Luke 18:31-19:10

Luke 18:31-19:10
Narrative Lectionary 335


18:31 Then he took the twelve asideI and said to them, “See,II we are going upIII to Jerusalem,IV

Notes on verse 18:31a

I “took…aside” = paralambano. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
II “see” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
III “going up” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
IV “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

and everything that is writtenV about the Son of ManVI by the prophetsVII will be accomplished.VIII 

Notes on verse 18:31b

V “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
VI “Man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
VII “prophets” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
VIII “be accomplished” = teleo. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end.

32 For he will be handed overIX to the Gentiles;X and he will be mockedXI and insultedXII and spat upon. 

Notes on verse 18:32

IX “handed over” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
X “Gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XI “mocked” = empaizo. 13x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + paizo (to play like a child does – can include singing and dancing); {from pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting)}. This is to mock, ridicule, jeer.
XII “insulted” = hubrizo. 5x in NT. From hubris (insult, damage, harm, reproach, insolence; damage that includes reproach); from huper (by, under, over, above, under the authority of another). This is to insult, mistreat, steal. Figuratively, it is to harm someone so that they experience a loss, particularly to their reputation or honor. So, it is violence or abuse. This is where the word “hubris” comes from.

33 After they have floggedXIII him, they will killXIV him, and on the third day he will rise again.”XV 

Notes on verse 18:33

XIII “flogged” = mastigoo. 7x in NT. From mastix (a whip that had leather straps with metal bits sewn onto them; figurative for great pain, suffering, disease, or plague; a Roman whip used on criminals, the flagellum); probably from massaomai (to chew, gnaw, consume); from masso (to handle, squeeze). This is to flog or whip someone – the victim being strapped to a pole. Used figuratively for being chastised.
XIV “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
XV “rise again” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.

34 But they understoodXVI nothing about all these things; in fact, what he saidXVII was hiddenXVIII from them, and they did not graspXIX what was said.

Notes on verse 18:34

XVI “understood” = suniemi. From sun (with, together with) + hiemi (to send, put). This is to put together – used figuratively to mean understand, consider, gain insight. It is bringing together facts or notions and synthesizing them into a whole. It is making a summary to arrive at a final conclusion that includes how to apply the insight to life. It can also imply acting piously or being wise.
XVII “what…said” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
XVIII “hidden” = krupto. 18x in NT. This is to hide by covering, secret, hidden things. This is the root of the word “cryptography.”
XIX “grasp” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.

35 XXAs he approachedXXI Jericho,XXII

Notes on verse 18:35a

XX {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XXI “approached” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.
XXII “Jericho” = Hiericho. 7x in NT. From Hebrew Yriychow (Jericho); {perhaps from yareach (moon); {from the same as yerach (month)} OR from ruach (small, breathe, perceive, anticipate, accept, enjoy)}. This is Jericho, meaning either “fragrant” or “moon.”

a blind manXXIII was sittingXXIV by the roadsideXXV begging.XXVI 

Notes on verse 18:35b

XXIII “blind man” = tuphlos. Derivation unclear. Perhaps from tuphoo (to be conceited, foolish, puffed up, haughty; properly, to blow smoke; figuratively being muddled or cloudy in mind; poor judgment that harms spiritual clarity; also, being covered with smoke – so filled with pride); from tuphos (smoke, vanity, arrogance); from tupho (to raise smoke, smolder, slowly consume without flame). This is blind or a blind person – perhaps in the sense of smoke making things opaque and impossible to see. This is blind literally or figuratively.
XXIV “sitting” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
XXV “roadside” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
XXVI “begging” = epaiteo. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is to beg as in ask for alms. It can also mean being a beggar.

36 When he heardXXVII a crowd going by,XXVIII he askedXXIX what was happening.XXX 

Notes on verse 18:36

XXVII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XXVIII “going by” = diaporeuomai. 5x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, or die; transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination)}. This is to travel through, pass.
XXIX “asked” = punthanomai. 12x in NT. This is to ask in order to learn. It is not to ask a favor (erotao in Greek), to demand something felt to be owed (aiteo), to search for a hidden thing (zeteo), or to ask for urgent help (deomai). This is to figure something out through questions.
XXX “what was happening” = tis + eimi +houtos. Literally “what this might be.”

37 They toldXXXI him, “JesusXXXII of NazarethXXXIII is passing by.”XXXIV 

Notes on verse 18:37

XXXI “told” = apaggello. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
XXXII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXXIII “Nazareth” = Nazoraios. 13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
XXXIV “passing by” = parerchomai. From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (to come, go). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.

