Isaiah 52:13-53:12

Isaiah 52:13-53:12
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52:13 See,I my servantII shall prosper;III

Notes on verse 52:13a

I “see” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
II “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
III “prosper” = sakal. This is to consider or be prudent and so it can mean to instruct or be an expert. It can also mean dealing prudently, which implies success and prospering. This verb presumes intelligence of the subject. In one form of the verb, it can mean laying cross-wise.

    he shall be exaltedIV and lifted upV
    and shall be veryVI high.VII

Notes on verse 52:13b

IV “exalted” = rum. This is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
V “lifted up” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
VI “very” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
VII “be…high” = gabahh. This is to soar or be lofty. So, this is to be high or lift up literally. Figuratively it means to be exalted or proud.

14 Just as there were manyVIII who were astonishedIX at him
    —soX marredXI was his appearance,XII beyond human semblance,XIII

Notes on verse 52:14a

VIII “many” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
IX “were astonished” = shamem. This is to stun or become numb. It can also mean to devastate or be appalled. Can also mean to be amazed or astonished.
X “so” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
XI “marred” = mishchath. 2x in OT. From shachat (to destroy, become ruined, behave in a corrupt way, an animal with a blemish, decay). This is a disfigurement. It could also be figurative in reference to a ritual sense of corruption.
XII “appearance” = mareh. From raah (to see, show, stare, think, view; to see in a literal or figurative sense). This is sight, appearance, or vision. It can be a view, seeing itself, that which is seen, something real, or a vision one sees.
XIII “human semblance” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.

    and his formXIV beyond that of mortalsXV
15 so he shall startleXVI many nations;XVII

Notes on verses 52:14b-15a

XIV “form” = toar. 15x in OT. From taar (to incline, extend, mark out). This is an outline and so a form or figure or appearance.
XV “mortals” = ben + adam. Literally, “children of humanity.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Adam is perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
XVI “startle” = nazah. This is to sprinkle, spurt, or leap. Sprinkling especially refers to rituals of expiation.
XVII “nations” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.

    kingsXVIII shall shutXIX their mouthsXX because of him,

Notes on verse 52:15b

XVIII “kings” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
XIX “shut” = qaphats. 7x in OT. This is to close, shut, contract. It can be used of hand or mouth, withdrawing compassion, or the way one contracts in death. It can also mean leaping as the body contracts over and over.
XX “mouths” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.

for that which had not been toldXXI them they shall see,XXII
    and that which they had not heardXXIII they shall contemplate.XXIV

Notes on verse 52:15c

XXI “told” = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.
XXII “see” = raah. Related to “appearance” in v52:14. See note XII above.
XXIII “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XXIV “contemplate” = bin. This is to discern, consider, attend to. It refers to distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand.

53:1 Who has believedXXV what we have heard?XXVI
    And to whom has the armXXVII of the LordXXVIII been revealed?XXIX

Notes on verse 53:1

XXV “believed” = aman. This is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. This is where the word “amen” comes from.
XXVI “what…heard” = shemuah. Related to “heard” in v52:15. From shama (see note XXIII above). This is something heard – news, a rumor, fame, announcement.
XXVII “arm” = zeroa. Perhaps from zara (to sow, scatter seed, conceive). This is the arm, shoulder, or foreleg of an animal. It is figuratively used for power, force, might, or help.
XXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XXIX “revealed” = galah. This is to remove, bring, carry, lead, appear, advertise. It can mean to strip someone or something bare in a negative sense. Captives were typically stripped before they were sent into exile. Used figuratively, in a positive sense, this word means reveal, disclose, discover.

