Hebrews 10:11-25

Hebrews 10:11-25
Ordinary B51


11 And everyA priestB standsC day after day at his service,D

Notes on verse 11a

A {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
B “priests” = hiereus. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god). This is a priest, used for Jewish and Gentile priests.
C “stands” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
D “service” = leitourgeo. 3x in NT. From leitourgos (minister, servant; used for a public official or for one who works in a temple; broadly, it is one in public service, whether civic or religious); {from laos (people or crowd – often used for the chosen people) + ergon (work, task, action, employment); {from erdo (to do)}}. This is to minister or serve the public in an authorized capacity. It can also be to act in a charitable capacity.

offeringE again and againF the same sacrificesG that canH never take awayI sins.J 

Notes on verse 11b

E “offering” = prosphero. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
F “again and again” = pollakis. 18x in NT. From polus (much, many, abundant). This is often, many, frequently, again and again.
G “sacrifices” = thusia. From thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general). This is a sacrifice or offering. It can refer to the act of sacrifice or the thig being sacrificed. Also, this is sacrifice in a literal or figurative sense.
H “can” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
I “take away” = periaireo. 5x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to take away, strip off, separate, leave behind, to weigh anchor, to expiate.
J “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

12 But when Christ had offered for all timeK a singleL sacrifice for sins, “he sat downM at the right handN of God,”O 

Notes on verse 12

K “all time” = dienekes. Related to “offering” in v11. 4x in NT. From diaphero (to carry through as in all the way to the end; differing or fully distinguishing – separating by comparison; literally, to transport – figuratively to report or surpass); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + phero (see note E above)}. This is continuous, unbroken, forever, carried across, perpetually.
L “single” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
M “sat down” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
N “right hand” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
O “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

13 and since thenP has been waitingQ “until his enemiesR would be madeS a footstoolT for his feet.”U 

Notes on verse 13

P “since then” = loipon. 13x in NT. From loipos (the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue); from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is what remains, from now on, finally.
Q “waiting” = ekdechomai. Related to “right hand” in v12. 7x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + dechomai (see note N above). This is to take or receive, expect, await; to welcome someone from your heart; focusing on the goal of waiting or the outcome.
R “enemies” = echthros. From echthos (hatred). This is an openly hostile person so an enemy, a foe, or a hated person. This speaks of irreconcilable hostility. It can also mean adversary and/or refer to Satan.
S “made” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
T “footstool” = hupopodion. 7x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, under one’s authority) + pous (foot in a figurative or literal sense). This is literally under the feet. So, it is a footstool or footrest. It is also used figuratively to depict a king as one who has conquered his enemies. This is the same root that “podium” comes from.
U “feet” = pous. Related to “footstool” in v13. See note T above.

14 For by a single offeringV he has perfectedW for all time those who are sanctified.X 

Notes on verse 14

V “offering” = prosphora. Related to “offering” in v11 & “all time” in v12. 9x in NT. From prosphero (see note E above). This is an offering, oblation, or sacrifice.
W “perfected” = teleioo. From teleios (going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one; reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect”; also full grown or mature); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax).  This is finish, accomplish, bring to an end, complete, reach a goal, finish a race, to consummate. It refers to completing stages or phases to get to an ultimate conclusion. It can also mean consecrate or fulfill.
X “sanctified” = hagiazo. From hagios (sacred, holy, set apart, different other; physically pure, morally blameless, or ceremonially set apart); from hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). This is to make holy, consecrate, sanctify, set apart as holy, purify, venerate.

15 And the HolyY SpiritZ also testifiesAA to us, for after saying,

Notes on verse 15

Y “Holy” = Hagios. Related to “sanctified” in v14. See note X above.
Z “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
AA “testifies” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.

16 “This is the covenantBB that I will makeCC with them
    after those days, says the Lord:DD

Notes on verse 16a

BB “covenant” = diatheke. Related to “made” in v13. From diatithemi (to place separately – to make a will or covenant; this is arranging ahead of time how things will be accomplished); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + tithemi (see note S above)}. This is a will, covenant, contract, or agreement.
CC “make” = diatithemi. Related to “made” in v13 & “covenant” in v16. 7x in NT. See note BB above.
DD “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

I will putEE my lawsFF in their hearts,GG
    and I will writeHH them on their minds,”II

Notes on verse 16b

EE “put” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
FF “laws” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
GG “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
HH “write” = epigrapho. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + grapho (to write, describe). This is to write on, inscribe, read. It can be a literal inscription or a mental one.
II “minds” = dianoia. 12x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect)}. This is thought, intellect, or insight. It is thorough, critical thinking to reason through issues to reach a conclusion that is both logically sound and personal.

