1 Peter 4:12-14 & 5:6-11

1 Peter 4:12-14 & 5:6-11
Eastertide A26


4:12 Beloved,A do not be surprisedB at the fieryC ordealD that is taking place among you to test you, as though something strangeE were happening to you. 

Notes on verse 4:12

A “beloved” = agapetos. From agape (love, goodwill, benevolence; God’s divine love); from agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is Beloved or very dear one. It is a title for the Messiah, but also for Christians. Properly, this is one who personally experiences God’s love.
B “be surprised” = xenizo. 10x in NT. From xenos (foreign or foreigner, an alien or guest; also something new, novel, or strange). This is to receive as a guest or act as a host – to give or receive lodging. It could also be surprise, bewilder, or entertain. Also, it can be to think something it strange.
C “fiery” = purosis. 3x in NT. From puroo (to burn, kindle, purify by fire, to glow; to burn literally or figuratively); from pur (fire, fiery; figurative for strife or trials). This is burning, fiery, refining, smelting, figurative for a test or trial.
D “ordeal” = peirasmos. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.
E “something strange” = xenos. Related to “be surprised” in v4:12. 14x in NT. See note B above.

13 But rejoiceF insofar as you are sharingG Christ’sH sufferings,I

Notes on verse 4:13a

F “rejoice” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
G “sharing” = koinoneo. 8x in NT. From koinonos (partner, companion, partaker, sharer); From koinos (common, shared, unclean, ritually profane); probably from sun (with, together with). This is to contribute, participate, or have a share in. It can also mean to distribute.
H “Christ’s” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
I “sufferings” = pathema. 16x in NT. From pathos (passion, lust, suffering, something that happens to you, strong feelings); from pascho (to be acted on for good or ill; often used for negative treatment; properly, feeling strong emotions – especially suffering; can also be the ability to feel suffering). This is something that happens to you such as suffering, affliction, passion, or emotion. It can also be one’s capacity for deep feelings or enduring. Further, it can be hardship or pain.

so that you may also be gladJ and shout for joyK when his gloryL is revealed.M 

Notes on verse 4:13b

J “be glad” = chairo. Same as “rejoice” in v4:13.
K “shout for joy” = agalliao. 11x in NT. From agallomai (to exalt, make glorious) {from agan (much, very) + hallomai (to leap or leap up; when referring to water, springing up or bubbling up; to jump or figuratively to gush)}. This is properly joy that prompts you to jump up. It is a full body experience of joy: exulting, rejoicing, or even boasting from joy.
L “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
M “revealed” = apokalupsis. 18x in NT. From apokalupto (properly to uncover; revealing something that was hidden or obstructed; particularly refers to revealing the essence of something; to make plain or manifest); {from apo (from, away from) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is uncovering, unveiling, appearing, manifestation, or revelation. This is where the word “apocalypse” comes from.

14 If you are reviledN for the nameO of Christ, you are blessed,P because the spirit of glory, which is the SpiritQ of God,R is restingS on you.T

Notes on verse 4:14

N “reviled” = oneidizo. 9x in NT. From oneidos (a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation, a taunt or reproach); perhaps from the base of onoma (name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation); perhaps from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is to disgrace, insult, mock, blame, or curse someone so as to create shame. This is when a person or thing is considered guilty and deserving punishment. So, it can be denounce, revile, defame, or chide.
O “name” = onoma. Perhaps related to “reviled” in v4:14. See note N above.
P “blessed” = makarios. From makar (happy); from mak– (to become long or large). This is blessed, happy, fortunate. It is when God’s grace/abundance is extended.
Q “Spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
R “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
S “resting” = anapauo. 12x in NT– including Matthew 11:28 “come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest.” From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + pauo (to stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, come to an end). This is a break from work, which implies being refreshed. It denotes that rest that one gets once a necessary task is finished.
T Some manuscripts add “indeed on their part he is blasphemed, but on your part he is glorified” = kata + men + autos + blasphemeo + kata + de + su + doxazo. Men is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation. Blasphemeo is from blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect. Doxazo is related to “glory” in v4:13. From doxa (see note L above). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.

5:6 HumbleU yourselves therefore under the mightyV handW of God, so that he may exaltX you in due time.Y 7 Cast all your anxietyZ on him, because he cares for you.AA 

Notes on verses 5:6-7

U “humble” = tapeinoo. 14x in NT. From taapeinos (low in position, depressed, low in circumstance; fig humiliated, low in spirit). This is bringing someone or something low. Figuratively to humble or humiliate – to depress or abase.
V “mighty” = krataios. 1x in NT. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is strong, mighty, or power as expressed in action.
W “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
X “exalt” = hupsoo. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is to elevate in a literal or figurative sense. So it could be to raise up or set something in a high place or to exalt or make something great.
Y “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
Z “anxiety” = merimna. 6x in NT. Perhaps from merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment). This is a portion removed from the whole. Figuratively, it is care, worry, or anxiety that tears a person apart.
AA “because he cares for you” = hoti + autos + melo + peri + su. Literally “with him there is care about you.” Melo is 10x in NT. This is to think about something, take an interest, to pay attention. It is to care or worry about something

