John 8

John 8


while JesusI wentII to the MountIII of Olives.IV 

Notes on verse 1

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “went” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
III “Mount” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.
IV “Olives” = elaia. 15x in NT. This is olive or olive tree. Sometimes, it refers to the chosen people.

Early in the morningV he cameVI again to the temple.VII

Notes on verse 2a

V “early in the morning” = orthros. Related to “Mount” in v1. 3x in NT. Perhaps from the same as oros (see note III above). This is sunrise, daybreak, early dawn.
VI “came” = paraginomai. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
VII “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.

AllVIII the peopleIX cameX to him, and he sat downXI and began to teachXII them. 

Notes on verse 2b

VIII “all” = pas. This is all or every.
IX “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
X “came” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
XI “sat down” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
XII “teach” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.

The scribesXIII and the PhariseesXIV broughtXV a womanXVI

Notes on verse 3a

XIII “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
XIV “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
XV “brought” = ago. This is lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go.
XVI “woman” = gune. Related to “came” in v2. Perhaps from ginomai (see note VI above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.

who had been caughtXVII in adultery,XVIII and, making her standXIX beforeXX all of them, 

Notes on verse 3b

XVII “caught” = katalambano. 15x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, throughout) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take hold of something with great intention for one’s own interest. It can be seize or arrest – grasping forcefully. Figuratively, it can also mean to comprehend, to win, to surprise, or to possess.
XVIII “adultery” = moicheia. 3x in NT. From moicheuo (committing adultery or adultery itself; a man with a married woman or a married man with anyone other than his wife); from moichos (adulterer; a man who has been with a married woman; used figuratively of an apostate). This is adultery. It is used for the woman caught in adultery in John 8:3 (“whoever is without sin cast the first stone”).
XIX “stand” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
XX “before” = en + mesos. Literally, “in the midst of.” Mesos is perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.

they saidXXI to him, “Teacher,XXII this woman was caught in the very actXXIII of committing adultery.XXIV 

Notes on verse 4

XXI “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXII “Teacher” = Didaskalos. Related to “teach” in v2. From didasko (see note XII above). This is teacher or master.
XXIII “very act” = epautophoro. 1x in NT. From autophoros (the very act); {from autos (he, she, self, they, same) + phor (a thief)} or OR from epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + autos (see above)}. This is the theft, which is figurative for during the real crime.
XXIV “committing adultery” = moicheuo. Related to “adultery” in v3. 15x in NT. See note XVIII above.

Now in the lawXXV MosesXXVI commandedXXVII us to stoneXXVIII such women. Now what do you say?” 

Notes on verse 5

XXV “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, cusom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
XXVI “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
XXVII “commanded” = entellomai. 15x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {related to telos (end, event, purpose, consummation)}. This is to charge or command – focuses on the final objective. So, this is looking at the final outcome of the command – how things will end up.
XXVIII “stone” = lithazo. 9x in NT. From lithos (stone literal of figurative). This is to stone someone.

They said this to testXXIX him, so that they might haveXXX some charge to bring againstXXXI him.

Notes on verse 6a

XXIX “test” = peirazo. From peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative of peiro (to pierce). This is to test, try, tempt, or make proof of. It is to test, scrutinize, or assay something. It could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline.
XXX “have” = echo. This is have, hold, possess.
XXXI “bring against” = kategoreo. From kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR {from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}}. This is to accuse, charge, or prosecute. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.

Jesus bentXXXII downXXXIII and wroteXXXIV with his fingerXXXV on the ground.XXXVI 

Notes on verse 6b

XXXII “bent” = kupto. 3x in NT. Perhaps from kuma (wave, billow, curve, bend); from kuo (to swell as one pregnant). This is to stoop, bend forward, bow one’s head.
XXXIII “down” = kato. 10x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among). This is down, below, lower, bottom, under.
XXXIV “wrote” = grapho [in Textus Receptus] OR katagrapho [in other manuscripts]. Grapho is related to “scribes” in v3. See note XIII above. Katagrapho is related to “scribes” in v3 & “wrote” in v6. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + grapho (see note XIII above). This is to write, draw, or mark.
XXXV “finger” = daktulos. 8x in NT. Probably from deka (ten). This is finger. It is part of where “pterodactyl” comes from.
XXXVI “ground” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

