John 5

John 5


After this there wasI a festivalII of the Jews,III

Notes on verse 1a

I “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
II “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
III “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

and JesusIV went upV to Jerusalem.VI

Notes on verse 1b

IV “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
V “went up” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
VI “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

Now in Jerusalem by the Sheep GateVII there is a pool,VIII calledIX in HebrewX 

Notes on verse 2a

VII “Sheep Gate” = probatikos. Related to “went up” in v1. 1x in NT. From probaton (literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily); {probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (see note V above)}}}. This is relating to sheep. So, it could be a market or a gate for sheep.
VIII “pool” = kolumbethra. 4x in NT. From kolumbao (properly, to dive; also to swim); from kolumbos (a diver). This is literally a place for swimming or diving. So, it is a pond or a pool. This is where the name “Columbus” comes from.
IX “called” = epilego. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, what is fitting) + lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is to call, name, or select.
X “in Hebrew” = Hebraisti. 7x in NT. From Hebrais (Hebrew language, Aramaic); from Eber (Heber); from Hebrew Eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Hebrew, perhaps meaning a descendant of Eber. This is in Hebrew or in Aramaic.

Beth-zatha,XI which hasXII fiveXIII porticoes.XIV 

Notes on verse 2b

XI “Beth-zatha” = Bethzatha. 1x in NT. Probably from Aramaic, related to Hebrew Bethesda (Bethesda, “house of mercy”); {from bayit (house, court, family, palace, temple); {from banah (to build)} + chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here)}. This is Beth-zatha or Bethesda, a pool whose name means “house of mercy” or “house of kindness.” See
XII “has” = echo. This is have, hold, possess.
XIII “five” = pente. This is five. It may be symbolically associated with the Temple or redemption.
XIV “porticoes” = stoa. 4x in NT. Probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm). This is a portico, colonnade, or piazza.

In these layXV manyXVI ill,XVII

Notes on verse 3a

XV “lay” = katakeimai. 12x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + keimai (to lie, recline, be placed, lie outstretched, be appointed). This is to lie down, whether for a meal or as one sick in bed.
XVI “many” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.
XVII “ill” = astheneo. From asthenes (not having strength or weak in a moral sense; sick); {from a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is sick, feeble, languishing, impotent. Can also refer to moral weakness.

blind,XVIII lame,XIX and paralyzedXX people. 

Notes on verse 3b

XVIII “blind” = tuphlos. Derivation unclear. Perhaps from tuphoo (to be conceited, foolish, puffed up, haughty; properly, to blow smoke; figuratively being muddled or cloudy in mind; poor judgment that harms spiritual clarity; also, being covered with smoke – so filled with pride); from tuphos (smoke, vanity, arrogance); from tupho (to raise smoke, smolder, slowly consume without flame). This is blind or a blind person – perhaps in the sense of smoke making things opaque and impossible to see. This is blind literally or figuratively.
XIX “lame” = cholos. 14x in NT. This is lame or limping. It can also mean missing a foot.
XX “paralyzed” = xeros. 8x in NT. This is dry, arid, withered. It can also refer to dry land or imply something that is shrunken.

[waiting forXXI the stirringXXII of the water,XXIII for an angelXXIV of the Lord

Notes on verse 4a

XXI “waiting for” = ekdechomai. 7x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to take or receive, expect, await; to welcome someone from your heart; focusing on the goal of waiting or the outcome.
XXII “stirring” = kinesis. 1x in NT. From kineo (to move, excite, or provoke. It is to stir in a literal or figurative sense); perhaps from kio (poetic way of saying to be); from eimi (to be). This is agitation or moving.
XXIII “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
XXIV “angel” = aggelos. Probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.

went downXXV from timeXXVI to time into the pool and stirred upXXVII the water;

Notes on verse 4b

XXV “went down” = katabaino. Related to “went up” in v1 & “Sheep Gate” in v2. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note V above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVI “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
XXVII “stirred up” = tarasso. 18x in NT. This is trouble, agitate, stir up. It is motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water.

whoever stepped inXXVIII firstXXIX after the stirringXXX of the water

Notes on verse 4c

XXVIII “stepped in” = embaino. Related to “went up” in v1 & “Sheep Gate” in v2 & “went down” in v4. 17x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + baino (see note V above). This is to step onto – embark on a boat.
XXIX “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
XXX “stirring” = tarache. Related to “stirred up” in v4. 1x in NT. From tarasso (see note XXVII above). This is a stirring up or agitation, as of water. Figuratively, it can refer to drumming up sedition or riling up a mob.

was madeXXXI wellXXXII from whatever diseaseXXXIII that person had.]XXXIV

Notes on verse 4d

XXXI “made” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XXXII “well” = hugies. 12x in NT. Perhaps from auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is healthy, whole, pure, normal, restored, wholesome. Figuratively, it can mean a sound or true teaching. It is where “hygiene” comes from.
XXXIII “disease” = nosema. 1x in NT. From noseo (to be sick; spiritual sickness or a problematic desire or longing); from nosos (a disease that is chronic and enduring; a moral failing). This is a sickness. It focuses on the impact of the illness – particularly mental anguish.
XXXIV “had” = katecho. Related to “has” in v2. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout) + echo (see note XII above). This is to hold fast, bind, possess, restrain, arrest, suppress. It is to hold down in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to hold something in one’s memory.

One manXXXV was there who had beenXXXVI illXXXVII for thirtyXXXVIII-eightXXXIX years. 

Notes on verse 5

XXXV “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XXXVI “been” = echo. Same as “has” in v2. See note XII above.
XXXVII “ill” = astheneia. Related to “ill” in v3. From asthenes (see note XVII above). This is weakness, frailty, illness, suffering, or calamity. It is any kind of sickness or injury that includes weakness or diminishes your ability to enjoy or accomplish what you would choose.
XXXVIII “thirty” = triakonta. 11x in NT. From treis (three). This is thirty.
XXXIX “eight” = okto. 10x in NT. This is eight.

When Jesus sawXL him lying there and knewXLI that he had been there a longXLII time,XLIII he saidXLIV to him, “Do you wantXLV to be made well?” 

Notes on verse 6

XL “saw” = horao. Related to “man” in v5. See note XXXV above.
XLI “knew” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
XLII “long” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XLIII “time” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
XLIV “said” = lego. Related to “called” in v2. See note IX above.
XLV “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

The illXLVI man answeredXLVII him, “Sir,XLVIII 

Notes on verse 7a

XLVI “ill” = astheneo. Same as “ill” in v3. See note XVII above.
XLVII “answered” = apokrinomai. From apo (from, away from) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.
XLVIII “sir” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

I have no oneXLIX to putL me into the pool when the water is stirred up,LI and while I am making my wayLII someone elseLIII steps downLIV ahead of me.” 

Notes on verse 7b

XLIX “one” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v5. See note XXXV above.
L “put” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
LI “stirred up” = tarasso. Same as “stirred up” in v4. See note XXVII above.
LII “making…way” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
LIII “someone else” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
LIV “steps down” = katabaino. Same as “went down” in v4. See note XXV above.

Jesus said to him, “Stand up,LV takeLVI your matLVII

Notes on verse 8a

LV “stand up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
LVI “take” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
LVII “mat” = krabattos. 11x in NT. From Ancient Macedonian grabos (oak or beech). This is a bed or pallet. It is a place for poor people, perhaps made of a quilt or a mat. Always used to refer to sick people on mats – 9x in the Gospels and 2x in the book of Acts.

and walk.”LVIII At onceLIX the man was made well, and he took upLX his mat and began to walk.

Notes on verses 8b-9a

LVIII “walk” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
LIX “at once” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
LX “took up” = airo. Same as “take” in v8. See note LVI above.

Now that dayLXI was a Sabbath.LXII 10 So the Jews said to the man who had been cured,LXIII “It is the Sabbath; it is not lawfulLXIV for you to carryLXV your mat.” 

Notes on verses 9b-10

LXI “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
LXII “Sabbath” = Sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
LXIII “cured” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.
LXIV “is…lawful” = exesti. Related to “was” in v1. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note I above). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
LXV “carry” = airo. Same as “take” in v8. See note LVI above.