17 he also adds,

“I will rememberJJ their sins and their lawless deedsKK no more.”

18 Where there is forgivenessLL of these, there is no longer any offering for sin.

Notes on verses 17-18

JJ “remember” = mimnesko. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is to remind or remember. It is memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful of. It is not incidentally or accidentally remembering.
KK “lawless deeds” = anomia. Related to “laws” in v16. 15x in NT. From anomos (literally without law; could refer to someone who disregards authority or one who is not under the law (i.e. a Gentile); lawless, wicked, or a transgressor); {from a (not, without) + nomos (see note FF above)}. This is lawlessness, disobedience, without law, violation. It is disregarding the law whether human or God’s law, including the harmful impact.
LL “forgiveness” = aphesis. 17x in NT. From aphiemi (to send away, release, abandon, lay aside, forgive); {from apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send, to go)}. This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.

19 Therefore, my friends,MM since we haveNN confidenceOO to enterPP the sanctuaryQQ by the bloodRR of Jesus,SS 

Notes on verse 19

MM “friends” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
NN “have” = echo. This is to have, hold, or possess.
OO “confidence” = parresia. From pas (all, every, each) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (say, speak of, command)}. This is confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness. It can imply assurance – free speech.
PP “enter” = eisodos. 5x in NT. From eis (to, into, towards, among) + hodos (way, road, path, journey). This is an entrance or reception in a literal of figurative sense.
QQ “sanctuary” = hagios. Same as “Holy” in v15. See note Y above.
RR “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
SS “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

20 by the newTT and livingUU wayVV that he openedWW for us through the curtainXX (that is, through his flesh),YY 

Notes on verse 20

TT “new” = prosphatos. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + phen (to slay, kill) OR from pro (before, earlier, above) + a derivative of sphazo (to slay, butcher an animal to eat or for sacrifice, slaughter, maim through violence). This is freshly slain – hence fresh. It can mean new or recent in a broader sense as made lately.
UU “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
VV “way” = hodos. Related to “enter” in v19. See note PP above.
WW “opened” = egkainizo. 2x in NT. From egkainia (dedication, innovativeness; used specially for the resumption or renewal of worship services and the feast of rededication); {from en (in, on, at, by with, among) + kainos (new, fresh, innovative)}. This is to consecrate or dedicate, renew or usher in. It leads one to a new dimension.
XX “curtain” = katapetasma. 6x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + petannumi (to spread out). This is the inner veil in the Temple. Literally, it is what spreads down i.e. hangs down. The curtain hung between the Holy of Holies, the innermost part of the Temple, from the rest of it.
YY “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).

21 and since we have a greatZZ priest over the houseAAA of God, 22 let us approachBBB with a trueCCC heart in full assuranceDDD of faith,EEE

Notes on verses 21-22a

ZZ “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
AAA “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
BBB “approach” = proserchomai. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
CCC “true” = alethinos. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to the test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); {from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares)}. This is literally made of truth – that which is true or real, authentic. Something that is true from its source and has integrity.
DDD “full assurance” = plerophoria. Related to “offering” in v11 & “all time” in v12 & “offering” in v14. 4x in NT. From plerophoreo (to fulfills, fully convince, satisfy, accomplish, fully assure; to fully convince by using evidence or to make full); {from pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, or occupied with); {from pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity)} + phoreo (to bear constantly or habitually or repeatedly; it can mean to wear or carry a burden); {from phero (see note E above)}}. This is full confidence, conviction. It is something that is fully borne out.
EEE “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

with our hearts sprinkled cleanFFF from an evilGGG conscienceHHH

Notes on verse 22b

FFF “sprinkled clean” = rhantizo. 4x in NT. From rhaino (to sprinkle). This is to sprinkle or cleanse in a ritual way, literal or figurative.
GGG “evil” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
HHH “conscience” = suneidesis. From suneidon (to see together and so know, realize, consider, be conscious of); {from sun (with, together with) + eidon (shape, appearance, kind; something observable; form in a literal or figurative sense); from eido (to know, remember, perceive – to see and so understand)}. This is properly to know together. The conscience, found in all, is a moral and spiritual capacity granted by God so that we can understand together what is good and right.