When they kept onXXXVII questioningXXXVIII him, he straightened upXXXIX

Notes on verse 7a

XXXVII “kept on” = epimeno. 17x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure; to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition; to continue with hope and expectation). This is to remain, terry, continue, or persevere. It denotes persistence in pursing a goal or task.
XXXVIII “questioning” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
XXXIX “straightened up” = anakupto. Related to “bent” in v6. 4x in NT. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + kupto (see note XXXII above). This is to stand up, roll back, be elated, unbend.

and said to them, “Let anyone among you who is without sinXL be the firstXLI to throwXLII a stoneXLIII at her.” 

Notes on verse 7b

XL “without sin” = anamartetos. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)} This is sinless or unerring.
XLI “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
XLII “throw” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
XLIII “stone” = lithos. Related to “stone” in v5. See note XXVIII above.

And once again he bent down and wroteXLIV on the ground. When they heardXLV it,XLVI they went away,XLVII

Notes on verses 8-9a

XLIV “wrote” = grapho. Same as “wrote” in v6. See note XXXIV above.
XLV “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XLVI Some manuscripts include, “and by their consciences being convicted” = kai + hupo + ho + suneidesis + elegcho. Suneidesis is from suneidon (to see together and so know, realize, consider, be conscious of); {from sun (with, together with) + eidon (shape, appearance, kind; something observable; form in a literal or figurative sense); from eido (to know, remember, perceive – to see and so understand)}. This is properly to know together. The conscience, found in all, is a moral and spiritual capacity granted by God so that we can understand together what is good and right. Elegcho is 17x in NT. This is to expose, reprove, discipline, convict, or rebuke. It is using convincing evidence to expose a wrong.
XLVII “went away” = exerchomai. Related to “came” in v2. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note X above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.

oneXLVIII by one, beginningXLIX with the elders,L, LI

Notes on verse 9b

XLVIII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XLIX “beginning” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
L “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
LI Some manuscripts add, “until the last” = heos + ho + eschatos. Eschatos is related to “have” in v6. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (see note XXX above). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”

and Jesus was leftLII aloneLIII with the woman standingLIV before him. 

Notes on verse 9c

LII “left” = kataleipo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing). This is to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve.
LIII “alone” = monos. Related to “kept on” in v7. Perhaps from meno (see note XXXVII above). This is alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate.
LIV “standing” = eimi. This is to be, exist.

10 Jesus straightened up andLV said to her, “Woman, where areLVI they?LVII Has no one condemnedLVIII you?” 

Notes on verse 10

LV Some manuscripts add “and no one saw but the woman” = medeis + theaomai + plen + ho + gune. Theaomai is from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit like a spectator. This is the root of the word “theatre.” Plen is from pleion (many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent); from polus (much, many, abundant). This is yet, nevertheless. Gune is the same as “woman” in v3. See note XVI above.
LVI “are” = eimi. Same as “standing” in v9. See note LIV above.
LVII Some manuscripts add “they who accuse you” = ekeinos + hos + kategoros. Kategoros is related to “bring against” in v6. 7x in NT. See note XXXI above.
LVIII “condemned” = katakrino. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn. This is a decisive judgment of guilt. It can also be to damn someone.

11 She said, “No one, sir.”LIX 

And Jesus said, “Neither do I condemn you. Go your way, and from now on do not sinLX again.”

12 Again Jesus spokeLXI to them, saying, “I am the lightLXII of the world.LXIII

Notes on verses 11-12a

LIX “sir” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
LX “sin” = hamartano. Related to “without sin” in v7. See note XL above.
LXI “spoke” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
LXII “light” = phos. From phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.
LXIII “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

Whoever followsLXIV me will never walkLXV in darknessLXVI but will have the light of life.”LXVII 

Notes on verse 12b

LXIV “follows” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
LXV “walk” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
LXVI “darkness” = skotia. 16x in NT. From skotos (darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it; obscurity); from skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness or dimness. Figuratively, it can be a spiritual darkness. This is obscurity in a literal or figurative sense.
LXVII “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

13 Then the Pharisees said to him, “You are testifyingLXVIII on your own behalf; your testimonyLXIX is not valid.”LXX 

Notes on verse 13

LXVIII “testifying” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIX “testimony” = marturia. Related to “testifying” in v13. From martureo (see note LXVIII above). This is testimony, witness, evidence, record, reputation.
LXX “valid” = alethes. From a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic.

