John 6

John 6


After this JesusI wentII to the other side of the SeaIII of Galilee,IV also called the Sea of Tiberias.V 

Notes on verse 1

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “went” = aperchomai. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (to come or go). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
III “Sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.
IV “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
V “Tiberias” = Tiberias. 3x in NT. From Tiberios (Tiberius, as the emperor); from Latin Tiberius (Tiberius, which means from the Tiber); from Tiberis (the river Tiber); perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *teh₂- (“to flow, to melt”). This is Tiberias, a city in Galilee or another name for the Sea of Galilee. See

A largeVI crowdVII kept followingVIII him because they sawIX

Notes on verse 2a

VI “large” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
VII “crowd” = ochlos. Perhaps from echo (to have, hold, possess). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
VIII “following” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
IX “saw” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.

the signsX that he was doingXI for the sick.XII 

Notes on verse 2b

X “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
XI “doing” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XII “sick” = astheneo. From asthenes (not having strength or weak in a moral sense; sick); {from a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is sick, feeble, languishing, impotent. Can also refer to moral weakness.

Jesus went upXIII the mountainXIV and sat downXV there with his disciples.XVI 

Notes on verse 3

XIII “went up” = anerchomai. Related to “went” in v1. 3x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, anew) + erchomai (see note II above). This is to go up or ascend.
XIV “mountain” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.
XV “sat down” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
XVI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

Now the Passover,XVII the festivalXVIII of the Jews,XIX was near.XX 

Notes on verse 4

XVII “Passover” = pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”
XVIII “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
XIX “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XX “near” = eggus. Perhaps from agcho (to squeeze). This is nearby or near in time.

When he looked upXXI and sawXXII a large crowd comingXXIII toward him,

Notes on verse 5a

XXI “looked up” = epairoho + ophthalmos. Literally, “he lifted…the eyes.” Epairo is related to “mountain” in v3. 19x in NT.  From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (see note XIV above). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself. Ophthalmos is from optanomai (to appear, be seen by); from horao (to see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience; to stare at, which implies clear discernment; by extension, attending to what was seen and learned; to see, often with a metaphorical sense, which can include inward spiritual seeing). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
XXII “saw” = theaomai. Related to “saw” in v2. See note IX above.
XXIII “coming” = erchomai. Related to “went” in v1 & “went up” in v3. See note II above.

Jesus saidXXIV to Philip,XXV “Where are we to buyXXVI breadXXVII for these people to eat?”XXVIII 

Notes on verse 5b

XXIV “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXV “Philip” = Philippos. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse). This is Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses.
XXVI “buy” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.
XXVII “bread” = artos. Related to “mountain” in v3 & “looked up” in v5. Perhaps from airo (see note XIV above). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
XXVIII “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.

He said this to testXXIX him, for he himself knewXXX what he was going toXXXI do. 

Notes on verse 6

XXIX “test” = peirazo. From peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative of peiro (to pierce). This is to test, try, tempt, or make proof of. It is to test, scrutinize, or assay something. It could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline.
XXX “knew” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
XXXI “going to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.

Philip answered him, “Two hundredXXXII denariiXXXIII would not buy enoughXXXIV bread for eachXXXV of them to getXXXVI a little.”XXXVII 

Notes on verse 7

XXXII “two hundred” = diakosioi. 8x in NT. From dis (twice, utterly, again); from duo (two, both)} + hekaton (hundred). This is two hundred.
XXXIII “denarii” = denarion. 16x in NT. From Latin deni (ten each) + arius (belonging to). This is a silver Roman coin.
XXXIV “enough” = arkeo. 8x in NT. This is to be content or satisfied. It can also mean to ward off.
XXXV “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
XXXVI “get” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XXXVII “little” = brachus. 7x in NT. This is little, few, small area, short interval of time.

OneXXXVIII of his disciples, Andrew,XXXIX SimonXL Peter’sXLI brother,XLII said to him, 

Notes on verse 8

XXXVIII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XXXIX “Andrew” = Andreas. 13x in NT. From aner (man, male, sir, husband). This is Andrew, meaning manly.
XL “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
XLI “Peter’s” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XLII “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

“There is a boyXLIII here who hasXLIV fiveXLV barleyXLVI loavesXLVII and twoXLVIII fish.XLIX But what are they among so many people?” 

