John 7

John 7


After this JesusI went aboutII in Galilee.III

Notes on verse 1a

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “went about” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
III “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.

He did not wishIV to go about in JudeaV because the JewsVI were looking forVII an opportunity to killVIII him. 

Notes on verse 1b

IV “wish” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
V “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
VI “Jews” = Ioudaios. Related to “Judea” in v1. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (see note V above). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
VII “looking for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
VIII “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.

Now the JewishIX FestivalX of BoothsXI wasXII near. 

Notes on verse 2

IX “Jewish” = Ioudaios. Same as “jews” in v1. See note VI above.
X “Festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
XI “Booths” = skenopegia. 1x in NT. From skene (a tent, booth, tabernacle, dwelling – in a literal or figurative sense); {perhaps related to skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense); {from skeuazo (to prepare using a tool)}} + pegnumi (to fasten, to set up a tent). This is setting up tents, booth.
XII “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.

So his brothersXIII said to him, “LeaveXIV here and goXV to Judea so that your disciplesXVI also

Notes on verse 3a

XIII “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
XIV “leave” = metabaino. 12x in NT. From meta (with, among, behind, beyond) + baino (to walk, to go). This is to pass over, leave, remove, change place.
XV “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
XVI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

may seeXVII the worksXVIII you are doing,XIX 

Notes on verse 3b

XVII “see” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
XVIII “works” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.
XIX “doing” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.

for no one who wantsXX to be widely knownXXI actsXXII in secret.XXIII

Notes on verse 4a

XX “wants” = zeteo. Same as “looking for” in v1. See note VII above.
XXI “widely known” = parresia. From pas (all, every, each) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (say, speak of, command)}. This is confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness. It can imply assurance – free speech.
XXII “acts” = poieo. Same as “doing” in v3. See note XIX above.
XXIII “secret” = kruptos. 19x in NT. From krupto (to hide by covering, secret, hidden things). This is something concealed, hidden, secret, or private. It can also refer to the inner nature. This is the root of the word “cryptography.”

If you do these things, showXXIV yourself to the world.”XXV (For not even his brothers believedXXVI in him.) 

Notes on verses 4b-5

XXIV “show” = phaneroo. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
XXV “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
XXVI “believed” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

Jesus saidXXVII to them, “My timeXXVIII has not yet come,XXIX but your time is alwaysXXX here.XXXI 

Notes on verse 6

XXVII “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXVIII “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
XXIX “come” = pareimi. Related to “was” in v2. From para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + eimi (see note XII above). This is to be near, to be there, to come.
XXX “always” = pantote. Related to “widely known” in v4. From pas (see note XXI above) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
XXXI “here” = hetoimos. 17x in NT. From heteos (fitting, fitness). This is make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge.

The world cannotXXXII hateXXXIII you, but it hates me because I testifyXXXIV against it that its works are evil.XXXV 

Notes on verse 7

XXXII “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Dunamai is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
XXXIII “hate” = miseo. From misos (hatred). This word is used in two ways in the New Testament. One has to do with how we prioritize. In order to prioritize something the highest, it means we have to rank other things lower. We cannot have 10 number one priorities. So, the nine that are not number 1, we love less or we value them lower. We make a moral choice the springs from our values about where we put our time, efforts, energy, etc. The other way is detesting or hatred as we normally think of it. This sense has a particular affinity with persecuting the one we hate.
XXXIV “testify” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXV “evil” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.

GoXXXVI to the festival yourselves. I am not goingXXXVII to this festival, for my time has not yet fully come.”XXXVIII After saying this, he remainedXXXIX in Galilee.

Notes on verses 8-9

XXXVI “go” = anabaino. Related to “leave” in v3. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (see note XIV above)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
XXXVII “going” = anabaino. Same as “go” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
XXXVIII “fully come” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
XXXIX “remained” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.

10 But after his brothers had goneXL to the festival, then he also went,XLI not publiclyXLII but, as it were, in secret. 11 The Jews were looking for him at the festival and saying, “Where is he?” 