14 Jesus answered,LXXI “Even if I testify on my own behalf, my testimony is valid because I knowLXXII where I have comeLXXIII from and where I am going,LXXIV but you do not know where I comeLXXV from or where I am going.LXXVI 

Notes on verse 14

LXXI “answered” = apokrinomai. Related to “condemned” in v10. From apo (from, away from) + krino (see note LVIII above). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.
LXXII “know” = eido. Related to {untranslated} in v9. See note XLVI above.
LXXIII “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v2. See note X above.
LXXIV “going” = hupago. Related to “brought” in v3. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note XV above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
LXXV “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v2. See note X above.
LXXVI “going” = hupago. Same as “going” in v14. See note LXXIV above.

15 You judgeLXXVII by human standards;LXXVIII I judge no one. 16 Yet even if I do judge, my judgmentLXXIX

Notes on verses 15-16a

LXXVII “judge” = krino. Related to “condemned” in v10 & “answered” in v14. See note LVIII above.
LXXVIII “human standards” = sarx. Literally, “the flesh.” May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
LXXIX “judgment” = krisis. Related to “condemned” in v10 & “answered” in v14 & “judge” in v15. From krino (see note LVIII above). This is a judging or a sentence. It is often used of God’s judgment, but can also be any accusation or condemnation. This is where the word “crisis” comes from.

is valid,LXXX for it is not I alone who judge but I and the FatherLXXXI who sentLXXXII me. 

Notes on verse 16b

LXXX “valid” = alethinos. Related to “valid” in v13. From alethes (see note LXX above). This is literally made of truth – that which is true or real, authentic. Something that is true from its source and has integrity.
LXXXI “Father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
LXXXII “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.

17 In your law it is writtenLXXXIII that the testimony of twoLXXXIV witnessesLXXXV is valid.LXXXVI 18 I testify on my own behalf, and the Father who sent me testifies on my behalf.” 

Notes on verses 17-18

LXXXIII “written” = grapho. Same as “wrote” in v6. See note XXXIV above.
LXXXIV “two” = duo. This is two or both.
LXXXV “witnesses” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
LXXXVI “valid” = alethes. Same as “valid” in v13. See note LXX above.

19 Then they said to him, “Where is your Father?”

Jesus answered, “You know neither me nor my Father. If you knew me, you would know my Father also.” 20 He spoke these wordsLXXXVII while he was teaching in the treasuryLXXXVIII of the temple, but no one arrestedLXXXIX him, because his hourXC had not yet come.XCI

Notes on verses 19-20

LXXXVII “words” = rhema. Related to “questioning” in v7. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (see note XXXVIII above). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
LXXXVIII “treasury” = gazophulakion. 5x in NT– 4 in this story in Mk and Lk, 1x in Jn to locate Jesus saying “I am the light of the world.” From gaza (treasure, treasury, riches) + phulake (guard, watch, keeping guard, imprisonment); {from phulasso (to guard, protect, preserve through vigilance)}. This is a court in the Temple area that had collection boxes for offerings. In Nehemiah, it also refers to a storage space for public records.
LXXXIX “arrested” = piazo. 12x in NT. From piezo (to press down or together, to pack) OR related to biazo (to force, use power to seize); {from bia (strength, force, violence) or bios (life, livelihood, goods, wealth)}. This is to take, catch,  squeeze, capture from hunting, or arrest. This is the root of “piezoelectricity.”
XC “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
XCI “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v2. See note X above.