For he grew upXXX before himXXXI like a young plantXXXII
    and like a rootXXXIII out of dryXXXIV ground;XXXV

Notes on verse 53:2a

XXX “grew up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXI “before him” = paneh. Literally, “before his face.” From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XXXII “young plant” = yoneq. 1x in OT. From yanaq (to suckle or to nurse; a nursing mother or for her suckling child). This is a sapling or shoot. It can also be a sprouting twig.
XXXIII “root” = shoresh. Perhaps from sharash (to root into soil or uproot). This is a root, depth, line, heel, bottom. It is  root in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXIV “dry” = tsiyyah. 16x in OT. This is dryness or parched. So, it can also mean drought or dry places. By extension, it can mean a solitary place or a wilderness.
XXXV “ground” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

he had no form or majestyXXXVI that we should lookXXXVII at him,
    nothing in his appearance that we should desireXXXVIII him.
He was despisedXXXIX and rejectedXL by others;XLI

Notes on verses 53:2b-3a

XXXVI “majesty” = hadar. From hadar (to honor or adorn; majestic, respected, glorious; to favor or honor; to be proud). This is ornament, splendor, beauty, dignity, majesty, magnificence, and glory.
XXXVII “look” = raah. Same as “see” in v52:15. See note XXII above.
XXXVIII “desire” = chamad. This is to desire, covet, see something as precious, lust.
XXXIX “despised” = bazah. This is to despise, hold in contempt, disesteem, or a person who is vile.
XL “rejected” = chadel. 3x in OT. From chadal (to cease, fail, neglect, reuse, stop; figuratively, to be idle or come up short). This is lacking, forsaken, rejected, vacant, destitute, or frail.
XLI “others” = ish. Same as “human semblance” in v52:14. See note XIII above.

    a manXLII of sufferingXLIII and acquaintedXLIV with infirmity,XLV

Notes on verse 53:3b

XLII “man” = ish. Same as “human semblance” in v52:14. See note XIII above.
XLIII “suffering” = makob. 16x in OT. From kaab (being in pain, be sad, grieve, spoil, mar). This is pain, sorrow, or suffering. It can be anguish or affliction.
XLIV “acquainted” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XLV “infirmity” = choli. From chalah (properly, this is to be worn; hence, being weak, sick, or afflicted; it can also mean to grieve or, positively, to flatter or entreat). This is sickness, affliction, grief, worry, or calamity.

and as one from whom others hideXLVI their facesXLVII
    he was despised, and we held him of no account.XLVIII
SurelyXLIX he has borneL our infirmities
    and carriedLI our diseases,LII

Notes on verses 53:3c-4a

XLVI “hide” = master. 1x in OT. From sathar (hide, conceal, or be absent; hiding because something is covered – used in a literal or figurative sense). This is hiding, one who hides, an aversion.
XLVII “faces” = paneh. Same as “before him” in v53:2. See note XXXI above.
XLVIII “held…account” = chashab. This is properly to braid or interpenetrate. Literally it is to create or to wear. Figuratively, it can mean plotting – generally in a negative sense. More broadly, this can also mean think, consider, or make account of.
XLIX “surely” = aken. Related to “so” in v52:14. 18x in OT. From kun (see note X above). This is surely, truly, nevertheless.
L “borne” = nasa. Same as “lifted up” in v52:13. See note V above.
LI “carried” = sabal. 9x in OT. This is carry a heavy load, do strong labor, be a burden. Can also specially mean to be pregnant.
LII “diseases” = makob. Same as “suffering” in v53:3. See note XLIII above.

yet we accountedLIII him stricken,LIV
    struck downLV by God,LVI and afflicted.LVII

Notes on verse 53:4b

LIII “accounted” = chashab. Same as “held…account” in v53:3. See note XLVIII above.
LIV “stricken” = naga. This is touch, reach, arrive, come near, strike. This is touching for any reason including sexual or violent.
LV “struck down” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
LVI “God” = Elohim.
LVII “afflicted” = anah. This is to be occupied with. It can also be bowed down. It can refer to a sense of humility or to a sense of being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed. This can be literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance.