and our bodiesIII washedJJJ with pureKKK water.LLL 

Notes on verse 22c

III “bodies” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
JJJ “washed” = louo. 5x in NT. This is bathing and washing. It can be literal or ritual cleansing, but refers particularly to the whole body.
KKK “pure” = katharos. This is clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying.
LLL “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.

23 Let us hold fastMMM to the confessionNNN of our hopeOOO without wavering,PPP for he who has promisedQQQ is faithful.RRR 

Notes on verse 23

MMM “hold fast” = katecho. Related to “have” in v19. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout) + echo (see note NN above). This is to hold fast, bind, possess, restrain, arrest, suppress. It is to hold down in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to hold something in one’s memory.
NNN “confession” = homologia. 6x in NT. From homologeo (to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate; to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse); {from homologos (of one mind); {from homos (the same) + lego (to say, speak, tell)}}. This is agreement, confession, acknowledgment. It is professing or affirming a conclusion.
OOO “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.
PPP “without wavering” = aklines. 1x in NT. From a (not) + klino (to bend, recline, incline, bow, slant, slope, cause to yield). This is unbending, resolute, firm.
QQQ “promised” = epaggellomai. 15x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is to proclaim, profess, or make a promise that is fitting.
RRR “faithful” = pistos. Related to “faith” in v22. From peitho (see note EEE above). This is faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true. It is a fullness of faith. This is the same root as the word “faith” in Greek.

24 And let us considerSSS how to provokeTTT one another to loveUUU and goodVVV deeds,WWW 

Notes on verse 24

SSS “consider” = katanoeo. Related to “minds” in v16. 14x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + noeo (to think, understand, conceive, realize, see; one who thinks things through sufficiently to reach a conclusion or value judgment; moral reasoning.); {from nous (see note II above)}. This is to consider, discern, perceive, notice, observe. It is to think through something thoroughly in order to come to a conclusion – fully concentrated thinking.
TTT “provoke” = paroxusmos. 2x in NT. From paroxuno (to sharpen; in a figurative sense, stimulate, provoke, anger, irritate; to cult close to, to jab someone to get their emotions up so that they will act; figuratively, to exasperate someone); {from para (from beside, by, close alongside) + oxuno (to sharpen) or oxus (sharp edge, swift, eager, rapid); {from akmen (even now, still yet); from the same as akmazo (ripe, to be vigorous); from acme (point, edge); related to ake (a point)}}. This is provocation, irritation, angry dispute. It is provocation like a jab, forcing the other side to respond. It can be inducing others to do good or stirring the pot so a dispute generates more anger. This is where the word “paroxysm” comes from.
UUU “love” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
VVV “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
WWW “deeds” = ergon. Related to “service” in v11. See note D above.

25 not neglectingXXX to meet together,YYY as is the habitZZZ of some, but encouragingAAAA one another,

Notes on verse 25a

XXX “neglecting” = egkataleipo. Related to “since then” in v13. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kataleipo (to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (see note P above)}. This is left behind, left as a remainder, desert, forsake. Properly, it means to leave someone or something wanting or lacking – so, to forsake or cause someone to be helpless in a serious scenario.
YYY “meet together” = episunagoge. Related to “promised” in v23. 2x in NT. From episunago (to gather together, assemble); {from epi (on upon, against, what is fitting) + sunago (to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain); {from sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note QQQ above)}}. This is an assembly that works towards a goal or purpose together. It is used for Christians meeting for worship.
ZZZ “habit” = ethos. 12x in NT. From etho (custom, what is customary). This is custom habit, rite – also, doing something that the law requires. It can be an unwritten custom, acting in accordance with tradition.
AAAA “encouraging” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.

and all the moreBBBB as you seeCCCC the Day approaching.DDDD

Notes on verse 25b

BBBB “more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
CCCC “see” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
DDDD “approaching” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.

Image credit: “When Milk Mixes with Water” by Yogendra Joshi, 2011.

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