21 Again he said to them, “I am going away,XCII and you will searchXCIII for me, but you will dieXCIV in your sin.XCV

Notes on verse 21a

XCII “going away” = hupago. Same as “going” in v14. See note LXXIV above.
XCIII “search” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
XCIV “die” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
XCV “sin” = hamartia. Related to “without sin” in v7 & “sin” in v11. From hamartano (see note XL above). Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

Where I am going,XCVI you cannotXCVII come.”XCVIII 

Notes on verse 21b

XCVI “going” = hupago. Same as “going” in v14. See note LXXIV above.
XCVII “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Dunamai is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
XCVIII “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v2. See note X above.

22 Then the JewsXCIX said, “CIs he going to killCI himself? Is that what he means by saying,CII ‘Where I am going,CIII you cannot come’?”CIV 

Notes on verse 22

XCIX “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
C {untranslated} = meti. 17x in NT. From me (not, neither, never; rules out conditional statements and their implications) + tis (someone, anyone, anything). This is asking a question when you expect the answer to be no. It is if not, surely no. But it also keeps a small possibility floating – but could it be?
CI “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
CII “means by saying” = lego. Same as “said” in v4. See note XXI above.
CIII “going” = hupago. Same as “going” in v14. See note LXXIV above.
CIV “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v2. See note X above.

23 He said to them, “You are from below,CV I am from above;CVI you are from this world, I am not from this world. 24 I told you that you would die in your sins, for you will die in your sins unless you believeCVII that I am he.” 

Notes on verses 23-24

CV “below” = kato. Same as “down” in v6. See note XXXIII above.
CVI “above” = ano. 9x in NT. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew). This is literally up, upward, to the brim. Figuratively, it can refer to things above, i.e. of the heavens.
CVII “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

25 They said to him, “Who are you?”

Jesus said to them, “CVIIIWhy do I speak to you at all? 26 I have muchCIX to say about you and much to condemn,CX but the one who sent me is true,CXI and I declareCXII to the world what I have heard from him.” 

Notes on verses 25-26

CVIII Some manuscripts add, “from the beginning” = ho + arche. Arche is related to “beginning” in v9. From archomai (see note XLIX above). Properly, this is what is first. In a temporal sense, that is beginning or origin. It can also refer to the one who ranks first, i.e. king or ruler. So, it can also be magistrate, power, or principality. It can be used more generally for what is preeminent.
CIX “much” = polus. Related to {untranslated} in v10. See note LV above.
CX “condemn” = krino. Same as “judge” in v15. See note LXXVII above.
CXI “true” = alethes. Same as “valid” in v13. See note LXX above.
CXII “declare” = laleo. Same as “spoke” in v12. See note LXI above.

27 They did not understandCXIII that he was speaking to them about the Father. 28 So Jesus said, “When you have lifted upCXIV the SonCXV of Man,CXVI then you will realizeCXVII that I am he and that I doCXVIII nothing on my own, but I speak these things as the Father instructedCXIX me. 

Notes on verses 27-28

CXIII “understand” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
CXIV “lifted up” = hupsoo. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is to elevate in a literal or figurative sense. So it could be to raise up or set something in a high place or to exalt or make something great.
CXV “Son” = Huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CXVI “Man” = anthropos. Same as “witnesses” in v17. See note LXXXV above.
CXVII “realize” = ginosko. Same as “understand” in v27. See note CXIII above.
CXVIII “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
CXIX “instructed” = didasko. Same as “teach” in v2. See note XII above.

29 And the one who sent me is with me; he has not leftCXX me alone, for I alwaysCXXI do what is pleasingCXXII to him.” 30 As he was saying these things, manyCXXIII believed in him.

Notes on verses 29-30

CXX “left” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
CXXI “always” = pantote. Related to “all” in v2. From pas (see note VIII above) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
CXXII “pleasing” = arestos. Related to “Mount” in v1 & “early in the morning” in v2. 4x in NT. From aresko (to please or be agreeable; implies voluntarily serving others, satisfying others, or making good to win their favor or approval; often used for moral agreement; being agreeable or trying to be agreeable); perhaps from airo (see note III above). This is what is pleasing, satisfactory, or desirable. It can also be satisfactory because it is moral.
CXXIII “many” = polus. Same as “much” in v26. See note CIX above.

