Exodus 8

Exodus 8


Then the LordI said to Moses,II “GoIII to PharaohIV and say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord: Let my peopleV go,VI so that they may worshipVII me. 

Notes on verse 1

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
III “go” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
IV “Pharaoh” = Paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pharaoh
V “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
VI “let…go” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
VII “worship” = abad. This is to work, serve, or compel. It can describe any kind of work or service (including religious devotion).  Also, till or cultivate. Used causatively, it can mean to enslave or keep in bondage.

2 If you refuseVIII to let them go,IX, X I will plagueXI your wholeXII countryXIII with frogs.XIV 

Notes on verse 2

VIII “refuse” = maen. 4x in OT. From maen (to refuse). This is refusing or unwilling.
IX “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note VI above.
X {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
XI “plague” = nagaph. This is to strike, beat, hurt, stumble, defeat, inflict disease.
XII “whole” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XIII “country” = gebul. Perhaps from gabal (to border, twist like rope). This is boundary, limit, coast, space. Properly, it is a line that is twisted, which implies a boundary and, by extension, the boundaries of a territory or other enclosed space.
XIV “frogs” = tsephardea. 13x in OT– used of the second plague of Egypt in Exodus 8 and twice in the Psalms referring to that event. Perhaps from tsaphar (to skip about, maybe to depart) + a word for swamp. This is frog. It is perhaps as one who jumps from a marsh.

3 The riverXV shall swarmXVI with frogs; they shall come upXVII into your palace,XVIII

Notes on verse 3a

XV “river” = yeor. From Egyptian yeor (river). This is the Nile as the main river in Egypt. It is also used for the Tigris for its similar status in Assyria. It can also more generally mean river, steam, channel, or flood.
XVI “swarm” = sharats. 14x in OT. This is to swarm, creep, abound, breed a lot, wriggle.
XVII “come up” = alah + bo. Alah is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense. Bo is the same as “go” in v1. See note III above.
XVIII “palace” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

into your bedchamberXIX and your bed,XX and into the housesXXI of your officialsXXII and of your people, 

Notes on verse 3b

XIX “into your bedchamber” = cheder + mishkab. Cheder is from chadar (to surround or enclose; a room as enclosed; also, by analogy, besieging). This is a chamber or room that is private. Can mean the innermost chamber of a house. Mishkab is from shakab (to lie down, lodge; lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons). This is a place where one lies down i.e. a bed, couch, or bedchamber. It can also be used in an abstract sense to refer to sleep or euphemistically for sex.
XX “bed” = mittah. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a couch or bed that is spread out to sleep on or for eating. It can also refer to a litter or a bier.
XXI “houses” = bayit. Same as “palace” in v3. See note XVIII above.
XXII “officials” = ebed. Related to “worship” in v1. From abad (see note VII above). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.

and into your ovensXXIII and your kneading bowls.XXIV The frogs shall come upXXV on you and on your people and on allXXVI your officials.’” 

Notes on verses 3c-4

XXIII “ovens” = tannur. 15x in OT. From the same as tenuk (ear lobe, pinnacle, extremity); perhaps from the same as anak (plumb line, hook; root may mean to be narrow) OR from ner (properly, to glisten; a lamp, light, burner, candle; light literal or figurative). This is a portable stove, oven, or furnace.
XXIV “kneading bowls” = mishereth. 4x in OT. Perhaps from shaar (properly, swelling up i.e. being left over; a remnant, remaining, being redundant). This is a trough used to knead or a location where dough is put to rise.
XXV “come up” = alah. Same as “come up” in v3. See note XVII above.
XXVI “all” = kol. Same as “whole” in v2. See note XII above.

5 And the Lord said to Moses, “Say to Aaron,XXVII ‘Stretch outXXVIII your handXXIX with your staffXXX over the rivers,XXXI

Notes on verse 5a

XXVII “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
XXVIII “stretch out” = natah. Related to “bed” in v3. See note XX above.
XXIX “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XXX “staff” = matteh. Related to “bed” in v3 & “stretch out” in v5. From natah (see note XX above). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).
XXXI “rivers” = nahar. From nahar (to flow, sparkle, be cheerful). This is a stream, river, or flood. Particularly used for the Nile or Euphrates. Figuratively, this can mean prosperity.

the canals,XXXII and the pools,XXXIII and make frogs come upXXXIV on the landXXXV of Egypt.’”XXXVI 

So Aaron stretched out his hand over the watersXXXVII of Egypt; and the frogs came upXXXVIII and coveredXXXIX the land of Egypt. 