But he was woundedLVIII for our transgressions,LIX
    crushedLX for our iniquities;LXI

Notes on verse 53:5a

LVIII “wounded” = chalal. This is to pierce, which implies to wound. It is used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word. It can also mean to begin as though one opened a wedge. Also, to eat something as a common thing.
LIX “transgressions” = pesha. From pasha (to rebel, offend, quarrel; making a break from proper authority so can also refer to an apostate). This is transgression, rebellion, or sin. It could be a revolt on a national scale or an individual moral one.
LX “crushed” = daka. 18x in OT. This is to crush or break into pieces. It can also mean bruise, being contrite or oppressed, to destroy, or be humble.
LXI “iniquities” = avon. Perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.

upon him was the punishmentLXII that made us whole,LXIII
    and by his bruisesLXIV we are healed.LXV

Notes on verse 53:5b

LXII “punishment” = musar. From yasar (to discipline, correct, train, teach, punish; literally with blows, but figuratively using words). This is discipline, a correction a warning, or an instruction.
LXIII “whole” = shalom. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).
LXIV “bruises” = chabburah. 7x in OT. From chabar (to unite, ally, attach, touch; to join in a literal or figurative sense; also, specially, using magic knots or spells to fascinate or connect). This is a blow, striking, or scourging. It can also refer to the wound or bruise – the stripe being blue and black marks on the skin.
LXV “healed” = rapha. Properly, this is to repair by stitching – figuratively this means to heal or cure. It can also mean to make whole.

AllLXVI we like sheepLXVII have gone astray;LXVIII
    we have allLXIX turnedLXX to our own way,LXXI
and the Lord has laidLXXII on him
    the iniquity of us all.

Notes on verse 53:6

LXVI “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
LXVII “sheep” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
LXVIII “gone astray” = taah. This is to wander, deceive, seduce, vacillate. It is to stray in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIX “all” = ish. Same as “human semblance” in v52:14. See note XIII above.
LXX “turned” = panah. Related to “before him” in v53:2. See note XXXI above.
LXXI “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
LXXII “laid” = paga. This is to meet or happen, whether unintentionally or of violence. It can also be plead, spare, reach, or intercede.

He was oppressed,LXXIII and he was afflicted,
    yet he did not openLXXIV his mouth;
like a lambLXXV that is ledLXXVI to the slaughterLXXVII

Notes on verse 53:7a

LXXIII “oppressed” = nagas. This is driving an animal, worker, debtor, or an army. By implication, it can mean to tax, harass, distress, oppress, or tyrannize. This word can be used for taskmaster or overseer.
LXXIV “open” = patach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.
LXXV “lamb” = seh. Perhaps from sha’ah (to make a loud noise or crash, devastate, rush). This is a lamb, sheep, or goat – a part of a flock.
LXXVI “led” = yabal. 18x in OT. This is to lead, bring, carry, conduct. Properly, it means to flow. It can mean to bring or lead with fanfare.
LXXVII “slaughter” = tebach. 10x in OT. From tabach (to slaughter or butcher; of animals or people). This is something slaughtered so it could be meat, butchery, or the place where the slaughter took place.

    and like a sheepLXXVIII that beforeLXXIX its shearersLXXX is silent,LXXXI
    so he did not open his mouth.

Notes on verse 53:7b

LXXVIII “sheep” = rachel. 4x in OT. This is a ewe or a sheep. The root of this word might mean to journey. This is where the name “Rachel” comes from.
LXXIX “before” = paneh. Literally “before the face of.” Same as “before him” in v53:2. See note XXXI above.
LXXX “shearers” = gazaz. 15x in OT. This is to cut off, shave, shear sheep. figuratively, it can mean to conquer an enemy.
LXXXI “is silent” = alam. 9x in OT. This is to bind or tie fast. When applied to the mouth, it means to be silent or speechless. This can be voluntary or involuntary.

By a perversionLXXXII of justiceLXXXIII he was taken away.LXXXIV
    Who could have imaginedLXXXV his future?LXXXVI

Notes on verse 53:8a

LXXXII “perversion” = otser. 3x in OT. From atsar (to restrain, rule, confine, bond; to hold back, maintain, rule, assemble). This is oppression, restraint, barren.
LXXXIII “justice” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
LXXXIV “taken away” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
LXXXV “imagined” = siach. From siach (musing, meditation, communication, babbling, prayer, contemplation). This is to muse, meditate, complain, sing, sigh, speak, or utter.
LXXXVI “future” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.

For he was cut offLXXXVII from the landLXXXVIII of the living,LXXXIX
    strickenXC for the transgression of my people.XCI

Notes on verse 53:8b

LXXXVII “cut off” = gazar. 13x in OT. This is to cut or cut down. Used figuratively, it can mean to divide, exclude, decree, or destroy.
LXXXVIII “land” = erets. Same as “ground” in v53:2. See note XXXV above.
LXXXIX “living” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
XC “stricken” = nega. Related to “stricken” in v53:4. From naga (see note LIV above). This is a blow or stroke, wound, sore, mark plague. It can refer to someone with leprosy or to dress.
XCI “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

They madeXCII his graveXCIII with the wickedXCIV
    and his tombXCV with the rich,XCVI

Notes on verse 53:9a

XCII “made” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XCIII “grave” = qeber. From qabar (to bury). This is a place where one is buried such as a grave or tomb.
XCIV “wicked” = rasha. This is morally wrong so it refers to someone who is actively bad as wicked, criminal, an evil person, offender, condemned, or ungodly.
XCV “tomb” = mavet. From muth (to die in a literal or figurative sense). This can be death, deadliness, the dead, or the place where the dead go. It can be used figuratively for pestilence or ruin.
XCVI “rich” = ashir. From ashar (to be rich, gain, accumulate). This is rich in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be noble or a rich person.

although he had doneXCVII no violence,XCVIII
    and there was no deceitXCIX in his mouth.
10 Yet it was the willC of the Lord to crush him with affliction.CI

Notes on verses 53:9b-10a

XCVII “done” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XCVIII “violence” = chamas. From chamas (to violate, do violence, to wrong; implies mistreatment). This is violence, cruelty, damage, wrong, injustice, or unrighteous. Violence implies a wrong done. The term is also used to describe unjust gain.
XCIX “deceit” = mirmah. From ramah (to betray, deceive, beguile). This is deceit, treachery, guile, or fraud
C “was the will” = chaphets. Properly, this means inclined towards or bending to. Figuratively, it means to desire, delight in, or be pleased with.
CI “affliction” = chalah. Related to “infirmity” in v53:3. See note XLV above.

When you makeCII his lifeCIII an offering for sin,CIV
    he shall seeCV his offspringCVI and shall prolongCVII his days;CVIII

Notes on verse 53:10b

CII “make” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
CIII “life” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
CIV “offering for sin” = asham. From asham (to be guilty, suffer, be punished; to destroy, condemn, be desolate, perish). This is guilt, sin, wrong, or offense. It is also a sin or guilt offering.
CV “see” = raah. Same as “see” in v52:15. See note XXII above.
CVI “offspring” = zera. Related to “arm” in v53:1. From zara (see note XXVII above). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
CVII “prolong” = arak. This is to continue, lengthen prolong, delay, or endure. It is being long or causing something to be long in a literal or figurative sense.
CVIII “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

through himCIX the willCX of the Lord shall prosper.CXI
11     Out of hisCXII anguishCXIII he shall see;CXIV