31 Then Jesus said to the Jews who had believed in him, “If you continueCXXIV in my word,CXXV you are trulyCXXVI my disciples,CXXVII 

Notes on verse 31

CXXIV “continue” = meno. Related to “kept on” in v7 & “alone” in v9. See note XXXVII above.
CXXV “word” = logos. Related to “said” in v4. From lego (see note XXI above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CXXVI “truly” = alethos. Related to “valid” in v13 & “valid” in v16. 18x in NT. From alethes (see note LXX above). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
CXXVII “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

32 and you will knowCXXVIII the truth,CXXIX and the truth will make you free.”CXXX 

Notes on verse 32

CXXVIII “know” = ginosko. Same as “understand” in v27. See note CXIII above.
CXXIX “truth” = aletheia. Related to “valid” in v13 & “valid” in v16 & “truly” in v31. From alethes (see note LXX above). Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
CXXX “make…free” = eleutheroo. Related to “came” in v2 & “went away” in v9. 7x in NT. From eleutheros (a free person, at liberty, not a slave; properly, unshackled – figuratively, it is one who has the freedom to choose their destiny. Also, it is one who does not have obligation or liability); probably from erchomai (see note X above). This is to liberate, set free, release from bondage. It can mean to clear someone from liability. Figuratively, it is freeing someone from bondage to sin.

33 They answered him, “We are descendantsCXXXI of AbrahamCXXXII and have never been slavesCXXXIII to anyone. What do you mean by saying, ‘You will be madeCXXXIV free’?”CXXXV

Notes on verse 33

CXXXI “descendants” = sperma. From speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); perhaps from spao (to pull, to draw a sword). This is something sown so it could be seed or offspring and descendants. This is where the word “sperm” comes from.
CXXXII “Abraham” = Abraam. From Hebrew Abraham (exalted father); from the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (father literal or figurative) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
CXXXIII “been slaves” = douleuo. From doulos (a servant or for a slave, enslaved; someone who belongs to someone else, but could be voluntary to pay off debt or involuntary – captured in war and enslaved; a metaphor for serving Christ); perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is to be a slave, serve, do service, obey, be devoted.
CXXXIV “made” = ginomai.  Related to “came” in v2 & “woman” in v3. See note VI above.
CXXXV “free” = eleutheros. Related to “came” in v2 & “went away” in v9 & “make…free” in v32. See note CXXX above.

34 Jesus answered them, “Very truly,CXXXVI I tellCXXXVII you, everyoneCXXXVIII who commitsCXXXIX sin is a slaveCXL to sin. 

Notes on verse 34

CXXXVI “very truly” = amen + amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
CXXXVII “tell” = lego. Same as “said” in v4. See note XXI above.
CXXXVIII “everyone” = pas. Same as “all” in v2. See note VIII above.
CXXXIX “commits” = poieo. Same as “do” in v28. See note CXVIII above.
CXL “slave” = doulos. Related to “been slaves” in v33. See note CXXXIII above.

35 The slave does not have a permanent placeCXLI in the household;CXLII the son has a placeCXLIII there forever.CXLIV 36 So if the Son makes you free, you will be free indeed.CXLV 

Notes on verses 35-36

CXLI “have a permanent place” = meno. Same as “continue” in v31. See note CXXIV above.
CXLII “household” = aion. Literally, “age.” From the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
CXLIII “has a place” = meno. Same as “continue” in v31. See note CXXIV above.
CXLIV “forever” = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “to the age.” Aion is the same as “household” in v35. See note CXLII above.
CXLV “indeed” = ontos. Related to “standing” in v9. 10x in NT. From eimi (see note LIV above). This is really, certainly. It refers to something that matters or that is genuine.

37 I knowCXLVI that you are descendants of Abraham, yet you look forCXLVII an opportunity to kill me because there is no placeCXLVIII in you for my word.CXLIX 38 I declare what I have seenCL in the Father’s presence; as for you, you should do what you have heard from the Father.”