38 Then he shouted,XXXV “Jesus, Son of David,XXXVI have mercy onXXXVII me!” 

Notes on verse 18:38

XXXV “shouted” = boao. 12x in NT. From boe (a cry or shout). This is cry out, make a distress call, ask for desperately need assistance.
XXXVI “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
XXXVII “have mercy on” = eleeo. From eleos (mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion; generally understood in action by word or deed). This is to have pity on, show mercy to, be compassionate; often used for God’s grace. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is from this root verb.

39 Those who were in frontXXXVIII sternly orderedXXXIX him to be quiet;XL but he shoutedXLI even more loudly,XLII “Son of David, have mercy on me!” 

Notes on verse 18:39

XXXVIII “were in front” = proago. Related to “told” in v18:37. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note XXXI above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
XXXIX “sternly ordered” = epitimao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + timao (properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor); {from time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to render what is due – to assign the value that is appropriate for the situation. So, it could mean to honor or to warn, to rebuke or to charge. Generally, it is a warning meant to guide someone away from doing something wrong or taking the wrong path. It can imply to forbid.
XL “be quiet” = sigao. 10x in NT. From sige (silence, hush); perhaps from sizo (to hiss or hush). This is to be silent or hold peace.
XLI “shouted” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
XLII “even more loudly” = polus + mallon. Polus is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent. Mallon is rather, more than, or better.

40 Jesus stood stillXLIII and orderedXLIV the man to be broughtXLV to him;

Notes on verse 18:40a

XLIII “stood still” = histemi. Related to “rise again” in v18:33. See note XV above.
XLIV “ordered” = keleuo. From kelomai (to urge on). This is to command, order, or direct.
XLV “brought” = ago. Related to “told” in v18:37 & “were in front” in v18:39. See note XXXI above.

and when he came near,XLVI he askedXLVII him, 41 “What do you wantXLVIII me to doXLIX for you?”

He said, “Lord,L let me see again.”LI 

Notes on verses 18:40b-41

XLVI “came near” = eggizo. Same as “approached” in v18:35. See note XXI above.
XLVII “asked” = eperotao. Related to “what…said” in v18:34. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (see note XVII above)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
XLVIII “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
XLIX “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
L “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
LI “see again” = anablepo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look up or regain sight.

42 Jesus said to him, “Receive your sight;LII your faithLIII has savedLIV you.” 

Notes on verse 18:42

LII “receive…sight” = anablepo. Same as “see again” in v18:41. See note LI above.
LIII “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
LIV “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

43 Immediately he regained his sightLV and followedLVI him, glorifyingLVII God;LVIII

Notes on verse 18:43a

LV “regained…sight” = anablepo. Same as “see again” in v18:41. See note LI above.
LVI “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
LVII “glorifying” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
LVIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

and all the people,LIX when they sawLX it, praisedLXI God.

Notes on verse 18:43b

LIX “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
LX “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
LXI “praised” = didomi + ainos. Didomi is related to “handed over” in v18:32. See note IX above. Ainos is 2x in NT. Perhaps from epainos (fitting praise, fame, approval; recognizing something or someone that is deserving of praise.); {from epi (on, upon, to, what is fitting) + aineo (to praise, praise God)}. This is praise, a story praising God.

19:1 He entered Jericho and was passing throughLXII it. LXIIIA manLXIV was there namedLXV Zacchaeus;LXVI

Notes on verses 19:1-2a

LXII “passing through” = dierchomai. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
LXIII {untranslated} = idou. Same as “see” in v18:31. See note II above.
LXIV “man” = aner. Related to “man” in v18:31. See note VI above.
LXV “named” = onoma + kaleo. Onoma is related to “grasp” in v18:34. May be from ginosko (see note XIX above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person. Kaleo is related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
LXVI “Zacchaeus” = Zakchaios. 3x in NT – all in Luke 19. From Hebrew Zakkay (Zakkay, Zaccai, meaning “pure”); from zakak (to be bright, cleanse, transparent; to be morally pure). This is Zacchaeus, meaning “pure” or “innocent.”

he was a chief tax collectorLXVII and was rich.LXVIII He was tryingLXIX to see who Jesus was, but on account of the crowd he couldLXX not, because he was shortLXXI in stature.LXXII 

Notes on verses 19:2b-3

LXVII “chief tax collector” = architelones. Related to “be accomplished” in v18:31. 1x in NT. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + telones (tax collector, one who worked for the Romans taking taxes from Jews; also the toll house; literally, “paying at the end”); {from telos (see note VIII above)}. This is the head or main tax collector.
LXVIII “rich” = plousios. Related to “even more loudly” in v18:39. From ploutos (abundance, wealth, or riches; money, possessions, spiritual abundance, or a valuable bestowment); from polus (see note XLII above) OR pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is wealthy, having full resources. It can be a rich person or refer to God’s abundance.
LXIX “trying” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
LXX “could” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
LXXI “short” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
LXXII “stature” = helikia. 8x in NT. From the same as helikos (of what size, how much; properly, full grown, an adult); from helix (mature, adult, of the same age). This refers to maturity, stature, life span, or being of a suitable age. It could refer to maturity in terms of years or size.