Notes on verses 53:10c-11a

CIX “through him” = yad. Literally, “in his hand.” This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CX “will” = chephets. Related to “was the will” in v53:10. From chaphets (see note C above). This is a delight, care, or pleasure. It is what you desire or what is acceptable. It can also be used concretely for a precious thing or something that one is thinking about.
CXI “prosper” = tsalach. This is pushing forward in a literal or figurative sense. So it could be to break out, to come mightily, to rush, to go over. Figuratively, it could mean to prosper.
CXII “his” = nephesh. Literally, “his soul.” Same as “life” in v53:10. See note CIII above.
CXIII “anguish” = amal. From amal (to work – hard labor). This is trouble, toil, labor as well as misery, sorrow, or iniquity. It is work that wearies through effort so hence worry – can refer to body or mind.
CXIV “see” = raah. Same as “see” in v52:15. See note XXII above.

he shall find satisfactionCXV through his knowledge.CXVI
    The righteous one,CXVII my servant, shall make many righteous,CXVIII
    and he shall bearCXIX their iniquities.

Notes on verse 53:11b

CXV “find satisfaction” = saba. To be satisfied or full in a literal or figurative sense. Also, to have plenty of.
CXVI “knowledge” = daat. Related to “acquainted” in v53:3. From yada (see note XLIV above). This is knowledge, unawares, cunning, wittingly.
CXVII “righteous one” = tsaddiq. Related to “make…righteous” in v53:11. From the same as tsedeq (see note CXVIII below). This is just, innocent, righteous, righteous one, or lawful.
CXVIII “make…righteous” = tsadeq. From tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, just cause, vindication; that which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense; abstractly equity; figuratively prosperity). This is being just or righteousness. It refers to right in a moral or legal sense. So, it can be doing justice, clearing oneself, or turning to righteousness.
CXIX “bear” = sabal. Same as “carried” in v53:4. See note LI above.

12 ThereforeCXX I will allot him a portionCXXI with the great,CXXII
    and he shall divideCXXIII the spoilCXXIV with the strong,CXXV

Notes on verse 53:12a

CXX “therefore” = ken. Same as “so” in v52:14. See note X above.
CXXI “allot…a portion” = chalaq. This is to be smooth in a figurative sense. So, it can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute. Figuratively, it can also mean to flatter.
CXXII “great” = rab. Same as “many” in v52:14. See note VIII above.
CXXIII “divide” = chalaq. Same as “allot…a portion” in v53:12. See note CXXI above.
CXXIV “spoil” = shalal. From shalal (to plunder, loot, capture). This is spoil, prey, or plunder.
CXXV “strong” = atsum. From atsom (to be many or mighty; could also refer to breaking bones). This is mighty or mighty one. It means powerful, which implies large numbers.

becauseCXXVI he poured outCXXVII himselfCXXVIII to deathCXXIX

Notes on verse 53:12b

CXXVI “because” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
CXXVII “poured out” = arah. 15x in OT. This is being or making someone naked or bare, to be defenseless, empty, poured out, spread, uncover. This can be to demolish, pour out, to empty, or to leave destitute.
CXXVIII “himself” = nephesh. Literally, “his soul.” Same as “life” in v53:10. See note CIII above.
CXXIX “death” = mavet. Same as “tomb” in v53:9. See note XCV above.

    and was numberedCXXX with the transgressors,CXXXI
yet he boreCXXXII the sinCXXXIII of many
    and made intercessionCXXXIV for the transgressors.

Notes on verse 53:12c

CXXX “was numbered” = manah. To weigh out, reckon, count, number, set, tell. By implication, it is allotting or providing something officially.
CXXXI “transgressors” = pasha. Related to “transgressions” in v53:5. See note LIX above.
CXXXII “bore” = nasa. Same as “lifted up” in v52:13. See note V above.
CXXXIII “sin” = chet. From chata (to miss, sin, bear blame, to forfeit, lack). This is sin, fault, or punishment of sin.
CXXXIV “made intercession” = paga. Same as “laid” in v53:6. See note LXXII above.

Image credit: “Concentration Camp 1” by Berta Rosenbaum Golhany. Photo by Emily Kopley, 2014.

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