Notes on verses 37-38

CXLVI “know” = eido. Same as “know” in v14. See note LXXII above.
CXLVII “look for” = zeteo. Same as “search” in v21. See note XCIII above.
CXLVIII “is…place” = choreo. 10x in NT. From choros (a particular space or place); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is to leave in order to make room or space. It can also be to advance, receive, accept, or make progress. Figuratively, it can also refer to being open-hearted.
CXLIX “word” = logos. Same as “word” in v31. See note CXXV above.
CL “seen” = horao. Related to “witnesses” in v17. See note LXXXV above.

39 They answered him, “Abraham is our father.”

Jesus said to them, “If you are Abraham’s children,CLI you would do what Abraham did,CLII 40 but now you are tryingCLIII to kill me, a man who has told you the truth that I heard from God.CLIV This is not what Abraham did. 41 You are indeed doing what your father does.”CLV

They said to him, “We are not illegitimate children;CLVI we have one Father, God himself.” 

Notes on verses 39-41

CLI “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
CLII “what Abraham did” = ho + ergon + ho + Abraam. Literally, “the works of Abraham.” Ergon is from ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort. Abraam is the same as “Abraham” in v33. See note CXXXII above.
CLIII “trying” = zeteo. Same as “search” in v21. See note XCIII above.
CLIV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
CLV “what…does” = ho + ergon. Literally, “the works.” Ergon is the same as “what Abraham did” in v39. See note CLII above.
CLVI “are…illegitimate children” = ek + porneia + ou + gennao. Literally, “born of sexual immorality.” Porneia is related to “test” in v6. From porneuo (to fornicate – used figuratively for practicing idolatry or doing immoral things); from porne (prostitute, whore); from pornos (fornicator or immoral person); perhaps from pernemi (to sell off or export); related to piprasko (to sell with travel involved; to sell into slavery; to be devoted to); from perao (to travel); from peran (see note XXIX above). This is sexual immorality or unchastity. It could include adultery or incest. Gennao is related to “came” in v2 & “woman” in v3 & “will be made” in v33. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note VI above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.

42 Jesus said to them, “If God were your Father, you would loveCLVII me, for I cameCLVIII from God, and now I am here.CLIX I did not comeCLX on my own, but he sentCLXI me. 

Notes on verse 42

CLVII “love” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
CLVIII “came” = exerchomai. Same as “went away” in v9. See note XLVII above.
CLIX “am here” = heko. This is to come or arrive as at a final destination or goal. It can also mean being present in a literal or figurative sense.
CLX “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v2. See note X above.
CLXI “sent” = apostello. Related to “stand” in v3. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note XIX above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

43 Why do you not understand what I say?CLXII It is because you cannot acceptCLXIII my word.CLXIV 44 You are from your father the devil,CLXV and you chooseCLXVI

Notes on verses 43-44a

CLXII “what…say” = lalia. Literally, “speech.” Related to “spoke” in v12. 4x in NT. From laleo (see note LXI above). This is talk, saying, the way one talks, a dialect.
CLXIII “accept” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v9. See note XLV above.
CLXIV “word” = logos. Same as “word” in v31. See note CXXV above.
CLXV “devil” = diabolos. Related to “throw” in v7. From diaballo (laying a charge against someone, generally with hostility; literally, to thrust through or cast back and forth– used for slandering, accusing, or gossiping; whether or not the sentiment is true, it is spread with negative intention); {from dia (through, across, because of, thoroughly) + ballo (see note XLII above)}. This is a properly a slanderer or someone who accuses falsely – criticizing unfairly with the intent to cause harm or damage character. This can also mean backbiter or malicious gossip. Also, the Slanderer, the Devil.
CLXVI “choose” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

to do your father’s desires.CLXVII He was a murdererCLXVIII from the beginningCLXIX and does not standCLXX in the truth because there is no truth in him.

