Matthew 27:27-61

Matthew 27:27-61
Narrative Lectionary 138


27 Then the soldiersI of the governorII tookIII JesusIV

Notes on verse 27a

I “soldiers” = stratiotes. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.
II “governor” = hegemon. From hegeaomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go). This is a leader in general, but also specifically a governor or commander. This is where “hegemony” comes from.
III “took” = paralambano. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
IV “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

into the governor’s headquarters,V and they gatheredVI the wholeVII cohortVIII around him. 

Notes on verse 27b

V “governor’s headquarters” = praitorion. 8x in NT. From Latin praetorium (headquarters, general’s tent, villa, place where the governor lives); from prator (leader, chief, president); from pareeo (to lead, go before). This is praetorium or preatorian guard. It is the place where the governor lives or the place where the praetorian guard of Rome lived. It could also mean courtroom. See
VI “gathered” = sunago. Related to “governor” in v27. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note II above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
VII “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
VIII “cohort” = speira. 7x in NT. From Latin spira (something wound up like a coil or twist, the base of a column, a hair braid, etc.); from Greek speira (a twist or wreath); from Proto-Indo-European *sper- (to twist, turn). This is a group of soldiers or military guard. Properly, this is something wound up. Figuratively, it refers to a group of men. Thus, a tenth of a legion. Also used for Levitical janitors. This is where the word “spiral” comes from. See

28 They strippedIX him and put a scarletX robeXI onXII him, 

Notes on verse 28

IX “stripped” = ekduo. 6x in NT– 3x Jesus being stripped before crucifixion, 2x in 2 Corinthians 5:3-4 as a metaphor for death – being stripped of this earthly tent, & 1x in Parable of the Good Samaritan when the man is attacked. From ek (from, from out of) + duo (to sink). This is to strip off or take off.
X “scarlet” = kokkinos. 6x in NT. From kokkos (kernel, seed). This is scarlet or cloth that is dyed scarlet from a dye made from an insect.
XI “robe” = chlamus.  2x in NT– both in Matthew 27. This is a chalmys – a sort robe or cloak that soldiers wore as well as magistrates and kings. It is a garment that denotes dignity or a particular office that is worn on top of the tunic.
XII “put…on” = peritithemi. 8x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to place around i.e. to clothe. Figuratively, it can mean to bestow or to present.

29 and after twistingXIII some thornsXIV into a crownXV they putXVI it on his head.XVII

Notes on verse 29a

XIII “twisting” = pleko. 3x in NT– all in Gospel parallels of soldiers mocking Jesus. This is to twist, braid, or weave together.
XIV “thorns” = akantha. 14x in NT. From akmen (even now, still yet); from the same as akmazo (ripe, to be vigorous); from akme (point, edge); related to ake (a point). This is thorn or thorn bush.
XV “crown” = stephanos. 18x in NT. From stepho (to twine, encircle). This is something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland. Properly, this refers to the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win. It symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek. This is the word used for the crown that the saints in heaven wear in, for example, Revelation 4:4.
XVI “put” = epitithemi. Related to “put…on” in v28. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (see note XII above). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
XVII “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.

They put a reedXVIII in his right handXIX and kneltXX before him and mockedXXI him,

Notes on verse 29b

XVIII “reed” = kalamos. 12x in NT. This is a reed, whether the plant itself or a stem that is like the reed. It can also imply a staff, pen, or measuring rod.
XIX “right hand” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
XX “knelt” = gonupeteo. 4x in NT. From gonu (knee) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to kneel or bow for supplication or entreaty.
XXI “mocked” = empaizo. 13x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + paizo (to play like a child does – can include singing and dancing); {from pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting)}. This is to mock, ridicule, jeer.

saying,XXII “Hail,XXIII KingXXIV of the Jews!”XXV 

Notes on verse 29c

XXII “saying” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXIII “hail” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
XXIV “King” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
XXV “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

30 They spatXXVI on him and tookXXVII the reed and struckXXVIII him on the head. 

Notes on verse 30

XXVI “spat” = emptuo. 6x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with’) + ptuo (to spit). This is to spit on.
XXVII “took” = lambano. Related to “took” in v27. See note III above.
XXVIII “struck” = tupto. 14x in NT. This is to strike, beat, or wound – generally with a stick or cudgel. It is hitting with repeated blows. So, it contrasts with paiso and patasso, which describe single blows by hand or weapon. Also contrast plesso (beating with a fist or hammer), rhapizo (to slap), and tugchaono (hitting accidentally). This word is hitting to punish. Figuratively, it can refer to being offended.