Notes on verses 5b-6

XXXII “canals” = yeor. Same as “river” in v3. See note XV above.
XXXIII “pools” = agam. 9x in OT. This is a marsh, pool, pond, or swamp. Its root may refer to an area that holds standing water. It can also refer to reeds as grow in marshes.
XXXIV “come up” = alah. Same as “come up” in v3. See note XVII above.
XXXV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XXXVI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
XXXVII “waters” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
XXXVIII “came up” = alah. Same as “come up” in v3. See note XVII above.
XXXIX “covered” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.

But the magiciansXL didXLI the sameXLII by their secret arts,XLIII and brought frogs upXLIV on the land of Egypt.

Notes on verse 7

XL “magicians” = chartom. 11x in OT. From the same as cheret (any kind of tool used for engraving – a stylus, chisel, or pen). This is an engraver or magician. It is someone who knows how to do occult things, so it could be a diviner or someone who does horoscopes. In the Bible, magicians interpret dreams (in Genesis and Daniel) and are also called on in Exodus to disprove or duplicate the miracles of God.
XLI “did” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XLII “same” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
XLIII “secret arts” = lat. 7x in OT. From lut (to wrap, envelop) OR from lat (softly, muffled); {from l (to, for, of) + at (gentleness, charmer) or from la’at (to cover)}. This is mystery, covered, secret arts, incantation.
XLIV “brought…up” = alah. Same as “come up” in v3. See note XVII above.

Then Pharaoh calledXLV Moses and Aaron, and said, “PrayXLVI to the Lord to take awayXLVII the frogs from me and my people, and I will let the people goXLVIII to sacrificeXLIX to the Lord.” 

Notes on verse 8

XLV “called” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
XLVI “pray” = athar. This is to pray or entreat. It could mean burning incense as one does as part of worship or to intercede. It could also mean listening to or being moved by prayer.
XLVII “take away” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
XLVIII “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note VI above.
XLIX “sacrifice” = zabach. This is slaughtering an animal, generally for the purpose of sacrifice. It can mean kill or offer.

9 Moses said to Pharaoh, “Kindly tellL me when I am to pray for you and for your officials and for your people, that the frogs may be removedLI from you and your houses and be leftLII onlyLIII in the Nile.”LIV 

Notes on verse 9

L “kindly tell” = paar. 14x in OT. This is to beautify or adorn, to gleam. Thus, it can refer to showing honor or glorifying someone. It can also mean to boast or to shake a tree for harvest.
LI “removed” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
LII “left” = shaar. Properly, this is swelling up i.e. being left over, a remnant, remaining, being redundant.
LIII “only” = raq. From the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is but, except, at least. In the sense of being thin, it figuratively refers to some kind of limit.
LIV “Nile” = Yeor. Same as “river” in v3. See note XV above.

10 And he said, “Tomorrow.”LV

Moses said, “As you say!LVI So that you may knowLVII that there is no one like the Lord our God,LVIII 11 the frogs shall leaveLIX you and your houses and your officials and your people; they shall be left only in the Nile.” 

Notes on verses 10-11

LV “tomorrow” = machar. Perhaps from achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is tomorrow or later. It is some kind of deferred time, so it could also mean indefinitely or refer to the time to come.
LVI “as you say” = dabar. Literally, “according to your word.” From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
LVII “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
LVIII “God” = Elohim.
LIX “leave” = sur. Same as “take away” in v8. See note XLVII above.