Notes on verse 44b

CLXVII “desires” = epithumia. From epithmueo (long for, set one’s heart on, yearn, desire); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is desire, a longing built on passionate emotion or urges. This can be a positive or a negative passion (lust or eagerness).
CLXVIII “murderer” = anthropoktonos. Related to “witnesses” in v17 & “seen” in v38 & “kill” in v22. 3x in NT. From anthropos (see note LXXXV above) + kteino (see note CI above). This is literally a manslayer.
CLXIX “beginning” = arche. Same as {untranslated} in v25. See note CVIII above.
CLXX “stand” = steko. Related to “stand” in v3 & “sent” in v42. 11x in NT. From histemi (see note XIX above). This is to stand fast or be stationary. Figuratively, it can mean to persevere.

When he lies,CLXXI he speaks according to his own nature,CLXXII for he is a liarCLXXIII and the father of lies. 45 But because I tell the truth, you do not believe me. 46 Which of you convictsCLXXIV me of sin? If I tell the truth, why do you not believe me? 47 Whoever is from God hears the wordsCLXXV of God. The reason you do not hear them is that you are not from God.”

Notes on verses 44c-47

CLXXI “lies” = laleo + ho + pseudos. Literally, “speaks the lie.” Laleo is the same as “spoke” in v12. See note LXI above. Pseudos is 10x in NT. From pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify). This is a lie or false religion.
CLXXII “his own nature” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
CLXXIII “liar” = pseustes. Related to “lies” in v44. 10x in NT. From the same as pseudomai (see note CLXXI above). This is liar, one who deceives or distorts.
CLXXIV “convicts” = elegcho. Same as {untranslated} in v9. See note XLVI above.
CLXXV “words” = rhema. Same as “words” in v20. See note LXXXVII above.

48 The Jews answered him, “Are we not rightCLXXVI in saying that you are a SamaritanCLXXVII and have a demon?”CLXXVIII 

Notes on verse 48

CLXXVI “right” = kalos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably.
CLXXVII “Samaritan” = Samarites. 9x in NT. From samareia (Samaria, the city and its region); from Hebrew Shomron (capital of the northern kingdom of Israel); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaritan.
CLXXVIII “demon” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.

49 Jesus answered, “I do not have a demon, but I honorCLXXIX my Father, and you dishonorCLXXX me. 50 Yet I do not seekCLXXXI my own glory;CLXXXII there is one who seeks it, and he is the judge.CLXXXIII 

Notes on verses 49-50

CLXXIX “honor” = timao. From time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value). Properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor.
CLXXX “dishonor” = atimao. Related to “honor” in v49. 7x in NT. From atimos (without honor, despised, not valued, not recognized); {from a (not, without) + time (see note CLXXIX above)}}. This is to dishonor, shame, hold as worthless or mistreat.
CLXXXI “seek” = zeteo. Same as “search” in v21. See note XCIII above.
CLXXXII “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
CLXXXIII “is the judge” = krino. Same as “judge” in v15. See note LXXVII above.

51 Very truly, I tell you, whoever keepsCLXXXIV my wordCLXXXV will neverCLXXXVI seeCLXXXVII death.”CLXXXVIII 

Notes on verse 51

CLXXXIV “keeps” = tereo. Related to {untranslated} in v10. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (see note LV above). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used f iguratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
CLXXXV “word” = logos. Same as “word” in v31. See note CXXV above.
CLXXXVI {untranslated} = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “to the age.” See note CXLIV above.
CLXXXVII “see” = theoreo. Related to {untranslated} in v10 & “keeps” in v51. See note CLXXXIV above.
CLXXXVIII “death” = thanatos. Related to “die” in v21. From thnesko (see note XCIV above). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.

52 The Jews said to him, “Now we knowCLXXXIX that you have a demon. Abraham died, and so did the prophets,CXC yet you say, ‘Whoever keepsCXCI my wordCXCII will neverCXCIII tasteCXCIV death.’ 

Notes on verse 52

CLXXXIX “know” = ginosko. Same as “understand” in v27. See note CXIII above.
CXC “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “light” in v12. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (see note LXII above) or phaino (see note LXII above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CXCI “keeps” = tereo. Same as “keeps” in v51. See note CLXXXIV above.
CXCII “word” = logos. Same as “word” in v31. See note CXXV above.
CXCIII {untranslated} = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “to the age.” See note CXLIV above.
CXCIV “taste” = geuomai. 15x in NT. This is to taste, which implies eating. It can be used figuratively to mean experience, whether positively or negatively.

