Isaiah 62:6-12

Isaiah 62:6-12
Christmas at Dawn ABC


Upon your walls,A O Jerusalem,B
    I have postedC sentinels;D
allE dayF and all nightG

Notes on verse 6a

A “walls” = chomah. From the same as cham (father-in-law – one’s husband’s father; perhaps from a root meaning to join). This is a wall – a wall as used for protection.
B “Jerusalem” = Yerushalayim. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
C “posted” = paqad. This is to attend to or visit – can be used for a friendly or violent encounter. So, it can be to oversee, care for, avenge, or charge.
D “sentinels” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
E “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
F “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
G “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.

    they shall neverH be silent.I
You who remindJ the Lord,K
    take no rest,L

Notes on verse 6b

H “never” = lo + tamid. Lo is not. Tamid may come from a word that means to stretch. This word means an indefinite period of time. So, it could be regular or daily. It could also be constantly, continually, always, or perpetually.
I “be silent” = chashah. 15x in OT. This is to be silent or not doing anything.
J “remind” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
K “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
L “take…rest” = domi. 4x in OT. From damah (to be silent, to cease, destroy, perish). This is a pause or rest. It could also be a cutting off.

and giveM him no rest
    until he establishesN Jerusalem
    and makesO it renownedP throughout the earth.Q

Notes on verse 7

M “give” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
N “establishes” = kun. Properly, this means in a perpendicular position. So, it is set up in a literal sense – establish, fix, fasten, prepare. In a figurative sense, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous.
O “makes” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
P “renowned” = tehillah. From halal (to praise, be boastful). This is praise or a song of praise. It is to offer God a hymn, to boast in God. This shares a root with “hallelujah.”
Q “earth” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

8 The Lord has swornR by his right handS
    and by his mightyT arm:U
I will not again give your grainV
    to be foodW for your enemies,X

Notes on verse 8a

R “sworn” = shaba. Perhaps from sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant. Properly, it can mean to be complete. This is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times.
S “right hand” = yamin. May be from yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm). This can mean right hand, right side, or south. Since most people are right-handed, the metaphorical usage of this word presumes that the right hand is stronger and more agile. Thus, it is the instrument of power and action.
T “mighty” = oz. From azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; it means to be stout literally or figuratively. A Late Hebrew word). This is strength in the sense of force, majesty, praise, material and physical strength, the abstract notion of security. It can also speak of social or political power.
U “arm” = zeroa. Perhaps from zara (to sow, scatter seed, conceive). This is the arm, shoulder, or foreleg of an animal. It is figuratively used for power, force, might, or help.
V “grain” = dagan. Perhaps from dagah (to multiply, move quickly, breed greatly, grow). This is grain or other cereal.
W “food” = maakal. From akal (to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume; eating in a literal or figurative sense). This is food, something edible.
X “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.

andY foreignersZ shall not drinkAA the wineBB
    for which you have labored;CC

Notes on verse 8b

Y {untranslated} = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
Z “foreigners” = nekar. From the same as neker (misfortune, disaster). This is foreign or something that is foreign i.e. strange.
AA “drink” = shatah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.
BB “wine” = tirosh. From yarash (inheriting or dispossessing; refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them; by implication, to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish).  This is new wine or sweet wine – wine that is freshly squeezed. Sometimes used for fermented wine.
CC “labored” = yaga. This is to work, become weary, to gasp or be exhausted, to toil.

9 but those who garnerDD it shall eatEE it
    and praiseFF the Lord,
and those who gatherGG it shall drink it
    in my holyHH courts.II

Notes on verse 9

DD “garner” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
EE “eat” = akal. Related to “food” in v8. See note W above.
FF “praise” = halal. Related to “renowned” in v7. See note P above.
GG “gather” = qabats. This is to collect, assemble, heap, grasp, or gather.
HH “holy” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.
II “courts” = chatser. From chatsar (to blow a trumpet, trumpeter, to surround); from chatsotsrah (trumpet). This is an enclosure or court – a yard that is fenced in. It could also be a village or hamlet that is walled in.

10 Go through,JJ go through the gates,KK
    prepareLL the wayMM for the people;NN

Notes on verse 10a

JJ “go through” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
KK “gates” = shaar. May be related to sha’ar (to calculate or reckon; may come from a root that means to open up or split). This is a gate, door, or other opening like a port.
LL “prepare” = panah. This is to turn, regard, appear, look, prepare.
MM “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
NN “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

build up,OO build up the highway,PP
    clearQQ it of stones,RR
    lift upSS an ensignTT over the peoples.

Notes on verse 10b

OO “build up” = salal. 12x in OT. This is to lift up, pile, build, make plain, extol, exalt.
PP “highway” = mesillah. Related to “build up” in v10. From salal (see note OO above). This is highway, path, step. It could be a course in a figurative sense or specifically a viaduct or staircase.
QQ “clear” = saqal. Properly, this means being weighty. However, it is used for stoning someone (to death) or for removing stones.
RR “stones” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”
SS “lift up” = rum. This is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
TT “ensign” = nes. From nasas (to be high, easy to see, sparkling, to gleam, to raise a flag or signal). This is a flag, pole, sail, warning, signal, token.

11 UUThe Lord has proclaimedVV
    to the endWW of the earth:
Say to daughterXX Zion,YY

Notes on verse 11a

UU {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
VV “proclaimed” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
WW “end” = qets. From qatsats (to cut or chop off in a literal or figurative sense). This is outer border, end, or extremity. It can also mean infinite.
XX “daughter” = bat. Related to {untranslated} in v8. From ben (see note Y above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
YY “Zion” = Tsiyyon. Related to tsyiyyun (signpost, monument); from tsavah (to charge someone, to command, order); from the same as tsiyyah (dryness drought); from a root meaning parched as desert, dry land. Zion can refer to a mountain in Jerusalem as well as another name for Jerusalem itself or the people.

    “See,ZZ your salvationAAA comes;BBB
CCChis rewardDDD is with him,
    and his recompenseEEE beforeFFF him.”

Notes on verse 11b

ZZ “see” = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v11. See note UU above.
AAA “salvation” = yesha. From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free). This is salvation, deliverance, rescue, safety, welfare, liberty.
BBB “comes” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
CCC {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v11. See note UU above.
DDD “reward” = sakar. From sakar (to hire, reward, earn). This is wages, payment, service, salary, worth, reward, or benefit.
EEE “recompense” = peullah. 14x in OT. From paal (to do, make, work, or accomplish; generally refers to regularly repeated or systematic action – to practice). This is work, deed, reward, or wages.
FFF “before” = paneh. Related to “prepare” in v10. From panah (see note LL above). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

12 They shall be called,GGG “The Holy People,
    The RedeemedHHH of the Lord”;III
and you shall be called, “Sought Out,JJJ
    A CityKKK Not Forsaken.”LLL

Notes on verse 12

GGG “called” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
HHH “Redeemed” = gaal. This is to redeem someone or something according to kinship laws. So, it could be acting on a relative’s behalf to buy back their property, to marry one’s brother’s widow, etc. This could be more briefly translated as to redeem, acts as kinsman, or purchase. As a noun, it could be deliverer or avenger.
III “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v6. See note K above. This word has a different vowel pointing but the same meaning as “Lord” above.
JJJ “Sought Out” = darash. This is seek, ask, inquire, care for. Generally it means following in pursuit or following as part of a search, which implies seeking or asking. Also used specially to mean worship.
KKK “City” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
LLL “Forsaken” = azab. To loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute.

Image credit: “Ezekiel’s Vision of the Temple: Part 4” by Biblia Prints.

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