So he ran aheadLXXIII and climbedLXXIV a sycamoreLXXV tree to see him, because he was going toLXXVI pass that way. 

Notes on verse 19:4

LXXIII “ahead” = eis + ho + emprosthen. Literally “to the front.”
LXXIV “climbed” = anabaino. Same as “going up” in v18:31. See note III above.
LXXV “sycamore tree” = sukomorea. 1x in NT. From sukon (fig) + moron (black mulberry). This is a sycamore or fig-mulberry tree.
LXXVI “was going to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.

When Jesus came to the place,LXXVII he looked upLXXVIII and said to him, “Zacchaeus, hurryLXXIX and come down;LXXX

Notes on verse 19:5a

LXXVII “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
LXXVIII “looked up” = anablepo. Same as “see again” in v18:41. See note LI above.
LXXIX “hurry” = speudo. 6x in NT– shepherds went with hast to find Mary and Joseph and the child in Luke 2:16. Perhaps from pous (foot in a figurative or literal sense). This is to hurry, urge on, await. It implies eagerness or diligence.
LXXX “come down” = katabaino. Related to “going up” in v18:31. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note III above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

for I mustLXXXI stayLXXXII at your houseLXXXIII today.” 

Notes on verse 19:5b

LXXXI “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
LXXXII “stay” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
LXXXIII “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.

So he hurried down and was happyLXXXIV to welcomeLXXXV him. All who saw it began to grumbleLXXXVI and said, “He has gone to be the guest ofLXXXVII one who is a sinner.”LXXXVIII 

Notes on verses 19:6-7

LXXXIV “was happy” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
LXXXV “welcome” = hupodechomai. 4x in NT – including Martha and Zacchaeus welcoming Jesus into their homes in Luke 10:38 & Luke 19:6. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense).  This is to welcome someone as a guest, to entertain them, to have someone in your personal care.
LXXXVI “grumble” = diagogguzo. 2x in NT– grumbling of Pharisees and scribes before the Parable of the Lost Sheep in Luke 15:2 & when Jesus agreed to eat with Zacchaeus in Luke 19:7. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + gogguzo (to murmur or grumble; an onomatopoeia to sound similar to the cooing of doves; figuratively, it is simmering displeasure that is muffled – a dull, constant murmuring). This is to grumble or murmur like the ongoing hum of a dove or bee. It is intense, negative complaining as amplified through a crowd.
LXXXVII “to be the guest of” = kataluo. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
LXXXVIII “sinner” = hamartolos. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.

Zacchaeus stood there and said to the Lord, “Look,LXXXIX half of my possessions,XC Lord, I will give to the poor;XCI and if I have defraudedXCII anyone of anything, I will pay backXCIII four times as much.”

Notes on verse 19:8

LXXXIX “look” = idou. Same as “see” in v18:31. See note II above.
XC “possessions” = huparcho. Related to “chief tax collector” in v19:2. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (see note LXVII above). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
XCI “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.
XCII “defrauded” = sukophanteo. Related to “sycamore tree” in v19:4 & “prophets” in v18:31. 2x in NT. From sukon (see note LXXV above) + phaino (see note VII above). This is literally someone who was an informant against people who illegally exported figs from Greece. Figuratively, it is to make a false accusation or defraud. This is where the word “sycophant” comes from.
XCIII “pay back” = apodidomi. Related to “handed over” in v18:32 & “praised” in v18:43. From apo (from, away from) + didomi (see note IX above). This is to give back, return, give away. It is to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell.

 Then Jesus said to him, “Today salvationXCIV has comeXCV to this house, because he too is a son of Abraham.XCVI 10 For the Son of Man came to seekXCVII out and to save the lost.”XCVIII

Notes on verses 19:9-10

XCIV “salvation” = soteria. Related to “saved” in v18:42. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (see note LIV above). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.
XCV “come” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v18:35. See note XX above.
XCVI “Abraham” = Abraam. From Hebrew Abraham (exalted father); from the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (father literal or figurative) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
XCVII “seek” = zeteo. Same as “trying” in v19:3. See note LXIX above.
XCVIII “lost” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

Image credit: “Hurry Down, Zacchaeus” window in Christ Church in Korntal, Germany.

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