31 After mocking him, they stripped him of the robe and put his own clothesXXIX onXXX him. Then they led him awayXXXI to crucifyXXXII him.

Notes on verse 31

XXIX “clothes” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
XXX “put…on” = enduo. Related to “stripped” in v28. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + duno (to sink into, set like the sun); {from duo (see note IX above)}. This is to put on as when one puts on clothes. It is the idea of sinking into one’s clothing.
XXXI “led…away” = apago. Related to “governor” and “gathered” in v27. 16x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ago (see note II above). This is to lead away, take away, or bring. Figuratively, it can refer to being led astray or put to death.
XXXII “crucify” = stauroo. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (to stand, cause to stand). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.

32 As they went out,XXXIII they came uponXXXIV a manXXXV from CyreneXXXVI

Notes on verse 32a

XXXIII “went out” = exerchomai. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
XXXIV “came upon” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
XXXV “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XXXVI “Cyrene” = Kurenaios. 6x in NT. From Kurene (Cyrene, a Greek mythological figure; perhaps meaning sovereign queen). This is from Cyrene. See

namedXXXVII Simon;XXXVIII they compelledXXXIX this man to carryXL his cross.XLI 

Notes on verse 32b

XXXVII “named” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XXXVIII “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
XXXIX “compelled” = aggareuo. 3x in NT– 2x of Simon the Cyrene & 1x “if anyone forces you to go one mile, go also the second mile” from Matthew 5:41. From Persian, but compare Aramaic iggerah (a letter); corresponding to Hebrew iggereth (letter); from the same as Agur (hired, gathered, received from the sages); from agar (to gather or harvest). This means to impress into service, to force. It can also mean send someone on an errand, particularly as a courier or other public service.
XL “carry” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
XLI “cross” = stauros. Related to “crucify” in v31. See note XXXII above.

33 And when they cameXLII to a placeXLIII calledXLIV GolgothaXLV (which meansXLVI Place of a Skull),XLVII 

Notes on verse 33

XLII “came” = erchomai. Related to “went out” in v32. See note XXXIII above.
XLIII “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
XLIV “called” = lego. Same as “saying” in v29. See note XXII above.
XLV “Golgotha” = Golgotha. 3x in NT. From Aramaic golgolta (skull); from Hebrew gulgolet (skull, head; a census or poll that counts people by head); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Golgotha, skull. See &
XLVI “means” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XLVII “skull” = kranion. 4x in NT. From kara (the head) OR from the base of keras (horn or something horn-shaped; horn in a literal or figurative sense – that which prevails or a symbol of power). This is skull. It’s where we get the word “cranium” from.

34 they offeredXLVIII him wineXLIX to drink,L mixedLI with gall,LII but when he tastedLIII it, he wouldLIV not drink it. 

Notes on verse 34

XLVIII “offered” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XLIX “wine” = oinos. Perhaps from Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is wine. It is where the word “oenophile” comes from.
L “drink” = pino. This is to drink, literally or figuratively.
LI “mixed” = mignumi.4x in NT. This is to mix or mingle.
LII “gall” = chole. 2x in NT. This is gall or bitter herbs. May be used figuratively to mean poison or bitterness.
LIII “tasted” = geuomai. 15x in NT. This is to taste, which implies eating. It can be used figuratively to mean experience, whether positively or negatively.
LIV “would” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