53 Are you greaterCXCV than our father Abraham, who died? The prophets also died. Who do you claim to be?”CXCVI 

54 Jesus answered, “If I glorifyCXCVII myself, my glory is nothing. It is my Father who glorifies me, he of whom you say, ‘He is our God,’ 55 though you do not knowCXCVIII him. But I knowCXCIX him;

Notes on verses 53-55a

CXCV “greater” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CXCVI “claim to be” = poieo. Same as “do” in v28. See note CXVIII above.
CXCVII “glorify” = doxazo. Related to “glory” in v50. From doxa (see note CLXXXII above). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
CXCVIII “know” = ginosko. Same as “understand” in v27. See note CXIII above.
CXCIX “know” = eido. Same as “know” in v14. See note LXXII above.

if I would say that I do not knowCC him, I would be a liar likeCCI you. But I do knowCCII him, and I keepCCIII his word.CCIV 

Notes on verse 55b

CC “know” = eido. Same as “know” in v14. See note LXXII above.
CCI “like” = homoios. From the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is similar to, resembling, like.
CCII “know” = eido. Same as “know” in v14. See note LXXII above.
CCIII “keep” = tereo. Same as “keeps” in v51. See note CLXXXIV above.
CCIV “word” = logos. Same as “word” in v31. See note CXXV above.

56 Your ancestorCCV Abraham rejoicedCCVI that he would seeCCVII my day;CCVIII he sawCCIX it and was glad.”CCX 

Notes on verse 56

CCV “ancestor” = pater. Same as “Father” in v16. See note LXXXI above.
CCVI “rejoiced” = agalliao. Related to “love” in v42. 11x in NT. From agallomai (to exalt, make glorious) {from agan (see note CLVII above) + hallomai (to leap or leap up; when referring to water, springing up or bubbling up; to jump or figuratively to gush)}. This is properly joy that prompts you to jump up. It is a full body experience of joy: exulting, rejoicing, or even boasting from joy.
CCVII “see” = horao. Same as “seen” in v38. See note CL above.
CCVIII “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CCIX “saw” = horao. Same as “seen” in v38. See note CL above.
CCX “was glad” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).

57 Then the Jews said to him, “You areCCXI not yet fiftyCCXII years old, and have you seenCCXIII Abraham?” 

58 Jesus said to them, “Very truly, I tell you, before Abraham was,CCXIV I am.”CCXV 

Notes on verses 57-58

CCXI “are” = echo. Same as “have” in v6. See note XXX above.
CCXII “fifty” = pentekonta. Related to “finger” in v6. 7x in NT. From pente (five; perhaps symbolically linked with the Temple or redemption) + deka (see note XXXV above). This is fifty.
CCXIII “seen” = horao. Same as “seen” in v38. See note CL above.
CCXIV “was” = ginomai. Same as “made” in v33. See note CXXXIV above.
CCXV “am” = eimi. Same as “standing” in v9. See note LIV above.

59 So they picked upCCXVI stones to throw at him, but Jesus hidCCXVII himself and wentCCXVIII out of the temple.CCXIX

Notes on verse 59

CCXVI “picked up” = airo. Related to “Mount” in v1 & “early in the morning” in v2 & “pleasing” in v29. See note III above.
CCXVII “hid” = krupto. 18x in NT. This is to hide by covering, secret, hidden things. This is the root of the word “cryptography.”
CCXVIII “went” = exerchomai. Same as “went away” in v9. See note XLVII above.
CCXIX Some manuscripts add, “going through the midst of them and passed by in this way” = dierchomai + dia + mesos + autos + kai + parago + houtos. Dierchomai is related to “came” in v2 & “went away” in v9 & “make…free” in v32 & “free” in v33. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note X above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse. Mesos is the same as “before” in v3. See note XX above. Parago is related to “brought” in v3 & “going” in v14. 11x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of, alongside) + ago (see note XV above). This is to lead near or by, to pass by, go along, be a passer-by.

Image credit: “Jesus Threatened with being Stoned” by LUMO Project.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply