Hebrews 9:24-28

Hebrews 9:24-28
Ordinary B50


24 For ChristA did not enter a sanctuaryB made by human hands,C a mere copyD of the true one,E

Notes on verse 24a

A “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
B “sanctuary” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
C “made by human hands” = cheiropoietos. 6x in NT. From cheir (hand in a literal sense; figuratively, the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can mean power, means, or instrument); {perhaps from cheimon (winter, storm – winter as the rainy season); related to the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn)} + poieo (to make, do, construct, cause). This is literally made by hand, i.e. artificial. It can also mean to perform.
D “copy” = antitupos. 2x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + tupos (a figure, model, image, impression, pattern, copy; a model created through much repetition; figuratively, the proper model; the impression of a stamped image, the mark of a scar, the shape of a statue; figuratively, a style or resemblance; specially, a model as something to imitate or as a cautionary tale); {from tupto (to strike repeatedly, wound, punish; figuratively to offend)}. This is an image, something that corresponds to a type or pattern. It is a type that predicts.
E “true one” = alethinos. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to the test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); {from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares)}. This is literally made of truth – that which is true or real, authentic. Something that is true from its source and has integrity.

but he entered into heavenF itself, now to appearG in the presenceH of GodI on our behalf. 

Notes on verse 24b

F “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
G “appear” = emphanizo. 10x in NT. From emphanes (visible, apparent, openly, understood); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is to declare, make visible, or exhibit in person. It can also be to report against or notify.
H “presence” = prosopon. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
I “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

25 Nor was it to offerJ himself again and again,K as the high priestL enters the Holy PlaceM year after year with bloodN that is not his own;O 

Notes on verse 25

J “offer” = prosphero. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
K “again and again” = pollakis. 18x in NT. From polus (much, many, abundant). This is often, many, frequently, again and again.
L “high priest” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
M “Holy Place” = hagios. Same as “sanctuary” in v24. See note B above.
N “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
O “not his own” = allotrios. 14x in NT. From allos (other, another; another of a similar kind or type). This is strange, another foreign. It is something that belongs to someone else. It could mean hostile or alien.

26 for then he would have had toP sufferQ again and again since the foundationR of the world.S

Notes on verse 26a

P “had to” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
Q “suffer” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
R “foundation” = katabole. 11x in NT. From kataballo (to cast down, lay prostate, set a foundation); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a foundation or a plan for one – setting the foundation according to the plans. Figuratively, it can be the beginning of something, sowing, or conception.
S “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

But as it is, he has appearedT once for allU at the endV of the ageW

Notes on verse 26b

T “appeared” = phaneroo. Related to “appear” in v24. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (see note G above). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
U “once for all” = hapax. 14x in NT. From a (with – signifying fellowship) + pag-} OR{from hapas (all; every part working together as a unit); {from hama (at once, together with)} + pas (all, every, every kind of) or from a (with) + pas (all, every). This is once, once for all.
V “end” = sunteleia. 6x in NT. From sunteleo (to fulfill, accomplish, complete, bring to the desired result, to complete a goal literally or figuratively); {from sun (with, together with) + teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}}. This is completion, end, consummation – joint action or joint payment.
W “age” = aion. From the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.

to removeX sinY by the sacrificeZ of himself. 

Notes on verse 26c

X “remove” = athetesis. 2x in NT – both in Hebrews. From atheteo (setting something aside, ignoring or nullifying it, refusing or rejecting; to annul or cancel out the effect of something; literally, to un-place; rejecting something, despising it, or considering something invalid); {from a (not, without) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}.This is annulment, remove, cancellation, without a place, setting aside.
Y “sin” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
Z “sacrifice” = thusia. From thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general). This is a sacrifice or offering. It can refer to the act of sacrifice or the thig being sacrificed. Also, this is sacrifice in a literal or figurative sense.

27 And just as it is appointedAA for mortalsBB to dieCC once, and after that the judgment,DD 

Notes on verse 27

AA “appointed” = apokeimai. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to appoint, put away, store, reserve, await.
BB “mortals” = anthropos. Related to “presence” in v24. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (see note H above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CC “die” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
DD “judgment” = krisis. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is a judging or a sentence. It is often used of God’s judgment, but can also be any accusation or condemnation. This is where the word “crisis” comes from.

28 so Christ, having been offered once to bearEE the sins of many,FF will appearGG a second time,HH not to deal with sin, but to saveII those who are eagerly waitingJJ for him.

Notes on verse 28

EE “bear” = anaphero. Related to “offer” in v25. 10x in NT. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + phero (see note J above). This is to carry or lead up as to a goal or particular destination. It can also be used for offering a sacrifice.
FF “many” = polus. Related to “again and again” in v25. See note K above.
GG “appear” = horao. Related to “presence” in v24 & “mortals” in v27. See note H above.
HH “second time” = deuteros. From duo (two, both). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Deuteronomy
II “save” = soteria. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.
JJ “waiting” = apekdechomai. 8x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ekdechomai (to take or receive, expect, await; to welcome someone from your heart; focusing on the goal of waiting or the outcome); {from ek (from, from out of) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is eager awaiting or fully expecting something.

Image credit: “Solomon’s Temple (Inner)” by Jeremy Park of Bible Scenes

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