8 DisciplineBB yourselves, keep alert.CC Like a roaringDD lionEE

Notes on verse 5:8a

BB “discipline” = nepho. 6x in NT. To be sober in a literal sense. Also to be cam or vigilant, not subject to illusion or the influence of selfish greed or other sins. This is one who uses clear judgment and has their wits about them.
CC “keep alert” = gregoreo. From egeiro (to awake, raise up or lift up; to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death; figuratively, rising from inactivity or from ruins). This is to be or stay awake, watch. Figuratively, it can be alertness or vigilance.
DD “roaring” = oruomai. 1x in NT. This is to roar or howl. The word is onomatopoeia.
EE “lion” = leon. 9x in NT. This is lion, which is where “lion” comes from.

your adversaryFF the devilGG prowls around,HH lookingII for someone to devour.JJ 

Notes on verse 5:8b

FF “adversary” = antidikos. 5x in NT – 4x meaning opponent in court and 1x referring to Satan. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is an opponent or adversary, whether in court or the devil. It is someone bringing former charges and seeking damages.
GG “devil” = diabolos. From diaballo (laying a charge against someone, generally with hostility; literally, to thrust through or cast back and forth– used for slandering, accusing, or gossiping; whether or not the sentiment is true, it is spread with negative intention); {from dia (through, across, because of, thoroughly) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put drop)}. This is a properly a slanderer or someone who accuses falsely – criticizing unfairly with the intent to cause harm or damage character. This can also mean backbiter or malicious gossip. Also, the Slanderer, the Devil.
HH “prowls around” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
II “looking” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
JJ “devour” = katapino. 7x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is literally to drink down – to gulp something down whole, devour, destroy, consume, or overwhelm. It is to drink down in a literal or figurative sense.

9 ResistKK him, steadfastLL in your faith,MM

Notes on verse 5:9a

KK “resist” = anthistemi. 14x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is to stand against, to take an entirely opposite stance, resist, oppose, or withstand. Figuratively, it is publicly holding your ground. It has its roots as a military term for resisting one’s enemy.
LL “steadfast” = stereos. Perhaps related to “resist” in v5:9. 4x in NT. Perhaps from histemi (see note KK above). This is hard, solid or strong. It refers to something that can’t be moved or won’t budge. Figuratively, it is steadfast or sure. This is where the word “stereo” come from.
MM “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

for you knowNN that your brothersOO and sisters in all the worldPP are undergoingQQ the same kinds of suffering. 

Notes on verse 5:9b

NN “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
OO “brothers” = adelphotes. 2x in NT. From adelphos (brother in a literal or figurative sense; also used of another member of the Church); {from a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb)}. This is brotherhood or brethren. It is used of members of the Church or for Christendom more broadly. It can also be the feeling of fraternity.
PP “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
QQ “undergoing” = epiteleo. 10x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}. This is to complete or make perfect, execute, accomplish, undergo or finish.

10 And after you have sufferedRR for a little while, the God of all grace,SS who has called you to his eternalTT glory in Christ,UU

Notes on verse 5:10a

RR “suffered” = pascho. Related to “sufferings” in v4:13. See note I above.
SS “grace” = charis. Related to “rejoice” in v4:13. Perhaps from chairo (see note F above); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
TT “eternal” = ainoios. From aion (an age, length of time). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
UU {untranslated} = iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

will himself restore,VV support,WW strengthen,XX and establishYY you. 11 To him be the powerZZ forever and ever.AAA Amen.BBB

Notes on verses 5:10b-11

VV “restore” = katartizo. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + artizo (get ready, prepare); {rom artios (perfect, complete, ready, adequate, fitted); from arti (now, in the moment); from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to prepare, complete, perfect for final use. This is restoring something to a good condition, whether for the first time or one more. It is to repair in a literal or figurative sense.
WW “support” = sterizo. Perhaps related to “resist” & “steadfast” in v5:9. 13x in NT. From sterigx (a support, something that fastens or fixes down); perhaps from histemi (see note KK above). This is properly to fex, plant, or establish. Figuratively, it is support or strengthen – to plant without wavering.
XX “strengthen” = sthenoo. Perhaps related to “resist” & “steadfast” in v5:9 & “support” in v10. 1x in NT. From sthenos (strength, vigor); from histemi (see note KK above). This is to strengthen.
YY “establish” = themelioo. 5x in NT. From themelios (related to a foundation); from tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is laying a foundation, grounded, setting a basis. Literally, it can be to erect. Figuratively, it can be to consolidate or settle.
ZZ “power” = kratos. Related to “mighty” in v5:6. 12x in NT. This is strength, power, or dominion. It is vigor in a literal or figurative sense or power that is exercised.
AAA “forever and ever” = eis + ho + aion + ho + aion. Literally “to the ages of the ages.” Aion is related to “eternal” in v5:10. See note TT above. from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
BBB “amen” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.

Image credit: “The Christian Martyrs’ Last Prayer” by Jean-Léon Gérôme, between 1863 and 1883.

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