Notes on verse 9

XLIII “boy” = paidarion. 1x in NT. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); {perhaps from paio (to strike or sting)}. This is little boy, child.
XLIV “has” = echo. Related to “crowd” in v2. See note VII above.
XLV “five” = pente. This is five. It may be symbolically associated with the Temple or redemption.
XLVI “barley” = krithinos. 2x in NT– both in this passage. From krithe (barley). This is related to barley or made from barley. Barley was more commonly eaten by poor folk (wealthier people ate wheat). It was often fodder for horses.
XLVII “loaves” = artos. Same as “bread” in v5. See note XXVII above. Perhaps from airo (see note XIV above). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
XLVIII “two” = duo. Related to “two hundred” in v7. See note XXXII above.
XLIX “fish” = opsarion. 5x in NT. Diminutive of opson (cooked food) OR from optos (roasted, cooked); {related to hepso (to steep)}. This is fish or little fish. It can also refer to a cooked sauce or salted fish served as a condiment.

10 Jesus said, “MakeL the peopleLI sit down.”LII

Notes on verse 10a

L “make” = poieo. Same as “doing” in v2. See note XI above.
LI “people” = anthropos. Related to “Andrew” in v8 & “looked up” in v5. Probably from aner (see note XXXIX above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (see note XXI above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
LII “sit down” = anapipto. 12x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + pipto (to fall literally or figuratively). This is to fall back, recline, lie down. One reclined at the dinner table.

Now there was a great dealLIII of grassLIV in the place,LV so they sat down,LVI about five thousandLVII in all. 

Notes on verse 10b

LIII “great deal” = polus. Same as “large” in v2. See note VI above.
LIV “grass” = chortos. 15x in NT. This is food, grass, hay, wheat. It can also be a place of feeding, garden, court, or pasture.
LV “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
LVI {untranslated} = ho + aner + ho + arithmos. Aner is related to “Andrew” in v8 & “people” in v10. See note XXXIX above. Arithmos is related to “mountain” in v3 & “looked up” and “bread” in v5. 18x in NT. From airo (see note XIV above). This is a number or total that has been counted to together.
LVII “five thousand” = pentakischilioi. Related to “five” in v9. 6x in NT. From pentakis (five times); {from pente (see note XLV above)} + chilioi (thousand literal and figurative; can mean total inclusion). This is five thousand.

11 Then Jesus tookLVIII the loaves, and when he had given thanksLIX he distributedLX them

Notes on verse 11a

LVIII “took” = lambano. Same as “get” in v7. See note XXXVI above.
LIX “given thanks” = eucharisteo. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards)}. This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.
LX “distributed” = diadidomi. 4x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is to distribute, divide, or deal out.

to those who were seated;LXI soLXII also the fish, as much as they wanted.LXIII 

Notes on verse 11b

LXI “seated” = anakeimai. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.
LXII “so” = homoios. From homoios (similar to, resembling, like); from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is likewise or equally.
LXIII “wanted” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

12 When they were satisfied,LXIV he toldLXV his disciples, “Gather upLXVI

Notes on verse 12a

LXIV “were satisfied” = empiplemi. Related to “large” in v2. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + pleistos (greatest, large quantity); {from polus (see note VI above)}. This is to fill or satisfy. It can be literal or figurative.
LXV “told” = lego. Same as “said” in v5. See note XXIV above.
LXVI “gather up” = sunago. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”

the fragmentsLXVII left over,LXVIII so that nothing may be lost.”LXIX 

Notes on verse 12b

LXVII “fragments” = klasma. 9x in NT. From klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This is a fragment or broken piece.
LXVIII “left over” = perisseuo. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is more than what is ordinary or necessary. It is abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond. It is super-abounding in number or quality.
LXIX “be lost” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

13 So they gathered them up, and from the fragments of the five barley loaves, left by those who had eaten,LXX they filledLXXI twelveLXXII baskets.LXXIII 

Notes on verse 13

LXX “eaten” = bibrosko. 1x in NT. Related to bora (food) OR perhaps from bosko (to feed or pasture a flock; figuratively, to nourish spiritually). This is to eat.
LXXI “filled” = gemizo. 8x in NT. From gemo (to be full, swell, at capacity, actions taken to fulfill a goal). This is to fill up or load, be swamped as a boat with water.
LXXII “twelve” = dodeka. Related to “two hundred” in v7 & “two” in v9. From duo (see note XXXII above) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.
LXXIII “baskets” = kophinos. 6x in NT. This is a wicker basket.

14 When the people sawLXXIV the sign that he had done, they began to say, “This is indeedLXXV the prophetLXXVI who is to come into the world.”LXXVII

Notes on verse 14

LXXIV “saw” = horao. Related to “looked up” in v5 & “people” in v10. See note XXI above.
LXXV “indeed” = alethos. 18x in NT. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
LXXVI “prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
LXXVII “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

15 When Jesus realizedLXXVIII that they were about toLXXIX come and take him by forceLXXX

Notes on verse 15a

LXXVIII “realized” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
LXXIX “were about to” = mello. Same as “going to” in v6. See note XXXI above.
LXXX “take…by force” = harpazo. Related to “mountain” in v3 & “looked up” and “bread” in v5 & {untranslated} in v10. 14x in NT. Perhaps from haireomai (to choose, take); probably related to airo (see note XIV above). This is to grab with force, seize, pluck, get through robbery, snatch up. This is taking something openly and violently – not subtly or in secret.

to make him king,LXXXI he withdrewLXXXII again to the mountain by himself.LXXIII

Notes on verse 15b

LXXXI “king” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
LXXXII “withdrew” = anachoreo. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + choreo (to make space, receive, have room for, progress, depart so as to make room; figuratively, living open-heartedly); {from choros (a particular space or place); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn)}.  This is to withdraw, depart, retire, or leave. It can give a sense of seeking safety from harm or of retiring.
LXXXIII “by himself” = autos + monos. Monos is perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate.

16 When eveningLXXXIV came,LXXXV his disciples went downLXXXVI to the sea, 

Notes on verse 16

LXXXIV “evening” = opsios. Related to “looked up” in v5 & “people” in v10 & “saw” in v14. 15x in NT. From opse (after, late, in the end, in the evening); from opiso (back, behind, after); from the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back); from optanomai (see note XXI above). This is afternoon, evening, nightfall, or late.
LXXXV “came” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LXXXVI “went down” = katabaino. Related to “king” in v15. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note LXXXI above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

17 gotLXXXVII into a boat,LXXXVIII and startedLXXXIX

Notes on verse 17a

LXXXVII “got” = embaino. Related to “king” in v15 & “went down” in v16. 17x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + baino (see note LXXXI above). This is to step onto – embark on a boat.
LXXXVIII “boat” = ploion. From pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow). This is a boat, ship, or vessel.
LXXXIX “started” = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v5. See note XXIII above.

across the sea to Capernaum.XC It wasXCI now dark,XCII and Jesus had not yet come to them. 

Notes on verse 17b

XC “Capernaum” = Kapernaoum. 16x in NT. From Hebrew kaphar (village with walls); {from the same as kephir (a young lion, village); from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel)} + Nachum (Nahum, “comfortable”); {from nacham (a strong breath or sigh; to be sorry, to pity, console, comfort, or repent; also to comfort oneself with thoughts of vengeance)}. This is Capernaum, meaning “Nahum’s village.”
XCI “was” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v16. See note LXXXV above.
XCII “dark” = skotia. 16x in NT. From skotos (darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it; obscurity); from skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness or dimness. Figuratively, it can be a spiritual darkness. This is obscurity in a literal or figurative sense.

18 The sea became roughXCIII because a strongXCIV windXCV was blowing.XCVI 

Notes on verse 18

XCIII “became rough” = diegeiro. 6x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + egeiro (to awake, raise up or lift up; to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death; figuratively, rising from inactivity or from ruins). This is to wake totally, arise, or raise in a literal or figurative sense.
XCIV “strong” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
XCV “wind” = anemos. From aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is wind or a gust of air. It can also be used figuratively for empty doctrines.
XCVI “blowing” = pneo. 7x in NT. This is to breathe or to blow as a breeze.

19 When they had rowedXCVII about threeXCVIII or fourXCIX miles,C

Notes on verse 19a

XCVII “rowed” = elauno. 5x in NT. This is to propel or carry – to drive forward with oars or like the wind does. It can also refer to being driven by a demon.
XCVIII “three” = eikosi + pente. Eikosi is 11x in NT. This is twenty. Pente is the same as “five” in v9. See note XLV above.
XCIX “four” = triakonta. 11x in NT. From treis (three). This is thirty.
C “miles” = stadion. 7x in NT. From the same as histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is a stadium, which was a unit of length. By implication, this would refer to a racing track for a foot race.

they sawCI Jesus walkingCII on the sea and comingCIII near the boat, and they were terrified.CIV 

Notes on verse 19b

CI “saw” = theoreo. Same as “saw” in v2. See note IX above.
CII “walking” = peripateo. Related to “boy” in v9. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (see note XLIII above)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
CIII “coming” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v16. See note LXXXV above.
CIV “were terrified” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.

20 But he said to them, “It is I; do not be afraid.”CV 21 Then they wanted to take him into the boat, and immediatelyCVI the boat reachedCVII the landCVIII toward which they were going.CIX

Notes on verses 20-21

CV “be afraid” = phobeo. Same as “were terrified” in v19. See note CIV above.
CVI “immediately” = eutheos. Related to “given thanks” in v11. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (see note LIX above) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
CVII “reached” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v16. See note LXXXV above.
CVIII “land” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
CIX “going” = hupago. Related to “gather up” in v12. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note LXVI above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.

22 The next dayCX the crowd that had stayedCXI on the other side of the sea sawCXII that there had been onlyCXIII one boatCXIV there.

Notes on verse 22a

CX “next day” = epaurion. Related to “wind” in v18. 17x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + aurion (tomorrow); {from the same as aer (see note XCV above)}. This is tomorrow.
CXI “stayed” = histemi. Related to “miles” in v19. See note C above.
CXII “saw” = horao. Same as “saw” in v14. See note LXXIV above.
CXIII {untranslated} = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
CXIV “boat” = ploiarion. Related to “boat” in v17. 5x in NT. From ploion (see note LXXXVIII above). This is a small boat.

They also saw that Jesus had not gottenCXV into the boatCXVI with his disciples but that his disciples had gone awayCXVII alone.CXVIII 

Notes on verse 22b

CXV “gotten” = suneiserchomai. Related to “went” in v1 & “went up” in v3 & “coming” in v5. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + eiserchomai (to go in in a literal or figurative sense); {from eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XXIII above)}. This is to enter together, embark with, go with.
CXVI “boat” = ploion. Same as “boat” in v17. See note LXXXVIII above.
CXVII “gone away” = aperchomai. Same as “went” in v1. See note II above.
CXVIII “alone” = monos. Same as “by himself” in v15. See note LXXXIII above.

23 But some boatsCXIX from Tiberias cameCXX near the place where they had eatenCXXI the bread after the LordCXXII had given thanks. 

Notes on verse 23

CXIX “boats” = ploiarion. Same as “boat” in v22. See note CXIV above.
CXX “came” = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v5. See note XXIII above.
CXXI “eaten” = phago. Same as “eat” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CXXII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

24 So when the crowd sawCXXIII that neither Jesus nor his disciples were there, they themselves gotCXXIV into the boatsCXXV and wentCXXVI to Capernaum looking forCXXVII Jesus.

Notes on verse 24

CXXIII “saw” = horao. Same as “saw” in v14. See note LXXIV above.
CXXIV “got” = embaino. Same as “got” in v17. See note LXXXVII above.
CXXV “boats” = ploiarion. Same as “boat” in v22. See note CXIV above.
CXXVI “went” = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v5. See note XXIII above.
CXXVII “looking for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.

25 When they foundCXXVIII him on the other side of the sea, they said to him, “Rabbi,CXXIX when did you comeCXXX here?” 

Notes on verse 25

CXXVIII “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CXXIX “Rabbi” = rhabbi. 15x in NT– 8x in the Gospel of John. From Hebrew rab (chief); from rabab (to be many, increase, multiply). This is a title of respect for a teacher-scholar. Literally, it means great one or honorable sir. It can also be understood as my master or my teacher.
CXXX “come” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v16. See note LXXXV above.

26 Jesus answered them, “Very truly,CXXXI I tell you, you are looking for me not because you sawCXXXII signs but because you ateCXXXIII your fillCXXXIV of the loaves. 

Notes on verse 26

CXXXI “very truly” = amen + amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
CXXXII “saw” = horao. Same as “saw” in v14. See note LXXIV above.
CXXXIII “ate” = phago. Same as “eat” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CXXXIV “fill” = chortazo. Related to “grass” in v10. 16x in NT. From chortos (see note LIV above). This is to feed, fodder, fill, or satisfy. It carries the sense of abundantly supplied food – even gorging on food.

27 Do not workCXXXV for the foodCXXXVI that perishesCXXXVII but for the food that enduresCXXXVIII

Notes on verse 27a

CXXXV “work” = ergazomai. From ergon (work, task, action, employment). This is to work, labor, perform, toil.
CXXXVI “food” = brosis. Related to “eaten” in v13. 11x in NT. From bibrosko (see note LXX above). This is food and the act of eating. It is eating in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXVII “perishes” = apollumi. Same as “be lost” in v12. See note LXIX above.
CXXXVIII “endures” = meno. Related to “by himself” in v15. See note CXXXVIII above.

for eternalCXXXIX life,CXL which the SonCXLI of ManCXLII will giveCXLIII you.