35 And when they had crucified him, they dividedLV his clothes among themselves by castingLVI lots;LVII, LVIII 

Notes on verse 35

LV “divided” = diamerizo. 12x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); {from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment)}. This is to divide up, distribute, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.
LVI “casting” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
LVII “lots” = kleros. 12x in NT. Perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This lot, portion, heritage. It is that share assigned to you. It could also refer to a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will.
LVIII Some manuscripts add, “in order that what had been spoken through the prophet might be fulfilled, “They divided my clothes among themselves, and for my clothing they cast lots.” = hina + pleroo + ho + ereo + hupo + ho + prophetes + ho + himation + ego + heautou + kai + epi + ho + himatismos + ego + ballo + kleros. Pleroo is from pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill. Ereo is perhaps from rheo (to say, speak of, command). This is to say, tell, speak, mean, command. Prophetes is from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God. Himation is the same as “clothes” in v31. See note XXIX above. Himatismos is related to “clothes” in v31. 6x in NT. From himatizo (to clothe, dress, give clothing); from himation (see note XXIX above). This is clothing, apparel. Ballo is the same as “casting” in v35. See note LVI above. Kleros is the same as “lots” in v35. See note LVII above.

36 then they sat downLIX there and kept watchLX over him. 37 Over his head they putLXI the chargeLXII against him,

Notes on verses 36-37a

LIX “sat down” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
LX “kept watch” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used f iguratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
LXI “put” = epitithemi. Same as “put” in v29. See note XVI above.
LXII “charge” = aitia. From aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.

which read,LXIII “This isLXIV Jesus, the King of the Jews.”

38 Then twoLXV rebelsLXVI were crucified with him,

Notes on verses 37b-38a

LXIII “read” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
LXIV “is” = eimi. Same as “means” in v33. See note XLVI above.
LXV “two” = duo. This is two or both.
LXVI “rebels” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barabbas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.

oneLXVII on his rightLXVIII and one on his left.LXIX 

Notes on verse 38b

LXVII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
LXVIII “right” = dexios. Same as “right hand” in v29. See note XIX above.
LXIX “left” = euonumos. Related to “named” in v32. 9x in NT. From eu (good, well, rightly) + onoma (see note XXXVII above)}. This is literally well-named or of a good name. It refers to the left or left side.

39 Those who passed byLXX deridedLXXI him, shakingLXXII their heads 

Notes on verse 39

LXX “passed by” = paraporeuomai. 5x in NT. From para (from beside, by) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, or die; transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination)}. This is to pass long, journey near, go past.
LXXI “derided” = blasphemeo. Related to {untranslated} in v35. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (see note LVIII above); from phao (to shine)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
LXXII “shaking” = kineo. 8x in NT. This is to move, excite, or provoke. It is to stir in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “kinetic” comes from.

40 and saying, “You who would destroyLXXIII the templeLXXIV and buildLXXV it

Notes on verse 40a

LXXIII “destroy” = kataluo. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
LXXIV “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
LXXV “build” = oikodomeo. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.

in threeLXXVI days,LXXVII saveLXXVIII yourself! If you are the SonLXXIX of God,LXXX come downLXXXI from the cross.” 

Notes on verse 40b

LXXVI “three” = treis. This is three.
LXXVII “days” = hemera. Related to “sat down” in v36. Perhaps from hemai (see note LIX above). This is day, time, or daybreak.
LXXVIII “save” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
LXXIX “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
LXXX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
LXXXI “come down” = katabaino. Related to “king” in v29. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note XXIV above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

41 In the same wayLXXXII the chief priestsLXXXIII also, along with the scribesLXXXIV and elders,LXXXV were mocking him, saying, 

Notes on verse 41

LXXXII “in the same way” = homoios. From the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is similar to, resembling, like.
LXXXIII “chief priests” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
LXXXIV “scribes” = grammateus. Related to “read” in v37. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (see note LXIII above). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
LXXXV “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.

42 “He saved others;LXXXVI he cannotLXXXVII save himself. He is the King of Israel;LXXXVIII let him come down from the cross now, and we will believeLXXXIX in him. 

Notes on verse 42

LXXXVI “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
LXXXVII “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Dunamai is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
LXXXVIII “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.
LXXXIX “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

43 He trustsXC in God; let God deliverXCI him now, if he wantsXCII to, for he said, ‘I am God’s Son.’” 44 The rebels who were crucifiedXCIII with him also tauntedXCIV him in the same way.

