to Moses,III

Notes on verse 1a

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “said” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
III “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

“Go,IV leaveV this place, you and the peopleVI whom you have brought upVII

Notes on verse 1b

IV “go” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
V “leave” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
VI “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
VII “brought up” = alah. Same as “leave” in v1. See note V above.

out of the landVIII of Egypt,IX and go to the land of which I sworeX to Abraham,XI

Notes on verse 1c

VIII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
IX “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
X “swore” = shaba. Perhaps from sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant. Properly, it can mean to be complete. This is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times.
XI “Abraham” = Abraham. From the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (father literal or figurative) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.

Isaac,XII and Jacob,XIII saying, ‘To your descendantsXIV I will giveXV it.’ 

Notes on verse 1d

XII “Isaac” = Yitschaq. From tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). This is Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
XIII “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
XIV “descendants” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
XV “give” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.

I will sendXVI an angelXVII beforeXVIII you,

Notes on verse 2a

XVI “send” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XVII “angel” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.
XVIII “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

and I will drive outXIX the Canaanites,XX the Amorites,XXI the Hittites,XXII

Notes on verse 2b

XIX “drive out” = garash. This is to cast out or expel. It can be to exile someone or to divorce them.
XX “Canaanites” = Knaaniy. From Kanaan (Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled; perhaps meaning lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt); from kana (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaanite, which in some instances would imply a peddler or sometimes used in place of Ishmaelite. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaan
XXI “Amorites” = Emori. From amar (to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report). This is Amorite or Emori, perhaps meaning talkers.
XXII “Hittites” = Chitti. From cheth (Heth or Cheth; one of Canaan’s sons from whom perhaps the Hittites descend) OR from hatat (terror, lacking strength or courage); perhaps from hata (to seize; often used of coals from a fire). This is Hittite – perhaps meaning terrors or terrible. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Hittite.html#.XyMgpp5KhPY

the Perizzites,XXIII the Hivites,XXIV and the Jebusites.XXV 

Notes on verse 2c

XXIII “Perizzites” = Perizzi. Perhaps from perazi (rural area, unwalled land); from the same as perazah (rural, village without walls, open country); from the same as paraz (root may mean to separate; perhaps warriors, chieftan, or throng). This is Perizzite, perhaps meaning rural or wild one.
XXIV “Hivites” = Chivvi. Probably from the same as chavyah (life-giving, which implies the place where one lives like a village or place where one camps); probably from the same as Chavvah (Eve, life-giver); from chavah (show, tell, live, declare). This is Hivite, perhaps meaning villagers or tent villagers.
XXV “Jebusites” = Yebusi. From yebus (threshing place; one of the former names of Jerusalem); from bus (to trample down, tread in a literal or figurative sense; to loathe, pollute, squirm). This is Jebusite, meaning treaders or threshers.

Go up to a land flowingXXVI with milkXXVII and honey,XXVIII but I will not go upXXIX amongXXX you,

Notes on verse 3a

XXVI “flowing” = zub. This is to flow or gush. It is to flow like water or overflow. It can also be discharge, pine, waste away, or have a sexual flow.
XXVII “milk” = chalab. Perhaps from the same as cheleb (fat, finest, marrow; fat in a literal or figurative sense; the richest or best part). This is milk or cheese or suckling.
XXVIII “honey” = debash. Root may mean being gummy. This is honey or honeycomb because it is so sticky. It can also refer to syrup.
XXIX “go up” = alah. Same as “leave” in v1. See note V above.
XXX “among” = qereb. Perhaps from qarab (to come near or approach). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.

orXXXI I would consumeXXXII you on the way,XXXIII for you are a stiff-neckedXXXIV people.”

Notes on verse 3b

XXXI “or” = pen. Related to “before” in v2. Perhaps from panah (see note XVIII above). This is lest, if, or.
XXXII “consume” = kalah. This is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed.
XXXIII “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
XXXIV “stiff-necked” = qasheh + oreph. Qasheh is from qashah (to be fierce, cruel, dense, tough, severe). This is hard, severe, heavy, obstinate, hard-hearted. Oreph is the back of the neck – also used for stiff-necked. It is also used for the back more generally in a literal or figurative sense.