12 And there was considerableXLIII complainingXLIV about him among the crowds.XLV

Notes on verses 10-12a

XL “gone” = anabaino. Same as “go” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
XLI “went” = anabaino. Same as “go” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
XLII “publicly” = phaneros. Related to “show” in v4. 3x in NT. See note XXIV above.
XLIII “considerable” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XLIV “complaining” = goggusmos. 4x in NT. From gogguzo (to murmur or grumble; an onomatopoeia to sound similar to the cooing of doves; figuratively, it is simmering displeasure that is muffled – a dull, constant murmuring). This is a muttering or complaining.
XLV “crowds” = ochlos. Perhaps from echo (to have, hold, possess). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.

While someXLVI were saying, “He is a goodXLVII man,” othersXLVIII were saying, “No, he is deceivingXLIX the crowd.” 

Notes on verse 12b

XLVI {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XLVII “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
XLVIII “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
XLIX “deceiving” = planao. From plane (wandering – used figuratively for deceit, error, sin, fraudulence, or wandering from orthodoxy); from planos (wandering, misleading, a deceiver or imposter). This is to wander, lead astray, mislead, mistake, seduce, or deceive. Generally used to refer to sin – going off the right path or roaming from truth/virtue. This word shares a root with “planet” (as a heavenly body that wanders).

13 YetL no one would speak openlyLI about him for fearLII of the Jews.

14 About the middleLIII of the festival Jesus went upLIV into the templeLV and began to teach.LVI 

Notes on verses 13-14

L “yet” = mentoi. Related to {untranslated} in v12. 8x in NT. From men (see note XLVI above) + toi (therefore). This is yet, however, indeed.
LI “openly” = parresia. Same as “widely known” in v4. See note above. See note XXI above.
LII “fear” = phobos. From phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect.
LIII “middle” = mesoo. 1x in NT. From mesos (middle, among, center); perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is to be in the midst or to go halfway.
LIV “went up” = anabaino. Same as “go” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
LV “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.
LVI “teach” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.

15 The Jews were astonishedLVII at it, saying, “How does this man have such learning,LVIII when he has never been taught?”LIX 

Notes on verse 15

LVII “astonished” = thaumazo. Related to “see” in v3. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (see note XVII above). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
LVIII “have such learning” = gramma + eido. Literally, “know writings.” Gramma is 15x in NT. From grapho (to write, describe). This is something drawn or written. So, it could be a letter of the alphabet, an epistle, a book, literature, etc. Eido is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
LIX “taught” = manthano. Related to “disciples” in v3. See note XVI above.

16 Then Jesus answeredLX them, “My teachingLXI is not mine but his who sentLXII me. 

Notes on verse 16

LX “answered” = apokrinomai. From apo (from, away from) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.
LXI “teaching” = didache. Related to “teach” in v14. From didasko (see note LVI above). This is teaching or doctrine.
LXII “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.

17 Anyone who resolvesLXIII to do the willLXIV of God will knowLXV whether the teaching is from GodLXVI or whether I am speaking on my own. 

Notes on verse 17

LXIII “resolves” = thelo. Same as “wish” in v1. See note IV above.
LXIV “will” = thelema. Related to “wish” in v1. From thelo (see note IV above). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
LXV “know” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
LXVI “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

18 Those who speak on their ownLXVII seek their own glory,LXVIII but the one who seeksLXIX the glory of him who sent him is true,LXX and there is nothing unjustLXXI in him.

Notes on verse 18

LXVII “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
LXVIII “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
LXIX “seeks” = zeteo. Same as “looking for” in v1. See note VII above.
LXX “true” = alethes. From a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic.
LXXI “unjust” = adikia. From adikos (unjust, unrighteous, wicked, treacherous); {from a (not, without) + dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known)}. This is injustice, unrighteousness, of some other kind of harm or wrong. It is justice in a legal setting or a morally wrong action or character.

19 “Did not MosesLXXII giveLXXIII you the law?LXXIV Yet none of you keepsLXXV the law. Why are you looking for an opportunity to kill me?” 

Notes on verse 19

LXXII “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
LXXIII “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIV “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
LXXV “keeps” = poieo. Same as “doing” in v3. See note XIX above.

20 The crowd answered, “You haveLXXVI a demon!LXXVII Who is tryingLXXVIII to kill you?” 

21 Jesus answered them, “I performedLXXIX oneLXXX work, and allLXXXI of you are astonished. 

Notes on verses 20-21

LXXVI “have” = echo. Related to “crowds” in v12. See note XLV above.
LXXVII “demon” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.
LXXVIII “trying” = zeteo. Same as “looking for” in v1. See note VII above.
LXXIX “performed” = poieo. Same as “doing” in v3. See note XIX above.
LXXX “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
LXXXI “all” = pas. Related to “widely known” in v4 & “always” in v6. See note XXI above.

22 Because of this Moses gave you circumcisionLXXXII (it is, of course, not from Moses but from the patriarchs),LXXXIII and you circumciseLXXXIV a manLXXXV on the Sabbath.LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 22

LXXXII “circumcision” = peritome. From peritemno (to circumcise; literally cut around); {from peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + same as tomos or tomoteros (sharp or keener); from temno (to cut as with a single slice)}. This is properly, cut around, referring to the way that foreskin is removed and so this is to circumcise. It can be used or the rite or the people who are circumcised – in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIII “patriarchs” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
LXXXIV “circumcise” = peritemno. Related to “circumcision” in v22. 18x in NT. See note LXXXII above.
LXXXV “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
LXXXVI “Sabbath” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.

23 If a man receivesLXXXVII circumcision on the Sabbath in order that the law of Moses may not be broken,LXXXVIII are you angryLXXXIX with me because I healedXC a man’s wholeXCI body on the Sabbath? 

Notes on verse 23

LXXXVII “receives” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
LXXXVIII “broken” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.
LXXXIX “are…angry” = cholao. 1x in NT. From chole (gall, bile; figuratively, it can refer to a poison or a pain reliever; perhaps wormwood or popy); perhaps from chloe (young plant growth). This is being angry with. Literally, it is bile filled. Hence mad, irritable, or violent.
XC “healed” = hugies + poieo. Literally, “made healthy.” Hugies is 12x in NT. Perhaps from auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is healthy, whole, pure, normal, restored, wholesome. Figuratively, it can mean a sound or true teaching. It is where “hygiene” comes from. Poieo is the same as “doing” in v3. See note XIX above.
XCI “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”

24 Do not judgeXCII by appearances,XCIII but judge with rightXCIV judgment.”XCV

Notes on verse 24

XCII “judge” = krino. Related to “answered” in v16. See note LX above.
XCIII “appearances” = opsis. Related to “man” in v22. 3x in NT. From horao (see note LXXXV above). This is seeing, face, features, appearance.
XCIV “right” = dikaios. Related to “unjust” in v18. From dike (see note LXXI above). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
XCV “judgment” = krisis. Related to “answered” in v16 & “judge” in v24. From krino (see note LX above). This is a judging or a sentence. It is often used of God’s judgment, but can also be any accusation or condemnation. This is where the word “crisis” comes from.

25 Now some of the people of JerusalemXCVI were saying, “Is not this the man whom they are trying to kill? 26 And hereXCVII he is, speaking openly, but they say nothing to him! Can it be that the authoritiesXCVIII reallyXCIX know that this is the Messiah?C 

Notes on verses 25-26

XCVI “people of Jerusalem” = Hierosolumites. 2x in NT. From Hierosoluma (Jerusalem, meaning “dwelling of peace”); from Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is someone from Jerusalem.
XCVII “here” = idou. Related to “have such learning” in v15. From eido (see note LVIII above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XCVIII “authorities” = archon. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
XCIX “really” = alethos. Related to “true” in v18. 18x in NT. From alethes (see note LXX above). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
C “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

27 Yet we knowCI where this man is from, but when the Messiah comesCII no one will knowCIII where he is from.” 

28 Then Jesus cried outCIV as he was teaching in the temple, “You knowCV me, and you knowCVI where I am from.

Notes on verses 27-28a

CI “know” = eido. Same as “have such learning” in v15. See note LVIII above.
CII “comes” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
CIII “know” = ginosko. Same as “know” in v17. See note LXV above.
CIV “cried out” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
CV “know” = eido. Same as “have such learning” in v15. See note LVIII above.
CVI “know” = eido. Same as “have such learning” in v15. See note LVIII above.