Notes on verses 43-44

XC “trusts” = peitho. Related to “believe” in v42. See note LXXXIX above.
XCI “deliver” = rhuomai. 18x in NT– including from the Lord’s prayer “deliver us from evil”. Related to eruo (to draw or drag) OR related to rheo (to flow, overflow). This is to rescue or set free. It is to deliver from danger, to snatch up.
XCII “wants” = thelo. Same as “would” in v34. See note LIV above.
XCIII “crucified” = sustauroo. Related to “crucify” in v31 & “cross” in v32. 5x in NT– including “our old self was crucified with him” from Romans 6:6. From sun (with, together with) + stauroo (see note XXXII above). This is crucify together with.
XCIV “taunted” = oneidizo. Related to “named” in v32 & “left” in v38. 9x in NT. From oneidos (a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation, a taunt or reproach); perhaps from the base of onoma (see note XXXVII above). This is to disgrace, insult, mock, blame, or curse someone so as to create shame. This is when a person or thing is considered guilty and deserving punishment. So, it can be denounce, revile, defame, or chide.

45 From noonXCV on, darknessXCVI cameXCVII

Notes on verse 45a

XCV “noon” = hektos + hora. Literally, “sixth hour.” Hektos is 14x in NT. From hex (six). This is sixth. Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
XCVI “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
XCVII “came” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.

over the wholeXCVIII landXCIX until three in the afternoon.C 

Notes on verse 45b

XCVIII “whole” = pas. This is all or every.
XCIX “land” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
C “three in the afternoon” = hora + ennatos. Literally, “ninth hour.” Hora is the same as “noon” in v45. See note XCV above. Ennatos is 10x in NT. From enatos (needy, lacking); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited)} OR from ennea (nine). This is ninth.

46 And about three o’clock Jesus criedCI with a loudCII voice,CIII “Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?”CIV that is, “My God, my God, why have you forsakenCV me?” 

Notes on verse 46

CI “cried” = anaboao. 1x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + boao (cry out, make a distress call, ask for desperately need assistance); {from boe (a cry, shout)}. This is to cry out with intensity and urgency.
CII “loud” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CIII “voice” = phone. Related to {untranslated} in v35 & “derided” in v39. Probably from phemi (see note LVIII above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
CIV “Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani” = Eli + Eli + lama + sabachthani. Eli is related to “Israel” in v42. 2x in NT. From Aramaic El (God); from Hebrew El (see note LXXXVIII above). This is God. Lema is 2x in NT. From Hebrew mah (what, how, why, whatever). This is why. Sabachthani is 2x in NT. From Aramaic shebaq (to leave, leave alone); corresponding to Hebrew azab (loosen, permit, forsake). This is forsake or leave.
CV “forsaken” = egkataleipo. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kataleipo (to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing)}. This is left behind, left as a remainder, desert, forsake. Properly, it means to leave someone or something wanting or lacking – so, to forsake or cause someone to be helpless in a serious scenario.

47 When some of the bystandersCVI heardCVII it, they said, “This man is callingCVIII for Elijah.”CIX 

Notes on verse 47

CVI “bystanders” = histemi. Related to “crucify” in v31 & “cross” in v32 & “crucified” in v44. See note XXXII above.
CVII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CVIII “calling” = phoneo. Related to {untranslated} in v35 & “derided” in v39 & “voice” in v46. From phone (see note CIII above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
CIX “Elijah” = Elias. Related to “Jesus” in v27 & “Israel” in v42 & “Eli” in v46. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from el (see note LXXXVIII above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note IV above)}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”

48 At onceCX one of them ranCXI and gotCXII a sponge,CXIII

Notes on verse 48a

CX “at once” = eutheos. Related to “put…on” in v28 & “put” in v29 & “left” in v38. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (see note LXIX above) + tithemi (see note XII above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
CXI “ran” = trecho. 20x in NT. To run, make progress, rush. This is running like an athlete in a race. Figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way.
CXII “go” = lambano. Same as “took” in v30. See note XXVII above.
CXIII “sponge” = spoggos. 3x in NT– all during the crucifixion. Perhaps related to spoggos (sponge or tonsil) –  a “Mediterranean-Pontic Pre-Greek substrate loanword.” This is sponge. See

filledCXIV it with sour wine,CXV put it onCXVI a stick,CXVII and gave it to him to drink.CXVIII 

Notes on verse 48b

CXIV “filled” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
CXV “sour wine” = oxos. 6x in NT. Related to “thorns” in v29. 6x in NT– all of the crucifixion. From oxus (sharp, eager, quick); probably related to akmen (see note XIV above). This is sour wine or vinegar. As the lowest grade of Roman wine, it was a common drink for Roman soldiers.
CXVI “put…on” = peritithemi. Same as “put…on” in v28. See note XII above.
CXVII “stick” = kalamos. Same as “reed” in v29. See note XVIII above.
CXVIII “gave…to drink” = potizo. 15x in NT. Related to “drink” in v34. 15x in NT. From potos (drink or for drinking) OR from pino (see note L above). This is to give to drink, water, furnish, irrigate, or feed.

49 But the othersCXIX said, “Wait,CXX let us seeCXXI whether Elijah will comeCXXII to save him.”CXXIII 

Notes on verse 49

CXIX “others” = loipos. Related to “forsaken” in v46. From leipo (see note CV above). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.
CXX “wait” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
CXXI “see” = horao. Related to “man” in v32. See note XXXV above.
CXXII “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v33. See note XLII above.
CXXIII Some manuscripts add “And another took a spear and pierced his side, and out came water and blood” = allos + de + lambano + logche + nusso + autos + ho + pleura + kai + exerchomai + hudor + kai + haima. Allos is the same as “others” in v42. See note LXXXVI above. Lambano is the same as “took” in v30. See note XXVII above. Logche is 2x in NT. This is a lance or spear. Nusso is 2x in NT. This is to pierce or prick. Pleura is 6x in NT. This is a rib, which extends to the side of the body in general. This is where the word “pleurisy” comes from. Exerchomai is the same as “went out” in v32. See note XXXIII above. Hudor is perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from. Haima is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).

50 Then Jesus criedCXXIV again with a loud voice and breathed his last.CXXV 51 At that momentCXXVI the curtainCXXVII of the temple

Notes on verses 50-51a

CXXIV “cried” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
CXXV “breathed his last” = aphiemi + ho + pneuma. Literally, “gave up his spirit.” Aphiemi is the same as “wait” in v49. See note CXX above. Pneuma is from pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CXXVI “at that moment” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CXXVII “curtain” = katapetasma. 6x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + petannumi (to spread out). This is the inner veil in the Temple. Literally, it is what spreads down i.e. hangs down. The curtain hung between the Holy of Holies, the innermost part of the Temple, from the rest of it.

was tornCXXVIII in two, from topCXXIX to bottom.CXXX The earthCXXXI shook,CXXXII

Notes on verse 51b

CXXVIII “torn” = schizo. 11x in NT. This is to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).
CXXIX “top” = anothen. 13x in NT– this is the word used in John 3:3 in the being born “from above”/“again” conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus. From ano (up, above, up to the top, things above, heaven); from ana (up, upwards, again, back, among, anew). This is from above, from the top, again, beginning, from the source. It implies anew.
CXXX “bottom” = kato. 10x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among). This is down, below, lower, bottom, under.
CXXXI “earth” = ge. Same as “land” in v45. See note XCIX above.
CXXXII “shook” = seio. 5x in NT. This is shake, move, or quake. Properly, it is shaking back and forth. Figuratively, it can mean to agitate or to cause people to have tremors of fear or worry.

and the rocksCXXXIII were split.CXXXIV 52 The tombsCXXXV also were opened,CXXXVI

Notes on verses 51c-52a

CXXXIII “rocks” = petra. 15x in NT. This is large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff. It can also be cave or stony ground.
CXXXIV “split” = schizo. Same as “torn” in v51. See note CXXVIII above.
CXXXV “tombs” = mnemeion. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
CXXXVI “opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in literal or figurative sense.

and manyCXXXVII bodiesCXXXVIII of the saintsCXXXIX who had fallen asleepCXL were raised.CXLI 

Notes on verse 52b

CXXXVII “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
CXXXVIII “bodies” = soma. Related to “save” in v40. Perhaps from sozo (see note LXXVIII above). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
CXXXIX “saints” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CXL “fallen asleep” = koimao. 18x in NT. From keimai (to lie, recline, set, be appointed, be destined). This is to sleep or put to sleep. Figuratively, it can mean to die. In the New Testament, it is used 15x for death and 3x for sleep.
CXLI “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.