12 Then Moses and Aaron went outLX from Pharaoh; and Moses cried outLXI to the Lord concerningLXII the frogs that he had broughtLXIII upon Pharaoh. 13 And the Lord did asLXIV Moses requested: the frogs diedLXV in the houses, the courtyards,LXVI and the fields.LXVII 

Notes on verses 12-13

LX “went out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
LXI “cried out” = tsaaq. This is to cry out or call together, to shriek. It can mean, by implication, calling for an assembly.
LXII {untranslated} = dabar. Same as “as you say” in v10. See note LVI above.
LXIII “brought” = sum. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
LXIV {untranslated} = dabar. Same as “as you say” in v10. See note LVI above.
LXV “died” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
LXVI “courtyards” = chatser. From chatsar (to blow a trumpet, trumpeter, to surround); from chatsotsrah (trumpet). This is an enclosure or court – a yard that is fenced in. It could also be a village or hamlet that is walled in.
LXVII “fields” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.

14 And they gathered them togetherLXVIII in heaps,LXIX and the land stank.LXX 15 But when Pharaoh sawLXXI that there wasLXXII a respite,LXXIII

Notes on verses 14-15a

LXVIII “gathered…together” = tsabar. 7x in OT. This is to gather, store, or heap up.
LXIX “heaps” = chomer + chomer. Literally, “on heaps of heaps.” From chamar (to boil up, ferment, be red befoul, trouble, daub). This is something that bubbles up like sea foam, mire, clay, a heap. It is also cement, mortar and a dry measure.
LXX “stank” = baash. 18x in OT. This is to stink or be foul. Figuratively, it can refer to offensive behavior – morally odious or loathsome.
LXXI “saw” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
LXXII “was” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
LXXIII “respite” = revachah. 2x in OT. From ravach (to be large, spacious, to refresh, breathe free). This is relief or breathing.

he hardenedLXXIV his heart,LXXV and would not listenLXXVI to them, just as the Lord had said.LXXVII

Notes on verse 15b

LXXIV “hardened” = kabad. To be heavy, weighty, or severe. It can also be positive abounding in, rich, or honorable. The Hebrew word for “glory,” kabod, is taken from this root.
LXXV “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
LXXVI “listen” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
LXXVII “said” = dabar. Related to “as you say” in v10. See note LVI above.

16 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Stretch out your staff and strikeLXXVIII the dustLXXIX of the earth,LXXX so that it may becomeLXXXI gnatsLXXXII throughout the whole land of Egypt.’” 

Notes on verse 16

LXXVIII “strike” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
LXXIX “dust” = aphar. May be related to aphar (to throw dust, be dust). This is dust as powdered, perhaps gray colored. It could be ashes, powder, ground, dry earth, clay mud, or rubbish.
LXXX “earth” = erets. Same as “land” in v5. See note XXXV above.
LXXXI “become” = hayah. Same as “was” in v15. See note LXXII above.
LXXXII “gnats” = ken. 6x in OT. Perhaps from kanan (vineyard, to plant); related to kannah (shoot). This is many gnats or lice. It can also mean manner.

17 And they did so;LXXXIII Aaron stretched out his hand with his staff and struck the dust of the earth, and gnats cameLXXXIV on humansLXXXV and animalsLXXXVI alike; all the dust of the earth turned intoLXXXVII gnats throughout the whole land of Egypt. 

Notes on verse 17

LXXXIII “so” = ken. Same as “same” in v7. See note XLII above.
LXXXIV “came” = hayah. Same as “was” in v15. See note LXXII above.
LXXXV “humans” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
LXXXVI “animals” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
LXXXVII “turned into” = hayah. Same as “was” in v15. See note LXXII above.

18 The magicians triedLXXXVIII, LXXXIX to produceXC gnats by their secret arts, but they couldXCI not. There were gnats on both humans and animals. 19 And the magicians said to Pharaoh, “This is the fingerXCII of God!” But Pharaoh’s heart was hardened,XCIII and he would not listen to them, just as the Lord had said.

Notes on verses 18-19

LXXXVIII “tried” = asah. Same as “did” in v7. See note XLI above.
LXXXIX {untranslated} = ken. Same as “same” in v7. See note XLII above.
XC “produce” = yatsa. Same as “went out” in v12. See note LX above.
XCI “could” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
XCII “finger” = etsba. Perhaps from the same as tseba (dye, something dipped). This is finger or toe – something used to seize.
XCIII “hardened” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.

20 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Rise earlyXCIV in the morningXCV and presentXCVI yourself beforeXCVII Pharaoh, asXCVIII he goes outXCIX to the water, and say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord: Let my people go,C so that they may worship me. 