Notes on verse 27b

CXXXIX “eternal” = aionios. From aion (an age, length of time). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
CXL “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
CXLI “Son” = Huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CXLII “man” = anthropos. Same as “people” in v10. See note LI above.
CXLIII “give” = didomi. Related to “distributed” in v11. See note LX above.

For it is on him that GodCXLIV the FatherCXLV has set his seal.”CXLVI 

Notes on verse 27c

CXLIV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
CXLV “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
CXLVI “set…seal” = sphragizo. 15x in NT. From sphragis (a seal, signet, or signet ring; also the impression of that seal; so, the thing attested to by that seal – proof or a signifier of privacy); perhaps from phrasso (to stop, fence in). Properly, this is sealing something with some kind of stamp that tells who the owner is, gives it authorization or validity. It shows that the owner lends their full authority or backing to the matter in question. This was the ancient world’s equivalent of a signature on a legal document to guarantee the commitments made in the document. There were also tattoos that were given to show who someone belonged to in a religious sense.

28 Then they said to him, “What must we do to performCXLVII the worksCXLVIII of God?” 

29 Jesus answered them, “This is the work of God, that you believeCXLIX in him whom he has sent.”CL 

Notes on verses 28-29

CXLVII “perform” = ergazomai. Same as “work” in v27. See note CXXXV above.
CXLVIII “works” = ergon. Related to “work” in v27. See note CXXXV above.
CXLIX “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CL “sent” = apostello. Related to “miles” in v19 & “stayed” in v11. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note C above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

30 So they said to him, “What sign are you going to giveCLI us, then, so that we may seeCLII it and believe you? What work are you performing?CLIII 31 Our ancestorsCLIV ateCLV the mannaCLVI

Notes on verses 30-31a

CLI “going to give” = poieo. Same as “doing” in v2. See note XI above.
CLII “see” = horao. Same as “saw” in v14. See note LXXIV above.
CLIII “work are…performing” = ergazomai. Same as “work” in v27. See note CXXXV above.
CLIV “ancestors” = pater. Same as “Father” in v27. See note CXLV above.
CLV “ate” = phago. Same as “eat” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CLVI “manna” = manna. 4x in NT. From Hebrew man (manna, literally a whatzit); from mah (what, how, how long, why – a question or exclamation). This is manna, the miracle food from the wilderness wandering.

in the wilderness,CLVII as it is written,CLVIII ‘He gave them bread from heavenCLIX to eat.’”CLX 

Notes on verse 31b

CLVII “wilderness” = eremos. Properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated. It could be a deserted area or a desert place. It could be seen as secluded, solitary, or lonesome. Any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally.
CLVIII “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
CLIX “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “mountain” in v3 & “looked up” and “bread” in v5 & {untranslated} in v10 & “take by force” in v15. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (see note XIV above). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CLX “eat” = phago. Same as “eat” in v5. See note XXVIII above.

32 Then Jesus said to them, “Very truly, I tell you, it was not MosesCLXI who gave you the bread from heaven, but it is my Father who gives you the trueCLXII bread from heaven. 33 For the bread of God is that which comes downCLXIII from heaven and gives life to the world.” 

Notes on verses 32-33

CLXI “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
CLXII “true” = alethinos. Related to “indeed” in v14. From alethes (see note LXXV above). This is literally made of truth – that which is true or real, authentic. Something that is true from its source and has integrity.
CLXIII “comes down” = katabaino. Same as “went down” in v16. See note LXXXVI above.

34 They said to him, “Sir,CLXIV give us this bread always.”CLXV

35 Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life. Whoever comesCLXVI to me will never be hungry,CLXVII and whoever believes in me will never be thirsty.CLXVIII 

Notes on verses 34-35

CLXIV “sir” = kurios. Same as “Lord” in v23. See note CXXII above.
CLXV “always” = pantote. From pas (all, every, each) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
CLXVI “comes” = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v5. See note XXIII above.
CLXVII “be hungry” = peinao. From peina (hunger); related to penomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is to hunger, be needy, or desire earnestly. It can be being famished in a definitive sense or in comparison to someone or something else. Figuratively, this means to crave.
CLXVIII “be thirsty” = dipsao. 16x in NT. From dipsa (thirst); from dipsos (thirst). This is thirst in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean keenly desire.

36 But I said to you that you have seenCLXIX me and yet do not believe. 37 EverythingCLXX that the Father gives me will comeCLXXII to me, and anyone who comesCLXXII to me I will never driveCLXXIII away, 

Notes on verses 36-37

CLXIX “seen” = horao. Same as “saw” in v14. See note LXXIV above.
CLXX “everything” = pas. Related to “always” in v34. See note CLXV above.
CLXXI “come” = heko. This is to come or arrive as at a final destination or goal. It can also mean being present in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXII “comes” = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v5. See note XXIII above.
CLXXIII “drive” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.

38 for I have come down from heaven not to do my own willCLXXIV but the will of him who sentCLXXV me. 39 And this is the will of him who sentCLXXVI me, that I should lose nothing of allCLXXVII that he has given me

Notes on verses 38-39a

CLXXIV “will” = thelema. Related to “wanted” in v11. From thelo (see note LXIII above). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
CLXXV “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
CLXXVI “sent” = pempo. Same as “sent” in v38. See note CLXXV above.
CLXXVII “all” = pas. Same as “everything” in v37. See note CLXX above.

but raise it upCLXXVIII on the lastCLXXIX day.CLXXX 40 This is indeed the will of my Father, that all who seeCLXXXI the Son and believe in him may have eternal life, and I will raise them up on the last day.”

Notes on verses 39b-40

CLXXVIII “raise…up” = anistemi. Related to “miles” in v19 & “stayed” in v11 & “sent” in v29. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note C above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CLXXIX “last” = eschatos. Related to “crowd” in v2 & “has” in v9. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (see note VII above). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
CLXXX “day” = hemera. Related to “sat down” in v3. Perhaps from hemai (see note XV above). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CLXXXI “see” = theoreo. Same as “saw” in v2. See note IX above.

41 Then the Jews began to complainCLXXXII about him because he said, “I am the bread that came down from heaven.” 

42 They were saying, “Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph,CLXXXIII whose father and motherCLXXXIV we know? How can he now say, ‘I have come down from heaven’?” 

Notes on verses 41-42

CLXXXII “complain” = gogguzo. 8x in NT. This is to murmur or grumble. It is an onomatopoeia to sound similar to the cooing of doves. Figuratively, it is simmering displeasure that is muffled – a dull, constant murmuring.
CLXXXIII “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
CLXXXIV “mother” = meter. This is mother in a literal or figurative sense.

43 Jesus answered them, “Do not complain among yourselves. 44 No one canCLXXXV comeCLXXXVI to me unless drawnCLXXXVII by the Father who sentCLXXXVIII me, and I will raise that person up on the last day. 

Notes on verses 43-44

CLXXXV “can” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
CLXXXVI “come” = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v5. See note XXIII above.
CLXXXVII “drawn” = helko. Related to “mountain” in v3 & “looked up” and “bread” in v5 & {untranslated} in v10 & “take…by force” in v15 & “heaven” in v31. 8x in NT. Perhaps from haireomai (see note LXXX above). This is to pull in or draw in. It can be drag in a literal or figurative sense. This places an emphasis on the power of the attraction.
CLXXXVIII “sent” = pempo. Same as “sent” in v38. See note CLXXV above.

45 It is written in the prophets, ‘And they shall all be taughtCLXXXIX by God.’ EveryoneCXC who has heardCXCI and learnedCXCII from the Father comesCXCIII to me. 

Notes on verse 45

CLXXXIX “taught” = didaktos. 3x in NT. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is taught or instructed.
CXC “everyone” = pas. Same as “everything” in v37. See note CLXX above.
CXCI “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CXCII “learned” = manthano. Related to “disciples” in v3. See note XVI above.
CXCIII “comes” = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v5. See note XXIII above.

46 Not that anyone has seenCXCIV the Father except the one who is from God; he has seenCXCV the Father. 47 Very truly, I tell you, whoever believes has eternal life. 48 I am the bread of life. 49 Your ancestors ateCXCVI the manna in the wilderness, and they died.CXCVII 50 This is the bread that comes down from heaven, so that one may eatCXCVIII of it and not die. 

Notes on verses 46-49

CXCIV “seen” = horao. Same as “saw” in v14. See note LXXIV above.
CXCV “seen” = horao. Same as “saw” in v14. See note LXXIV above.
CXCVI “ate” = phago. Same as “eat” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CXCVII “died” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
CXCVIII “eat” = phago. Same as “eat” in v5. See note XXVIII above.

51 I am the livingCXCIX bread that came down from heaven. Whoever eatsCC of this bread will live forever,CCI and the bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.”CCII

Notes on verse 51

CXCIX “living” = zao. Related to “life” in v27. See note CXL above.
CC “eats” = phago. Same as “eat” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CCI “forever” = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “to the age.” Aion is related to “eternal” in v27. See note CXXXIX above.
CCII “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).

52 The Jews then disputedCCIII among themselves, saying, “How can this man give us his flesh to eat?”CCIV 

53 So Jesus said to them, “Very truly, I tell you, unless you eatCCV the flesh of the Son of Man and drinkCCVI his blood,CCVII you have no life in you. 

Notes on verses 52-53

CCIII “disputed” = machomai. 4x in NT. This is to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel, to war.
CCIV “eat” = phago. Same as “eat” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CCV “eat” = phago. Same as “eat” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CCVI “drink” = pino. This is to drink, literally or figuratively.
CCVII “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).

54 Those who eatCCVIII my flesh and drink my blood have eternal life, and I will raise them up on the last day, 55 for my flesh is trueCCIX food, and my blood is trueCCX drink.CCXI 56 Those who eatCCXII my flesh and drinkCCXIII my blood abideCCXIV in me and I in them. 

Notes on verses 54-56

CCVIII “eat” = trogo. 6x in NT. This is gnaw, crunch, eat, eat a meal.
CCIX “true” = alethes. Related to “indeed” in v14 & “true” in v32.
CCX “true” = alethes. Same as “true” in v55. See note CCIX above.
CCXI “drink” = posis. Related to “drink” in v53. 3x in NT. From pino (see note CCVI above). This is having a drink or something that is drunk.
CCXII “eat” = trogo. Same as “eat” in v54. See note CCVIII above.
CCXIII “drink” = pino. Same as “drink” in v53. See note CCVI above.
CCXIV “abide” = meno. Same as “endures” in v27. See note CXXXVIII above.

57 Just as the living Father sentCCXV me and I live because of the Father, so whoever eatsCCXVI me will live because of me. 58 This is the bread that came down from heaven, not like that which the ancestors ate,CCXVII and they died. But the one who eatsCCXVIII this bread will live forever.” 59 He said these things while he was teachingCCXIX in a synagogueCCXX at Capernaum.

Notes on verses 57-59

CCXV “sent” = apostello. Same as “sent” in v29. See note CL above.
CCXVI “eats” = trogo. Same as “eat” in v54. See note CCVIII above.
CCXVII “ate” = phago. Same as “eat” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CCXVIII “eats” = trogo. Same as “eat” in v54. See note CCVIII above.
CCXIX “teaching” = didasko. Related to “taught” in v45. See note CLXXXIX above.
CCXX “synagogue” = sunagoge. Related to “gather up” in v12 & “going” in v21. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note LXVI above). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.

60 When manyCCXXI of his disciples heard it, they said, “This teachingCCXXII is difficult;CCXXIII who can acceptCCXXIV it?” 

Notes on verse 60

CCXXI “many” = polus. Same as “large” in v2. See note VI above.
CCXXII “teaching” = logos. Related to “said” in v5. From lego (see note XXIV above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CCXXIII “difficult” = skleros. 6x in NT. From skello (to dry) OR from the base of skelos (leg); {perhaps from skello (to parch)}. This is hard because dried, rough, difficult, fierce, harsh. It can also be stubborn or unyielding – unyieldingly hard. This is where the word “sclera” comes from.
CCXXIV “accept” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v45. See note CXCI above.

61 But Jesus, being awareCCXXV that his disciples were complaining about it, said to them, “Does this offendCCXXVI you? 62 Then what if you were to seeCCXXVII the Son of Man ascendingCCXXVIII to where he was before? 

Notes on verses 61-62

CCXXV “being aware” = eido. Same as “knew” in v6. See note XXX above.
CCXXVI “offend” = skandalizo. From skandalon (the bait or portion of the trap that closes down on the victim – the trap’s trigger; a stumbling block, offense, or cause for error; something that sets into motion a negative cause and effect; something that causes one to stumble); perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is to put a stumbling block in someone’s way. Figuratively, causing someone to sin or preventing them from good action. It can also mean to shock or offend. Literally, this is falling into a trap or tripping someone up. So, here, enticing someone to sin or apostasy.
CCXXVII “see” = theoreo. Same as “saw” in v2. See note IX above.
CCXXVIII “ascending” = anabaino. Related to “king” in v15 & “went down” in v16 & “got” in v17. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (see note LXXXI above)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.

63 It is the spiritCCXXIX that gives life;CCXXX the flesh is useless.CCXXXI

Notes on verse 63a

CCXXIX “spirit” = pneuma. Related to “blowing” in v18. From pneo (see note XCVI above). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CCXXX “gives life” = zoopoieo. Related to “doing” in v2 & “life” in v27 & “living” in v51. 11x in NT. From the same as zoon (literally a thing that is alive; so, an animal or living creature); {from zao (see note CXL above)} + poieo (see note XI above). This is to bring life to something, including something that was dead. This can also be to revitalize in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXXXI “is useless” = ou + opheleo + oudeis. Literally “profits nothing.” Opheleo is 15x in NT. From ophelos (help, gain, profit); from ophello (to heap up or increase). This is to help, benefit, do good, or be useful.

The wordsCCXXXII that I have spoken to you are spirit and life. 64 But among you there are some who do not believe.” For Jesus knew from the beginningCCXXXIII who were the ones who did not believe and who was the one who would betrayCCXXXIV him. 

Notes on verses 63b-64

CCXXXII “words” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
CCXXXIII “beginning” = arche. From archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). Properly, this is what is first. In a temporal sense, that is beginning or origin. It can also refer to the one who ranks first, i.e. king or ruler. So, it can also be magistrate, power, or principality. It can be used more generally for what is preeminent.
CCXXXIV “betray” = paradidomi. Related to “distributed” in v11 & “give” in v27. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note LX above). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

65 And he said, “For this reason I have toldCCXXXV you that no one can comeCCXXXVI to me unless it is grantedCCXXXVII by the Father.”

66 Because of this many of his disciples turned backCCXXXVIII and no longer went aboutCCXXXIX with him. 67 So Jesus asked the twelve, “Do you also wishCCXL to go away?”CCXLI 

Notes on verses 65-67

CCXXXV “told” = ereo. Related to “words” in v63. See note CCXXXII above.
CCXXXVI “come” = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v5. See note XXIII above.
CCXXXVII “granted” = didomi. Same as “give” in v27. See note CXLIII above.
CCXXXVIII “turned back” = aperchomai + eis + ho + opiso. Aperchomai is the same as “went” in v1. See note II above. Opiso is related to “looked up” in v5 & “people” in v10 & “saw” in v14 & “evening” in v16. See note LXXXIV above.
CCXXXIX “went about” = peripateo. Same as “walking” in v19. See note CII above.
CCXL “wish” = thelo. Same as “wanted” in v11. See note LXIII above.
CCXLI “go away” = hupago. Same as “going” in v21. See note CIX above.

68 Simon Peter answered him, “Lord, to whom can we go?CCXLII You have the words of eternal life. 69 We have come to believe and knowCCXLIII that you are the Holy OneCCXLIV of God.” 

70 Jesus answered them, “Did I not chooseCCXLV you, the twelve? Yet one of you is a devil.”CCXLVI 

Notes on verses 68-70

CCXLII “go” = aperchomai. Same as “went” in v1. See note II above.
CCXLIII “know” = ginosko. Same as “realized” in v15. See note LXXVIII above.
CCXLIV “Holy One” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CCXLV “choose” = eklego. Related to “said” in v5 & “teaching” in v60. From ek (from, from out of) + lego (see note XXIV above). This is to choose, select.
CCXLVI “devil” = diabolos. Related to “drive” in v37. From diaballo (laying a charge against someone, generally with hostility; literally, to thrust through or cast back and forth– used for slandering, accusing, or gossiping; whether or not the sentiment is true, it is spread with negative intention); {from dia (through, across, because of, thoroughly) + ballo (see note CLXXIII above)}. This is a properly a slanderer or someone who accuses falsely – criticizing unfairly with the intent to cause harm or damage character. This can also mean backbiter or malicious gossip. Also, the Slanderer, the Devil.

71 He was speaking of JudasCCXLVII son of Simon Iscariot,CCXLVIII for he, though one of the twelve, was going toCCXLIX betray him.

Notes on verse 71

CCXLVII “Judas” = Ioudas. Related to “Jews” in v4. See note XIX above.
CCXLVIII “Iscariot” = Iskariotes. 11x in NT. From Hebrew probably ish (man, husband); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be frail, feeble)} + qirya (city); {Aramaic corresponding to qiryah (city, building); from qarah (to happen, meet, bring about)}. Iscariot means person from Kerioth.
CCXLIX “going to” = mello. Same as “going to” in v6. See note XXXI above.

Image credit: “Peter Tries to Walk on Water” by Jeff Anderson, Siku, and Richard Thomas of Edge Group – Lion Hudson.

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