53 After his resurrectionCXLII they cameCXLIII out of the tombs and enteredCXLIV the holyCXLV cityCXLVI and appearedCXLVII to many. 

Notes on verse 53

CXLII “resurrection” = egersis. Related to “raised” in v52. 1x in NT. From egeiro (see note CXLI above). This is rousing, waking up, resurrection from death.
CXLIII “came” = exerchomai. Same as “went out” in v32. See note XXXIII above.
CXLIV “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “went out” in v32 & “came” in v33. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XXXIII above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLV “holy” = hagios. Same as “saints” in v52. See note CXXXIX above.
CXLVI “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CXLVII “appeared” = emphanizo. Related to {untranslated} in v35 & “derided” in v39 & “voice” in v46 & “calling” in v47. 10x in NT. From emphanes (visible, apparent, openly, understood); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + phaino (see note LVIII above)}. This is to declare, make visible, or exhibit in person. It can also be to report against or notify.

54 Now when the centurionCXLVIII and those with him, who were keeping watch over Jesus, saw the earthquakeCXLIX and what took place,CL they were terrifiedCLI and said, “TrulyCLII this man was God’s Son!”

Notes on verse 54

CXLVIII “centurion” = hekatontarches. Related to “chief priests” in v41. From hekaton (hundred) + archo (see note LXXXIII above). This is a centurion from the Roman army, leader a captain of one hundred soldiers.
CXLIX “earthquake” = seismos. Related to “shook” in v51. 14x in NT. From seio (see note CXXXII above). This is a commotion or shaking generally. It can also be a storm or earthquake. This is where “seismic” comes from.
CL “took place” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v45. See note XCVII above.
CLI “terrified” = phobeo + sphodra. Phobeo is from phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from. Sphodra is 11x in NT. From sphodros (exceeding, very much, all out, violent). This is exceedingly, greatly, deeply. This is going all out, with total effort, done to the fullest extent.
CLII “truly” = alethos. 18x in NT. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.

55 Many womenCLIII were also there, looking onCLIV from a distance;CLV they had followedCLVI Jesus from Galilee,CLVII ministeringCLVIII to him. 

Notes on verse 55

CLIII “women” = gune. Related to “came” in v45. Perhaps from ginomai (see note XCVII above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CLIV “looking on” = theoreo. Related to “kept watch” in v36. See note LX above.
CLV “distance” = makrothen. 14x in NT. From makros (long, distant). This is afar, at a vast distance.
CLVI “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
CLVII “Galilee” = Galilaia. Related to “Golgotha” in v33. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (see note XLV above). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
CLVIII “ministering” = diakoneo. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); {perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute); {related to dio (put to flight)}}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.

56 Among them were MaryCLIX Magdalene,CLX and Mary the mother of JamesCLXI

Notes on verse 56a

CLIX “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
CLX “Magdalene” = Magdalene. 12x in NT. From Magdala (Magadan, a place near the Sea of Galilee); perhaps from Aramaic migdal, see also Hebrew migdal (tower); from gadal (to grow, grow up, be great). This is from Magdala.
CLXI “James” = Iakobus. From Hebrew Yaaqob (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.

and Joseph,CLXII and the motherCLXIII of the sons of Zebedee.CLXIV

Notes on verse 56b

CLXII “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
CLXIII “mother” = meter. This is mother in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXIV “Zebedee” = Zebedaios. Related to “Jesus” in v27 & “Elijah” in v47. 12x in NT. From Hebrew zebadyah (Zebadiah, “The Lord has bestowed”); {from Zabad (to bestow, confer, endure) + Yah (see note CIX above)}. This is Zebedee, meaning “the Lord has bestowed.”