Notes on verse 20

XCIV “rise early” = shakam. This is leaning one’s shoulder into a burden or load, whether a person or an animal. Thus, it meant starting or rising early.
XCV “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
XCVI “present” = yatsab. This is to set oneself, take a stand, remain, continue, to station or set something in place.
XCVII “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XCVIII “as” = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note X above.
XCIX “goes out” = yatsa. Same as “went out” in v12. See note LX above.
C “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note VI above.

21 For if you will not let my people go,CI, CII I will sendCIII swarms of fliesCIV on you, your officials, and your people, and into your houses; and the houses of the EgyptiansCV shall be filledCVI with swarms of flies; so also the landCVII where they live. 

Notes on verse 21

CI “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note VI above.
CII {untranslated} = hen. Related to {untranslated} in v2. See note X above.
CIII “send” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note VI above.
CIV “swarms of flies” = arob. 9x in OT– used of the fourth plague of Egypt in Exodus 8 and twice in the Psalms referring to that event. From the same as ereb (mixed company, woof of a cloth, mixture); from arab (to bargain, barter, give or take in pledge; to braid or intermingle). This is a swarm – perhaps of flies or mosquitos.
CV “Egyptians” = Mitsri. Related to “Egypt” in v5. From the same as Mitsrayim (see note XXXVI above). This is Egyptian.
CVI “be filled” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.
CVII “land” = adamah. Related to “humans” in v17. From the same as adam (see note LXXXV above). This is ground, earth, soil as red, or land.

22 But on that dayCVIII I will set apartCIX the landCX of Goshen,CXI

Notes on verse 22a

CVIII “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CIX “set apart” = palah. 7x in OT. This is to distinguish in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to sever, set apart, or show self to be marvelous.
CX “land” = erets. Same as “land” in v5. See note XXXV above.
CXI “Goshen” = Goshen. 15x in OT. Similar to Arabic j-sh-m (to labor) OR may be related to Egyptian qas (“inundated land”) OR Egyptian pa-qas (“pouring forth”) OR from Gasmu (“rulers of Bedouin Qedarites who occupied the eastern Delta from the 7th century BC”). This is Goshen. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_of_Goshen

where my people live,CXII so that noCXIII swarms of flies shall be there, that you may know that I the Lord am inCXIV this land.CXV 

Notes on verse 22b

CXII “live” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
CXIII “no” = bilti. From balah (to grow old, wear out, consume, waste, enjoy, fail, decay). This is nothing, not, lest, or except. From its root, it means “a failure of” – used for negative particles.
CXIV “in” = qereb. Perhaps from qarab (to come near or approach). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.
CXV “land” = erets. Same as “land” in v5. See note XXXV above.

23 Thus I will makeCXVI a distinctionCXVII betweenCXVIII my people and your people. This signCXIX shall appearCXX tomorrow.’” 

Notes on verse 23

CXVI “make” = sum. Same as “brought” in v12. See note LXIII above.
CXVII “distinction” = peduth. 4x in OT. From padah (to sever, to ransom; to secure someone’s release by paying their debt freeing them from slavery); to redeem, rescue, deliver, preserve; the redemption price). This is redemption, ransom, division.
CXVIII “between” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
CXIX “sign” = oth. From avah (to mark, sign, point out); OR from uth (to agree). This is a sign in a literal or figurative sense. It could be a flag or monument. It could be evidence or a mark. It could also be an omen or a miracle. 
CXX “appear” = hayah. Same as “was” in v15. See note LXXII above.

24 The Lord did so, and greatCXXI swarms of flies cameCXXII into the house of Pharaoh and into his officials’ houses; in all of Egypt the landCXXIII was ruinedCXXIV because ofCXXV the flies.

25 Then Pharaoh summonedCXXVI Moses and Aaron, and said, “Go,CXXVII sacrifice to your God within the land.”CXXVIII 

Notes on verses 24-25

CXXI “great” = kabed. Related to “hardened” in v15. From kabad (see note LXXIV above). This is heavy, grievous, sore. It can also be weighty in the sense of gravitas. The word for “glory” in Hebrew comes from this root (kabod).
CXXII “came” = bo. Same as “go” in v1. See note III above.
CXXIII “land” = erets. Same as “land” in v5. See note XXXV above.
CXXIV “ruined” = shachat. This is to go to ruin, perish, decay, batter, cast off, lose, one who destroys. This can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXV “because of” = paneh. Same as “before” in v20. See note XCVII above.
CXXVI “summoned” = qara. Same as “called” in v8. See note XLV above.
CXXVII “go” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
CXXVIII “land” = erets. Same as “land” in v5. See note XXXV above.

26 But Moses said, “It would not be rightCXXIX to do so; for the sacrifices that we offerCXXX to the Lord our God are offensiveCXXXI to the Egyptians. If CXXXIIwe offer in the sightCXXXIII of the Egyptians sacrifices that are offensive to them, will they not stoneCXXXIV us? 

Notes on verse 26

CXXIX “be right” = kun. Related to “same” in v7. See note XLII above.
CXXX “offer” = zabach. Same as “sacrifice” in v8. See note XLIX above.
CXXXI “offensive” = toebah. Perhaps from ta’ab (to abhor or morally detest). This is something that instills one with moral contempt or disgust. It can mean abhorrence and is often in reference to idolatry or idols.
CXXXII {untranslated} = hen. Same as {untranslated} in v8. See note CII above.
CXXXIII “sight” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
CXXXIV “stone” = saqal. Properly, this means being weighty. However, it is used for stoning someone (to death) or for removing stones.

27 We must goCXXXV a threeCXXXVI days’ journeyCXXXVII into the wildernessCXXXVIII and sacrifice to the Lord our God as he commands us.” 

Notes on verse 27

CXXXV “go” = halak. Same as “go” in v25. See note CXXVII above.
CXXXVI “three” = shalosh. This is three, fork, three times.
CXXXVII “journey” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
CXXXVIII “wilderness” = midbar. Related to “as you say” in v10 & “said” in v15. From dabar (see note LVI above). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.

28 So Pharaoh said, “I will let you goCXXXIX to sacrifice to the Lord your God in the wilderness, providedCXL you do not goCXLI very far away.CXLII Pray for me.” 

Notes on verse 28

CXXXIX “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note VI above.
CXL “provided” = raq. Same as “only” in v9. See note LIII above.
CXLI “go” = halak. Same as “go” in v25. See note CXXVII above.
CXLII “very far away” = rachaqrachaq, This is to widen, become distant, cast, or remove. It can be in a literal or figurative sense. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

29 Then Moses said, “As soon asCXLIII I leaveCXLIV you, I will pray to the Lord that the swarms of flies may departCXLV tomorrow from Pharaoh, from his officials, and from his people; only do not let Pharaoh againCXLVI deal falselyCXLVII by notCXLVIII letting the people goCXLIX to sacrifice to the Lord.”

Notes on verse 29

CXLIII “as soon as” = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note X above.
CXLIV “leave” = yatsa. Same as “went out” in v12. See note LX above.
CXLV “depart” = sur. Same as “take away” in v8. See note XLVII above.
CXLVI “let…again” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
CXLVII “deal falsely” = hathal. 10x in OT. This is to mock, deceive, or conduct business in a dubious fashion. It implies cheating.
CXLVIII “not” = bilti. Same as “no” in v22. See note CXIII above.
CXLIX “letting…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note VI above.

30 So Moses went outCL from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord. 31 And the Lord did as Moses asked:CLI he removedCLII the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his officials, and from his people; not oneCLIII remained.CLIV  32 But Pharaoh hardenedCLV his heart this timeCLVI also, and would not let the people go.CLVII

Notes on verses 30-32

CL “went out” = yatsa. Same as “went out” in v12. See note LX above.
CLI “as Moses asked” = dabar + Mosheh. Literally, “according to the word of Moses.” Dabar is the same as “as you say” in v10. See note LVI above.
CLII “removed” = sur. Same as “take away” in v8. See note XLVII above.
CLIII “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
CLIV “remained” = shaar. Same as “left” in v9. See note LII above.
CLV “hardened” = kabad. Same as “hardened” in v15. See note LXXIV above.
CLVI “time” = paam. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.
CLVII “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note VI above.

Image credit: “Air Bags Fitted as Standard” – a Marsh Frog at British Wildlife Centre, Newchapel, Surrey by Peter Trimming, 2011.

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