When the people heardXXXV these harshXXXVI words,XXXVII

Notes on verse 4a

XXXV “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XXXVI “harsh” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
XXXVII “words” = dabar. Related to “said” in v1. From dabar (see note II above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.

they mourned,XXXVIII and no oneXXXIX putXL on ornaments.XLI 

Notes on verse 4b

XXXVIII “mourned” = abal. This is to lament or mourn.
XXXIX “one” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XL “put” = shith. This is to place, set, bring, appoint, consider, bring, array or look.
XLI “ornaments” = adi. 13x in OT. From adah (adorning oneself with ornaments, decorate). This is decoration, beauty, jewels, ornaments, an outfit, something excellent.

For the Lord had said to Moses, “Say to the Israelites,XLII ‘You are a stiff-necked people; if for a singleXLIII momentXLIV I should go upXLV among you, I would consume you.

Notes on verse 5a

XLII “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XLIII “single” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
XLIV “moment” = rega. From raga (to toss violently, break, or disturb; tossed about as on rough sea or the skin breaking out in skin disease; to shut the eyes and so to settle, east, rest, or quiet). This is an instant or moment – so suddenly. Properly, this is a wink of the eye, which is to say a brief moment.
XLV “go up” = alah. Same as “leave” in v1. See note V above.

So now takeXLVI off your ornaments, and I will decideXLVII what to doXLVIII to you.’” Therefore the Israelites strippedXLIX themselves of their ornaments, from MountL HorebLI onward.

Notes on verses 5b-6

XLVI “take” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
XLVII “decide” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XLVIII “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XLIX “stripped” = natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder.
L “Mount” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
LI “Horeb” = Choreb. 17x in OT. From chareb (to devastate, desolate, or be waste). Horeb means waste or desolate.

Now Moses used to takeLII the tentLIII and pitchLIV it outsideLV the camp,LVI

Notes on verse 7a

LII “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
LIII “tent” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
LIV “pitch” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.
LV “outside” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.
LVI “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.

far offLVII from the camp; he calledLVIII it the tent of meeting.LIX AndLX everyoneLXI who soughtLXII the Lord would go outLXIII to the tent of meeting, which was outside the camp. 

Notes on verse 7b

LVII “far off” = rachaq. This is to widen, become distant, cast, or remove. It can be in a literal or figurative sense.
LVIII “called” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
LIX “meeting” = moed. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.
LX {untranslated} = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
LXI “everyone” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
LXII “sought” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.
LXIII “go out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.

WheneverLXIV Moses went out to the tent, allLXV the people would riseLXVI and stand,LXVII

Notes on verse 8a

LXIV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note LX above.
LXV “all” = kol. Same as “everyone” in v7. See note LXI above.
LXVI “rise” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
LXVII “stand” = natsab. This is to station, appoint, establish, take a stand.

eachLXVIII of them, at the entranceLXIX of their tents and watchLXX Moses until he had gone intoLXXI the tent. 

Notes on verse 8b

LXVIII “each” = ish. Same as “one” in v4. See note XXXIX above.
LXIX “entrance” = pethach. From pathach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense; to open, draw out, let something go free, break forth, to plow, engrave, or carve). This is any kind of opening – a door, entrance, gate.
LXX “watch” = nabat + achar. Nabat is to behold, look at intently, consider, or scan. It can mean to have respect or regard someone favorably. Achar is from achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
LXXI “go into” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.

WhenLXXII Moses enteredLXXIII the tent, the pillarLXXIV of cloudLXXV would descendLXXVI and standLXXVII at the entrance of the tent, and the Lord would speakLXXVIII with Moses. 