I have not comeCVII on my own. But the one who sent me is true,CVIII and you do not knowCIX him. 29 I knowCX him because I am from him, and he sentCXI me.” 

Notes on verses 28b-29

CVII “come” = erchomai. Same as “comes” in v27. See note CII above.
CVIII “true” = alethinos. Related to “true” in v18 & “really” in v26. From alethes (see note LXX above). This is literally made of truth – that which is true or real, authentic. Something that is true from its source and has integrity.
CIX “know” = eido. Same as “have such learning” in v15. See note LVIII above.
CX “know” = eido. Same as “have such learning” in v15. See note LVIII above.
CXI “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

30 Then they tried to arrestCXII him, but no one laidCXIII handsCXIV on him because his hourCXV had not yet come.CXVI 

Notes on verse 30

CXII “arrest” = piazo. 12x in NT. From piezo (to press down or together, to pack) OR related to biazo (to force, use power to seize); {from bia (strength, force, violence) or bios (life, livelihood, goods, wealth)}. This is to take, catch,  squeeze, capture from hunting, or arrest. This is the root of “piezoelectricity.”
CXIII “laid” = epiballo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to place on, fall, lay, throw over, think about, waves crashing, emotions emerging.
CXIV “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CXV “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
CXVI “come” = erchomai. Same as “comes” in v27. See note CII above.

31 Yet manyCXVII in the crowd believed in him and were saying, “When the Messiah comes,CXVIII will he do moreCXIX signsCXX than this man has done?”

Notes on verse 31

CXVII “many” = polus. Same as “considerable” in v12. See note XLIII above.
CXVIII “comes” = erchomai. Same as “comes” in v27. See note CII above.
CXIX “more” = pleion. Related to “considerable” in v12. From polus (see note XLIII above). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
CXX “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.

32 The PhariseesCXXI heardCXXII the crowd mutteringCXXIII such things about him,

Notes on verse 32a

CXXI “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
CXXII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CXXIII “muttering” = gogguzo. Related to “complaining” in v12. 8x in NT. See note XLIV above.

and the chief priestsCXXIV and Pharisees sentCXXV temple policeCXXVI to arrest him. 

Notes on verse 32b

CXXIV “chief priests” = archiereus. Related to “temple” in v14 & “authorities” in v26. From archo (see note XCVIII above) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (see note LV above)} This is a high or chief priest.
CXXV “sent” = apostello. Same as “sent” in v29. See note CXI above.
CXXVI “temple police” = huperetes. From huper (by, under, under the authority of another) + eresso (to row). Originally, this was a rower or someone who worked the oars on the lower deck of a boat. It is used figuratively of someone under the authority of another who follows their commands. So this could be servant, attendant, or office. It could also be someone who is a minister of the Gospel.

33 Jesus then said, “I will be with you a littleCXXVII whileCXXVIII longer, and then I am goingCXXIX to him who sentCXXX me. 34 You will searchCXXXI for me, but you will not findCXXXII me, and where I am, you cannot come.”CXXXIII 

Notes on verses 33-34

CXXVII “little” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
CXXVIII “while” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
CXXIX “going” = hupago. Same as “go” in v3. See note above. See note XV above.
CXXX “sent” = pempo. Same as “sent” in v16. See note LXII above.
CXXXI “search” = zeteo. Same as “looking for” in v1. See note VII above.
CXXXII “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CXXXIII “come” = erchomai. Same as “comes” in v27. See note CII above.

35 The Jews said to one another, “Where does this man intendCXXXIV to goCXXXV that we will not find him? Does he intend to goCXXXVI

Notes on verse 35a

CXXXIV “intend” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
CXXXV “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
CXXXVI “go” = poreuomai. Same as “go” in v35. See note CXXXV above.

to the dispersionCXXXVII among the GreeksCXXXVIII and teach the Greeks? 36 What does he meanCXXXIX by saying, ‘You will search for me, but you will not find me’ and ‘Where I am, you cannot come’?”CXL

Notes on verses 35b-36

CXXXVII “dispersion” = Diaspora. 3x in NT. From diaspeiro (to scatter as one scatters seed, disperse; figuratively, people living in many places in foreign countries); {from dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); {perhaps from spao (to pull, to draw a sword)}}. This is a dispersion or scattering. It is used to refer to Jews living in Gentile countries. It is where the word diaspora comes from.
CXXXVIII “Greeks” = Hellen. From Hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is Greek, but was used for Gentiles, broader populations that spoke Greek and were a part of Greek culture regardless of their heritage. See
CXXXIX “does…mean” = eimi + ho + logos + houtos. Literally, “what is this word.” Eimi is the same as “was” in v2. See note XII above. Logos is related to “said” in v6. From lego (see note XXVII above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CXL “come” = erchomai. Same as “comes” in v27. See note CII above.

37 On the lastCXLI dayCXLII of the festival, the greatCXLIII day, while Jesus was standingCXLIV there, he cried out, “Let anyone who is thirstyCXLV comeCXLVI to me, 

Notes on verse 37

CXLI “last” = eschatos. Related to “crowds” in v12 & “have” in v20. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (see note XLV above). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
CXLII “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CXLIII “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CXLIV “standing” = histemi. Related to “sent” in v29. See note CXI above.
CXLV “is thirsty” = dipsao. 16x in NT. From dipsa (thirst); from dipsos (thirst). This is thirst in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean keenly desire.
CXLVI “come” = erchomai. Same as “comes” in v27. See note CII above.

38 and let the one who believes in me drink.CXLVII As the scriptureCXLVIII has said, ‘Out of the believer’s heartCXLIX  shall flowCL

Notes on verse 38a

CXLVII “drink” = pino. This is to drink, literally or figuratively.
CXLVIII “scripture” = graphe. Related to “have such learning” in v15. From grapho (see note LVIII above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
CXLIX “heart” = koilia. From koilos (hollow). This is belly or organs in the abdomen. So, it could be stomach, womb, or heart. Figuratively, this refers to one’s inner self.
CL “flow” = rheo. 1x in NT. This is to flow or overflow – motion like water.

riversCLI of livingCLII water.’”CLIII 

Notes on verse 38b

CLI “rivers” = potamos. Related to “drink” in v37. 17x in NT. From pino (see note CXLVII above). This is a river, brook, or water. It can also be a riverbed flowing with heavy rain or melted snow (like an arroyo).
CLII “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
CLIII “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.

39 Now he said this about the Spirit,CLIV which believersCLV in him were toCLVI receive, for as yet there was no Spirit because Jesus was not yet glorified.CLVII

Notes on verse 39

CLIV “Spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CLV “believers” = pisteuo. Same as “believed” in v5. See note XXVI above.
CLVI “were to” = mello. Same as “intend” in v35. See note CXXXIV above.
CLVII “glorified” = doxazo. Related to “glory” in v18. From doxa (see note LXVIII above). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.

40 When they heard these words,CLVIII some in the crowd said, “This is really the prophet.”CLIX 

41 Others said, “This is the Messiah.” 

But some asked, “Surely the Messiah does not comeCLX from Galilee, does he? 42 Has not the scripture said that the Messiah is descended fromCLXI DavidCLXII

Notes on verses 40-42a

CLVIII “words” = logos. Same as “does…mean” in v36. See note CXXXIX above.
CLIX “prophet” = prophetes. Related to “show” in v4 & “publicly” in v10. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (see note XXIV above) or phaino (see note XXIV above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CLX “come” = erchomai. Same as “comes” in v27. See note CII above.
CLXI “descended from” = ek + ho + sperma. Literally, “from the seed.” Sperma is related to “dispersion” in v35. From speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); perhaps from spao (to pull, to draw a sword). This is something sown so it could be seed or offspring and descendants. This is where the word “sperm” comes from.
CLXII “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”

and comesCLXIII from Bethlehem,CLXIV the villageCLXV where David lived?” 

Notes on verse 42b

CLXIII “comes” = erchomai. Same as “comes” in v27. See note CII above.
CLXIV “Bethlehem” = Bethleem. 8x in NT. From beth lechem (Bethlehem); {from bayit (house, court, family, palace, temple); {probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively)} + lechem (bread, food, loaf; food for people or for animals); {from lacham (to eat, feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction)}. This is Bethlehem, meaning “house of bread.”
CLXV “village” = kome. This is a village as contrasted with a city that has a wall.

43 So there wasCLXVI a divisionCLXVII in the crowd because of him. 44 Some of them wantedCLXVIII to arrest him, but no one laid hands on him.

45 Then the temple police wentCLXIX back to the chief priests and Pharisees, who asked them, “Why did you not arrestCLXX him?” 

Notes on verses 43-45

CLXVI “was” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
CLXVII “division” = schisma. 8x in NT. From schizo (to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense). This is a split or a tear. Figuratively, it can refer to a schism, division, or dissension. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).
CLXVIII “wanted” = thelo. Same as “wish” in v1. See note IV above.
CLXIX “went” = erchomai. Same as “comes” in v27. See note CII above.
CLXX “arrest” = ago. Related to “go” in v3. See note XV above.

46 The police answered, “Never has anyoneCLXXI spoken like this!”CLXXII 

47 Then the Pharisees replied,CLXXIII “Surely you have not been deceived, too, have you? 48 Has any one of the authorities or of the Pharisees believed in him? 49 But this crowd, which does not knowCLXXIV the law, they are accursed.”CLXXV 

Notes on verses 46-49

CLXXI “anyone” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v22. See note LXXXV above.
CLXXII {untranslated} = laleo + ho + anthropos. Literally, “man speaks.” Anthropos is the same as “man” in v22. See note LXXXV above.
CLXXIII “replied” = apokrinomai. Same as “answered” in v16. See note LX above.
CLXXIV “know” = ginosko. Same as “know” in v17. See note LXV above.
CLXXV “accursed” = epikataratos. 3x in NT. From epikataraomai (to call down curses on); {from epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + kataraomai (curse, execrate, doom); {from katara (curse, accursed; a curse as penalty); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + ara (prayer, curse, imprecation; a pray for evil); {probably from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}}}. This is cursed or execrable.

50 Nicodemus,CLXXVI who had goneCLXXVII to Jesus before and who was one of them, asked, 51 “Our law does not judge peopleCLXXVIII

Notes on verses 50-51a

CLXXVI “Nicodemus” = Nikodemos. 5x in NT. From nikos (victory, triumph – especially a conquest); {from nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful)} + demos (district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); {from deo (to tie, bind, compel, declare unlawful)}. This is Nicodemus, meaning “victorious among his people.”
CLXXVII “gone” = erchomai. Same as “comes” in v27. See note CII above.
CLXXVIII “people” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v22. See note LXXXV above.

without firstCLXXIX giving them a hearingCLXXX to find outCLXXXI what they are doing, does it?” 

Notes on verse 51b

CLXXIX “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
CLXXX “giving…a hearing” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v32. See note CXXII above.
CLXXXI “find out” = ginosko. Same as “know” in v17. See note LXV above.

52 They replied, “Surely you are not also from Galilee, are you? SearchCLXXXII and you will seeCLXXXIII that no prophet is to ariseCLXXXIV from Galilee.”

Notes on verse 52

CLXXXII “search” = ereunao. Related to “widely known” in v4. 6x in NT. From eraunao (to search or examine); perhaps from ereo (to say, tell, speak, mean, command); perhaps from rheo (see note XXI above). This is to seek or examine. Figuratively, it can mean to investigate or desire to know.
CLXXXIII “see” = idou. Same as “here” in v26. See note XCVII above.
CLXXXIV “arise” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.

53 Then eachCLXXXV of them wentCLXXXVI home,CLXXXVII

Notes on verse 53

CLXXXV “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
CLXXXVI “went” = poreuomai. Same as “go” in v35. See note CXXXV above.
CLXXXVII “home” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.

Image credit: “Jesus Forgives and Heals a Paralyzed Man” by LUMO Project.

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