11 But he answered them, “The man who madeLXVI me well said to me, ‘Take up your mat and walk.’” 

12 They askedLXVII him, “Who is the man who said to you, ‘Take it up and walk’?” 13 Now the man who had been healedLXVIII did not knowLXIX who it was,

Notes on verses 11-13a

LXVI “made” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
LXVII “asked” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
LXVIII “healed” = iaomai. This is to heal, particularly from a physical illness, but it could also be a spiritual difficulty. This is to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIX “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

for Jesus had disappearedLXX in the crowdLXXI that was there.LXXII 

Notes on verse 13b

LXX “disappeared” = ekneuo. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + neuo (to nod as a signal or gesture). This is to turn, turn head from, escape, leave quietly.
LXXI “crowd” = ochlos. Related to “has” in v2 & “had” in v4. Perhaps from echo (see note XII above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
LXXII “there” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.

14 Later Jesus foundLXXIII him in the templeLXXIV and said to him, “See,LXXV you have been madeLXXVI well!

Notes on verse 14a

LXXIII “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXXIV “temple” = hieros. From hierod (sacred, temple, holy). This is a temple – its structure or courtyards.
LXXV “see” = idou. Related to “know” in v13. From eido (see note LXIX above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LXXVI “made” = ginomai. Same as “made” in v4. See note XXXI above.

Do not sinLXXVII any more, so that nothing worseLXXVIII happensLXXIX to you.” 

Notes on verse 14b

LXXVII “sin” = hamartano. From a (not) + meros (a part or share, portion); {from meiromai (to get one’s allotment or portion)}. This term also used of archers not hitting their targets. Literally, it means not getting your share or to miss the mark. Figuratively, it meant to do wrong or to sin.
LXXVIII “worse” = cheiron. 11x in NT. A comparative of kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; this is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; it is deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character). This is worse, more evil in a physical, mental, or moral sense.
LXXIX “happens” = ginomai. Same as “made” in v4. See note XXXI above.

15 The man went awayLXXX and toldLXXXI the Jews that it was Jesus who had madeLXXXII him well. 

Notes on verse 15

LXXX “went away” = aperchomai. Related to “making…way” in v7. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note LII above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXI “told” = anaggello. Related to “angel” in v4. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, by, anew) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (see note XXIV above)}. This is returning with word, reporting, declaring, announcing. It is to tell something all the way, which is to say to tell it clearly.
LXXXII “made” = poieo. Same as “made” in v11. See note LXVI above.

16 Therefore the Jews started persecutingLXXXIII Jesus, because he was doingLXXXIV such things on the Sabbath. 17 But Jesus answered them, “My FatherLXXXV is still working,LXXXVI and I also am working.” 

Notes on verses 16-17

LXXXIII “persecuting” = dioko. From dio (put to flight). This is chase or pursue in an aggressive fashion. By implication, it is persecute. It can also be used positively for eagerly pursuing something.
LXXXIV “doing” = poieo. Same as “made” in v11. See note LXVI above.
LXXXV “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
LXXXVI “working” = ergazomai. From ergon (work, task, action, employment). This is to work, labor, perform, toil.

18 For this reason the Jews were seekingLXXXVII all the moreLXXXVIII to killLXXXIX him, because he was not onlyXC breakingXCI the Sabbath

Notes on verse 18a

LXXXVII “seeking” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
LXXXVIII “more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
LXXXIX “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
XC “only” = monon. From monos (alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate); from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is merely, only, simply, sole. It can also imply alone.
XCI “breaking” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.

but was also calling GodXCII his ownXCIII Father, thereby makingXCIV himself equalXCV to God.

Notes on verse 18b

XCII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XCIII “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
XCIV “making” = poieo. Same as “made” in v11. See note LXVI above.
XCV “equal” = isos. Related to “know” in v13 & “see” in v14. 8x in NT. From eido (see note LXIX above). This is equal, same, similar, consistent.

19 Jesus said to them, “Very truly,XCVI I tellXCVII you, the SonXCVIII

Notes on verse 19a

XCVI “very truly” = amen + amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
XCVII “tell” = lego. Same as “said” in v6. See note XLIV above.
XCVIII “Son” = Huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.

canXCIX do nothing on his own but only what he seesC the Father doing, for whatever the Father does, the Son does likewise.CI 

Notes on verse 19b

XCIX “can” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
C “sees” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
CI “likewise” = homoios. From the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is similar to, resembling, like.

20 The Father lovesCII the Son and showsCIII him allCIV that he himself is doing,

Notes on verse 20a

CII “loves” = phileo. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person). This is friendship love and fondness with personal attachment.
CIII “shows” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.
CIV “all” = pas. This is all or every.

and he will show him greaterCV worksCVI than these, so that you will be astonished.CVII 

Notes on verse 20b

CV “greater” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CVI “works” = ergon. Related to “working” in v17. See note LXXXVI above.
CVII “astonished” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.

21 Indeed, just as the Father raisesCVIII the deadCIX and gives them life,CX so also the Son gives life to whomever he wishes.CXI 

Notes on verse 21

CVIII “raises” = egeiro. Same as “stand up” in v8. See note LV above.
CIX “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
CX “gives…life” = zoopoieo. 11x in NT. From the same as zoon (literally a thing that is alive; so, an animal or living creature); {from zao (to live literally or figuratively)} + poieo (to make, do, construct, cause). This is to bring life to something, including something that was dead. This can also be to revitalize in a literal or figurative sense.
CXI “wishes” = thelo. Same as “want” in v6. See note XLV above.

22 The Father judgesCXII no one but has givenCXIII all judgmentCXIV to the Son, 23 so that all may honorCXV the Son just as they honor the Father.

Notes on verses 22-23a

CXII “judges” = krino. Related to “answered” in v7. See note XLVII above.
CXIII “given” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
CXIV “judgment” = krisis. Related to “answered” in v7 & “judges” in v22. From krino (see note XLVII above). This is a judging or a sentence. It is often used of God’s judgment, but can also be any accusation or condemnation. This is where the word “crisis” comes from.
CXV “honor” = timao. From time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value). Properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor.

Anyone who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sentCXVI him. 24 Very truly, I tell you, anyone who hearsCXVII my wordCXVIII

Notes on verses 23b-24a

CXVI “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
CXVII “hears” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CXVIII “word” = logos. Related to “called” in v2 & “said” in v6. From lego (see note XI above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

and believesCXIX him who sent me has eternalCXX lifeCXXI

Notes on verse 24b

CXIX “believes” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CXX “eternal” = aionios. From aion (an age, length of time). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
CXXI “life” = zoe. Related to “gives…life” in v21. From zao (see note CX above). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

and does not comeCXXII under judgment but has passedCXXIII from deathCXXIV to life.

25 “Very truly, I tell you, the hourCXXV is coming and is now here when the dead will hear the voiceCXXVI of the Son of God, and those who hear will live.CXXVII 

Notes on verses 24c-25

CXXII “come” = erchomai. Same as “making…way” in v7. See note LII above.
CXXIII “passed” = metabaino. Related to “went up” in v1 & “Sheep Gate” in v2 & “went down” and “stepped in” in v4. 12x in NT. From meta (with, among, behind, beyond) + baino (see note V above). This is to pass over, leave, remove, change place.
CXXIV “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CXXV “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
CXXVI “voice” = phone. Probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
CXXVII “live” = zao. Related to “gives…life” in v21 & “life” in v24. See note CX above.

26 For just as the Father has life in himself, so he has grantedCXXVIII the Son also to have life in himself, 27 and he has given him authorityCXXIX to executeCXXX judgment because he is the Son of Man. 28 Do not be astonished at this, for the hour is coming when all who are in their gravesCXXXI will hear his voice 

Notes on verses 26-28

CXXVIII “granted” = didomi. Same as “given” in v22. See note CXIII above.
CXXIX “authority” = exousia. Related to “was” in v1 & “is…lawful” in v10. From exesti (see note LXIV above). This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
CXXX “execute” = poieo. Same as “made” in v11. See note LXVI above.
CXXXI “graves” = mnemeion. Related to “only” in v18. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (see note XC above). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.

29 and will come out:CXXXII those who have done goodCXXXIII to the resurrectionCXXXIV of life,

Notes on verse 29a

CXXXII “come out” = ekporeuomai. From ek (from, from out of) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. This is to go forth, depart from, be spoken, flow out, project. This word emphasizes the result a process or passage – how it impacts the person or thing.
CXXXIII “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
CXXXIV “resurrection” = anastasis. Related to “porticoes” in v2. From anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XIV above). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.

and those who have doneCXXXV evilCXXXVI to the resurrection of condemnation.CXXXVII

30 “I can doCXXXVIII nothing on my own. As I hear, I judge, and my judgment is justCXXXIX because I seek to do not my own willCXL but the will of him who sent me.

Notes on verses 29b-30

CXXXV “done” = prasso. This is to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit. It can also mean to accomplish, attend, or commit.
CXXXVI “evil” = phaulos. 6x in NT. This is bad, worthless, or foul. Figuratively, it can mean wicked or evil.
CXXXVII “condemnation” = krisis. Same as “judgment” in v22. See note CXIV above.
CXXXVIII “do” = poieo. Same as “made” in v11. See note LXVI above.
CXXXIX “just” = dikaios. Related to “shows” in v20. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (see note CIII above). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
CXL “will” = thelema. Related to “want” in v6. From thelo (see note XLV above). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.

31 “If I testifyCXLI about myself, my testimonyCXLII is not true.CXLIII 

Notes on verse 31

CXLI “testify” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLII “testimony” = marturia. Related to “testify” in v31. From martureo (see note CXLI above). This is testimony, witness, evidence, record, reputation.
CXLIII “true” = alethes. From a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic.

32 There is anotherCXLIV who testifies on my behalf, and I knowCXLV that his testimonyCXLVI to me is true. 33 You sentCXLVII messengers to John,CXLVIII

Notes on verses 32-33a

CXLIV “another” = allos. Same as “someone else” in v7. See note LIII above.
CXLV “know” = eido. Same as “know” in v13. See note LXIX above.
CXLVI {untranslated} = hos + martureo. Literally, “to which he bears witness.” Martureo is the same as “testify” in v31. See note CXLI above.
CXLVII “sent” = apostello. Related to “porticoes” in v2 & “resurrection” in v29. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note XIV above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CXLVIII “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v1. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note IV above)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”

and he testified to the truth.CXLIX 34 Not that I acceptCL such humanCLI testimony, but I say these things so that you may be saved.CLII 

Notes on verses 33b-34

CXLIX “truth” = aletheia. Related to “true” in v31. From alethes (see note CXLIII above). Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
CL “accept” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
CLI “human” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v5. See note XXXV above.
CLII “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

35 He was a burningCLIII and shiningCLIV lamp,CLV

Notes on verse 35a

CLIII “burning” = kaio. 11x in NT. This is to kindle, light, blaze. It is light in a literal or figurative sense.
CLIV “shining” = phaino. Related to “voice” in v25. See note CXXVI above.
CLV “lamp” = luchnos. 14x in NT. Perhaps from the base of leukos (bright, white, brilliant); from luke (light). This is a lamp that is portable and fueled by oil. It can mean light in a literal or figurative sense.

and you were willingCLVI to rejoiceCLVII for a whileCLVIII in his light.CLIX 

Notes on verse 35b

CLVI “willing” = thelo. Same as “want” in v6. See note XLV above.
CLVII “rejoice” = agalliao. 11x in NT. From agallomai (to exalt, make glorious) {from agan (much, very) + hallomai (to leap or leap up; when referring to water, springing up or bubbling up; to jump or figuratively to gush)}. This is properly joy that prompts you to jump up. It is a full body experience of joy: exulting, rejoicing, or even boasting from joy.
CLVIII “while” = hora. Same as “hour” in v25. See note CXXV above.
CLIX “light” = phos. Related to “voice” in v25 & “shining” in v35. From phao (see note CXXVI above). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.

36 But I have a testimony greater than John’s. The works that the Father has given me to complete,CLX the very works that I am doing,CLXI testify on my behalf that the Father has sentCLXII me. 

Notes on verse 36

CLX “complete” = teleioo. From teleios (going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one; reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect”; also full grown or mature); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax).  This is finish, accomplish, bring to an end, complete, reach a goal, finish a race, to consummate. It refers to completing stages or phases to get to an ultimate conclusion. It can also mean consecrate or fulfill.
CLXI “doing” = poieo. Same as “made” in v11. See note LXVI above.
CLXII “sent” = apostello. Same as “sent” in v33. See note CXLVII above.

37 And the Father who sentCLXIII me has himself testified on my behalf. You have never heard his voice or seenCLXIV his form,CLXV 38 and you do not have his word abidingCLXVI in you, because you do not believe him whom he has sent.CLXVII

Notes on verses 37-38

CLXIII “sent” = pempo. Same as “sent” in v23. See note CXVI above.
CLXIV “seen” = horao. Same as “saw” in v6. See note XL above.
CLXV “form” = eidos. Related to “know” in v13 & “see” in v14 & “equal” in v18. 5x in NT– including “Spirit descended upon him in bodily form like a dove” in Luke 3:22, at the Transfiguration, “the appearance of his face changed” in Luke 9:29; also “we walk by faith, not by sight” in 2 Corinthians 5:7. From eido (see note LXIX above). This is form, shape, sight, appearance.
CLXVI “abiding” = meno. Related to “only” in v18 & “graves” in v28. See note XC above.
CLXVII “sent” = apostello. Same as “sent” in v33. See note CXLVII above.

39 “You searchCLXVIII the scripturesCLXIX because you thinkCLXX that in them you have eternal life, and it is they that testify on my behalf. 

Notes on verse 39

CLXVIII “search” = ereunao. Related to “asked” in v12. 6x in NT. From eraunao (to search or examine); perhaps from ereo (see note LXVII above). This is to seek or examine. Figuratively, it can mean to investigate or desire to know.
CLXIX “scriptures” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
CLXX “think” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”

40 Yet you refuseCLXXI to comeCLXXII to me to have life. 41 I do not accept gloryCLXXIII from humans. 

Notes on verses 40-41

CLXXI “refuse” = ou + thelo. Literally, “are not willing.” Thelo is the same as “want” in v6. See note XLV above.
CLXXII “come” = erchomai. Same as “making…way” in v7. See note LII above.
CLXXIII “glory” = doxa. Related to “think” in v39. From dokeo (see note CLXX above). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.

42 But I knowCLXXIV that you do not have the loveCLXXV of God in you. 43 I have comeCLXXVI in my Father’s name,CLXXVII and you do not accept me; if another comesCLXXVIII in his own name, you will accept him. 

Notes on verses 42-43

CLXXIV “know” = ginosko. Same as “knew” in v6. See note XLI above.
CLXXV “love” = agape. Related to “rejoice” in v35. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer); from agan (see note CLVII above). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
CLXXVI “come” = erchomai. Same as “making…way” in v7. See note LII above.
CLXXVII “name” = onoma. Related to “knew” in v6. May be from ginosko (see note XLI above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
CLXXVIII “comes” = erchomai. Same as “making…way” in v7. See note LII above.

44 How can you believe when you accept glory from one another and do not seek the glory that comes from the one who aloneCLXXIX is God? 45 Do not think that I will accuseCLXXX you before the Father; your accuserCLXXXI is Moses,CLXXXII on whom you have set your hope.CLXXXIII 

Notes on verses 44-45

CLXXIX “alone” = monos. Related to “only” in v18 & “graves” in v28 & “abiding” in v38. Perhaps from meno (see note XC above). This is alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate.
CLXXX “accuse” = kategoreo. From kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR {from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}}. This is to accuse, charge, or prosecute. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.
CLXXXI “accuser” = kategoreo. Same as “accuse” in v45. See note CLXXX above.
CLXXXII “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
CLXXXIII “set…hope” = elpizo. From elpis (expectation, hope, trust, confidence, faith; expectation whether abstract or concrete); from elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively); from elpomai (to anticipate, expect). This is to expect, trust, hope for, or to wait in an active way.

46 If you believed Moses, you would believe me, for he wroteCLXXXIV about me. 47 But if you do not believe what he wrote,CLXXXV how will you believe what I say?”CLXXXVI

Notes on verses 46-47

CLXXIV “wrote” = grapho. Related to “scriptures” in v39. See note CLXIX above.
CLXXV “what…wrote” = gramma. Related to “scriptures” in v39 & “wrote” in v46. 15x in NT. From grapho (see note CLXIX above). This is something drawn or written. So, it could be a letter of the alphabet, an epistle, a book, literature, etc.
CLXXVI “what…say” = rhema. Literally, “my words.” Related to “asked” in v12 & “search” in v39. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (see note LXVII above). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.

Image credit: “Jesus, Mary, and Joseph in the Reflecting Pool” at Temple Square in Salt Lake City. Photo by Joe Shlabotnik, 2017.

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