Notes on verse 9

LXXII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note LX above.
LXXIII “entered” = bo. Same as “go into” in v8. See note LXXI above.
LXXIV “pillar” = ammud. From amad (to stand up in a literal or figurative sense; to establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy). This is a pillar, stand, or platform.
LXXV “cloud” = anan. May be from anan (cover, cloud over; figuratively, acting in a secret way, practicing magic or soothsaying). This is a cloud as something that covers the sky.
LXXVI “descend” = yarad. Same as “take” in v5. See note XLVI above.
LXXVII “stand” = amad. Related to “pillar” in v9. See note LXXIV above.
LXXVIII “speak” = dabar. Same as “said” in v1. See note II above.

10 When all the people sawLXXIX the pillar of cloud standingLXXX at the entrance of the tent, all the people would rise and bow down,LXXXI all of them, at the entrance of their tent. 11 Thus the Lord used to speak to Moses faceLXXXII to face, as one speaks to a friend.LXXXIII

Notes on verses 10-11a

LXXIX “saw” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
LXXX “standing” = amad. Same as “stand” in v9. See note LXXVII above.
LXXXI “bow down” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.
LXXXII “face” = paneh. Same as “before” in v2. See note XVIII above.
LXXXIII “friend” = rea. From raah (to associate with). This is the same as neighbor in Leviticus 19:18 “love your neighbor as yourself.” This is friend, companion, fellow, neighbor. It is someone with whom you associate, whether more or less close.

Then he would returnLXXXIV to the camp, but his youngLXXXV assistant,LXXXVI

Notes on verse 11b

LXXXIV “return” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
LXXXV “young” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
LXXXVI “assistant” = sharath. This is ministering, serving, or waiting on. It can refer to one offering service as a worshipper or one serving as a servant.

JoshuaLXXXVII sonLXXXVIII of Nun,LXXXIX would not leaveXC the tent.

Notes on verse 11c

LXXXVII “Joshua” = Yehoshua. Related to “Lord” in v1 & {untranslated} in v7. From YHVH (see note I above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Joshua, Jeshua, or Yehoshua, which means “the Lord is salvation.”
LXXXVIII “son” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v5. See note XLII above.
LXXXIX “Nun” = Nun. From nun (to propagate, continue, resprout, be perpetual). This is Nun or Non, meaning “perpetuity.”
XC “leave” = mush + tavek. Mush is perhaps from the same as muwsh (to touch, handle). This is to depart, take away, stop. It is to withdraw in a literal or figurative sense. Tavek is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.

12 Moses said to the Lord, “See, you have said to me, ‘Bring up this people,’ but you have not let me knowXCI whom you will send with me. Yet you have said, ‘I know you by name,XCII and you have also foundXCIII favorXCIV in my sight.’XCV 

Notes on verse 12

XCI “know” = yada. Same as “decide” in v5. See note XLVII above.
XCII “name” = shem. May be from sim (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
XCIII “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
XCIV “favor” = chen. From chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is grace, favor, kindness, beauty, precious.
XCV “sight” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).

13 Now ifXCVI I have found favor in your sight, pleaseXCVII showXCVIII me your ways, so that I may know you and find favor in your sight. Consider,XCIX too, that this nationC is your people.” 

Notes on verse 13

XCVI {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
XCVII “please” = na. Same as {untranslated} in v13. See note XCVI above.
XCVIII “show” = yada. Same as “decide” in v5. See note XLVII above.
XCIX “consider” = raah. Same as “saw” in v10. See note LXXIX above.
C “nation” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.

14 He said, “My presenceCI will go with you, and I will give you rest.”CII 

15 And he said to him, “If your presence will not go, do not bring us up from here. 16 For how shall it be known that I have found favor in your sight, I and your people, unless you go with us? In this way, we shall be distinct,CIII I and your people, from everyCIV people on the face of the earth.”CV

Notes on verses 14-16

CI “presence” = paneh. Same as “before” in v2. See note XVIII above.
CII “give…rest” = nuach. This is to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait. It is rest and so implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense. This is perhaps the root verb of the name “Noah.”
CIII “be distinct” = palah. 7x in OT. This is to distinguish in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to sever, set apart, or show self to be marvelous.
CIV “every” = kol. Same as “everyone” in v7. See note LXI above.
CV “earth” = adamah. From the same as adam (man, humankind); perhaps from ‘adom (to be red). This is ground, earth, soil as red, or land.

17 The Lord said to Moses, “I will also do this thingCVI that you have asked,CVII for you have found favor in my sight, and I know you by name.” 

18 Moses said, “Please showCVIII me your glory.”CIX 

Notes on verses 17-18

CVI “thing” = dabar. Same as “words” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
CVII “asked” = dabar. Same as “said” in v1. See note II above.
CVIII “show” = raah. Same as “saw” in v10. See note LXXIX above.
CIX “glory” = kabod. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is weighty. Figuratively, glorious, abundant, riches, honor, splendor – a reference to one’s reputation or character. This word is often used to describe God and God’s presence.

19 And he said, “I will make all my goodnessCX passCXI before you and will proclaimCXII before you the name, ‘The Lord,’  and I will be graciousCXIII to whom I will be gracious and will show mercyCXIV on whom I will show mercy. 

Notes on verse 19

CX “goodness” = tub. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is goodness, gladness, something that is good. It can also be beauty, welfare, or joy.
CXI “pass” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
CXII “proclaim” = qara. Same as “called” in v7. See note LVIII above.
CXIII “be gracious” = chanan. Related to “favor” in v12. See note XCIV above.
CXIV “show mercy” = racham. From racham (compassion, tender love, womb, compassion; the womb as that which cherishes the fetus); from the same as rechem (womb). This is to love, fondle, have mercy, have or show compassion.

20 But,” he said, “you cannotCXV see my face, for no oneCXVI shall see me and live.”CXVII 

21 And the Lord continued, “See,CXVIII there is a placeCXIX by me

Notes on verses 20-21a

CXV “cannot” = lo + yakol. Yakol is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
CXVI “one” = adam. Related to “earth” in v16. See note CV above.
CXVII “life” = chayay. 17x in OT. This is to live, save life, or revive.
CXVIII “see” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
CXIX “place” = maqom. Related to “rise” in v8. From qum (see note LXVI above).

where you shall standCXX on the rock,CXXI 22 andCXXII while my glory passes by I will putCXXIII you in a cleftCXXIV of the rock,

Notes on verses 21b-22a

CXX “stand” = natsab. Same as “stand” in v8. See note LXVII above.
CXXI “rock” = tsur. Related to “Egypt” in v1. Perhaps from tsur (see note IX above). This is rock, stone, cliff, boulder, rocky. It can also be a refuge, a way to refer to God.
CXXII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note LX above.
CXXIII “put” = sim. Related to “name” in v12. See note XCI above.
CXXIV “cleft” = neqarah. 2x in OT. From naqar (to dig, pick, quarry, or penetrate; gouging out eyes, having eyes pecked out, and a quarry being dug). This is a hole, crevice, fissure, or cavern.

and I will coverCXXV you with my handCXXVI until I have passed by; 23 then I will take awayCXXVII my hand, and you shall seeCXXVIII my back,CXXIX but my face shall not be seen.”CXXX

Notes on verses 22b-23

CXXV “cover” = sakak. This is to cover or overshadow. It could also be to hedge or fence it. Figuratively, this could be to defend, protect, or join together.
CXXVI “hand” = kaph. From kaphaph (to bend – from a root meaning curve or bend down). This is palm of the hand or sole of the foot, footstep, grasp. Figuratively, it can also mean power.
CXXVII “take away” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
CXXVIII “see” = raah. Same as “saw” in v10. See note LXXIX above.
CXXIX “back” = achor. Related to “watch” in v8. From achar (see note LXX above). This is the back, behind, backward, time to come. It can also refer to facing to the north or the west.
CXXX “seen” = raah. Same as “saw” in v10. See note LXXIX above.

Image credit: “The Hand of God is my Refuge” by Frank Wesley.

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