57 When it wasCLXV evening,CLXVI there cameCLXVII a richCLXVIII man

Notes on verse 57a

CLXV “was” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v45. See note XCVII above.
CLXVI “evening” = opsios. Related to “man” in v32 & “see” in v49. 15x in NT. From opse (after, late, in the end, in the evening); from opiso (back, behind, after); from the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back); optanomai (see note XXXV above). This is afternoon, evening, nightfall, or late.
CLXVII “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v33. See note XLII above.
CLXVIII “rich” = plousios. Related to “many” in v52. From ploutos (abundance, wealth, or riches; money, possessions, spiritual abundance, or a valuable bestowment); from polus (see note CXXXVII above) OR pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is wealthy, having full resources. It can be a rich person or refer to God’s abundance.

from ArimatheaCLXIX namedCLXX Joseph, who also was himself a discipleCLXXI of Jesus. 

Notes on verse 57b

CLXIX “Arimathea” = Harimathaia. 4x in NT. From Hebrew compare Ramah (Ramah, height); from rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively). This is Arimathea, a city by Jerusalem.
CLXX “named” = tounoma. Related to “named” in v32 & “left” in v38 & “taunted” in v44. 1x in NT. From ho (the, that, one) + onoma (see note XXXVII above). This is by name.
CLXXI “was…a disciple” = matheteuo.4x in NT. From mathetes (a disciple, learner, or student). This to be, make, or train a disciple. It is the same root that “mathematics” comes from.

58 He wentCLXXII to PilateCLXXIII and asked forCLXXIV the body of Jesus; then Pilate orderedCLXXV it to be givenCLXXVI to him. 

Notes on verse 58

CLXXII “went” = proserchomai. Related to “went out” in v32 & “came” in v33 & “entered” in v53. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note XXXIII above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
CLXXIII “Pilate” = Pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See
CLXXIV “asked for” = aiteo. Related to “charge” in v37. See note LXII above.
CLXXV “ordered” = keleuo. From kelomai (to urge on). This is to command, order, or direct.
CLXXVI “given” = apodidomi. Related to “offered” in v34. From apo (from, away from) + didomi (see note XLVIII above). This is to give back, return, give away. It is to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell.

59 So Joseph tookCLXXVII the body and wrappedCLXXVIII it in a cleanCLXXIX linen clothCLXXX 

Notes on verse 59

CLXXVII “took” = lambano. Same as “took” in v30. See note XXVII above.
CLXXVIII “wrapped” = entulisso. 3x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + tulisso (to twist); {probably akin to helisso (to roll up, coil, wrap)} This is to wrap, entwine, envelop, wine up.
CLXXIX “clean” = katharos. This is clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying.
CLXXX “linen cloth” = sindon. 6x in NT. This is byssos, a fine linen cloth, garment, or sheet.

60 and laidCLXXXI it in his newCLXXXII tomb, which he had hewnCLXXXIII in the rock. He then rolledCLXXXIV a greatCLXXXV stoneCLXXXVI

Notes on verse 60a

CLXXXI “laid” = tithemi. Related to “put…on” in v28 & “put” in v29 & “at once” in v48. See note XII above.
CLXXXII “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
CLXXXIII “hewn” = latomeo. 2x in NT. From laas (stone) + temno (to cut with a as with a single slice). This is to cut stones, quarry.
CLXXXIV “rolled” = proskulio. 2x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kulio (to roll, wallow); {from kulindo (to roll, roll along); from kuma (wave, billow, curve, bend); from kuo (to swell as one pregnant)}. This is to roll to – to roll over to block.
CLXXXV “great” = megas. Same as “loud” in v46. See note CII above.
CLXXXVI “stone” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.

to the doorCLXXXVII of the tomb and went away.CLXXXVIII 61 Mary Magdalene and the otherCLXXXIX Mary were there, sitting opposite the tomb.CXC

Notes on verses 60b-61

CLXXXVII “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
CLXXXVIII “went away” = aperchomai. Related to “went out” in v32 & “came” in v33 & “entered” in v53 & “went” in v58. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note XXXIII above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXXIX “other” = allos. Same as “others” in v42. See note LXXXVI above.
CXC “tomb” = taphos.7x in NT. From thapto (to bury, hold a funeral). This is a burial place such as a grave, sepulcher, or tomb.

Image credit: “The Light of Golgotha” by Antoine Wiertz, 1859.

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