Joshua 14

Joshua 14


These are the inheritances that the IsraelitesI receivedII in the landIII of Canaan,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
II “are the inheritances…received” = nachal. From nachalah (properly something that was inherited; can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate; can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion). This is to gain as a possession, divide for inheritance. Also, to occupy for any reason.
III “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
IV “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See

which the priestV Eleazar,VI and JoshuaVII sonVIII of Nun,IX

Notes on verse 1b

V “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
VI “Eleazar” = Elazar. Related to “Israelites” in v1. From El (see note I above) + azar (to help, protect, support, ally; properly, to surround so as to provide aid). This is Elezar or Elazar, meaning “God has helped” or “God is helper.”
VII “Joshua” = Yehoshua. From YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Joshua, Jeshua, or Yehoshua, which means “the Lord is salvation.”
VIII “son” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v1. See note I above.
IX “Nun” = Nun. From nun (to propagate, continue, resprout, be perpetual). This is Nun or Non, meaning “perpetuity.”

and the headsX of the familiesXI of the tribesXII of the Israelites distributedXIII to them. 

Notes on verse 1c

X “heads” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
XI “families” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XII “tribes” = matteh. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).
XIII “distributed” = nachal. Same as “are the inheritances…received” in v1. See note II above.

Their inheritanceXIV was by lot,XV as the LordXVI had commandedXVII, XVIII MosesXIX

Notes on verse 2a

XIV “inheritance” = nachalah. Related to “are the inheritances…received” in v1. See note II above.
XV “lot” = goral. Root may mean to be rough like a stone. A lot was probably a small pebble used to determine one’s portion or what one should do (the will of a god or one’s destiny).
XVI “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Joshua” in v1. See note VII above.
XVII “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
XVIII {untranslated} = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XIX “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

for the nineXX and one-halfXXI tribes. For Moses had givenXXII an inheritanceXXIII

Notes on verses 2b-3a

XX “nine” = tesha. Perhaps from sha’ah (to gaze at, gaze around, regard – to look to, especially for help; to consider or be compassionate; to look at in amazement or while confounded). This is nine, perhaps as looking to the next number associated with fullness (10).
XXI “half” = chatsi. From chatsah (to halve, divide, reach, participate). This is half, middle, midnight, midst.
XXII “given” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XXIII “inheritance” = nachalah. Same as “inheritance” in v2. See note XIV above.

to the twoXXIV and one-half tribes beyondXXV the Jordan,XXVI but to the LevitesXXVII

Notes on verse 3b

XXIV “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
XXV “beyond” = eber. From abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is the place across or beyond, by, from, other, the opposite side, against, over. It often refers to the other side of the Jordan river or toward the east.
XXVI “Jordan” = Yarden. From yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
XXVII “Levites” = Leviyyi. From Levi (Levi; perhaps meaning “attached”; Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants); perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levite or levitical.

he gave no inheritanceXXVIII amongXXIX them. For the peopleXXX of JosephXXXI wereXXXII two tribes,

Notes on verses 3c-4a

XXVIII “inheritance” = nachalah. Same as “inheritance” in v2. See note XIV above.
XXIX “among” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
XXX “people” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v1. See note I above.
XXXI “Joseph” = Yoseph. From yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”
XXXII “were” = hayah. Related to “Joshua” in v1 & “Lord” in v2. See note VII above.

ManassehXXXIII and Ephraim,XXXIV and no portionXXXV was given to the Levites in the land

Notes on verse 4b

XXXIII “Manasseh” = Menashsheh. From nashah (to forget, neglect, remove, deprive). This is Manasseh, literally “causing to forget.” It is Manasseh, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
XXXIV “Ephraim” = Ephrayim. From the same as epher (ashes or dust – properly something strewn) OR from parah (to grow, increase, be fruitful in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, his descendants, and their land.
XXXV “portion” = cheleq. From chalaq (to be smooth in a figurative sense; can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute; figuratively, it can also mean to flatter). This is a division, lot, inheritance, legacy, or portion. It can also refer to a smooth tongue.

but only townsXXXVI to liveXXXVII in, with their pasturelandsXXXVIII

Notes on verse 4c

XXXVI “towns” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
XXXVII “live” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
XXXVIII “pasturelands” = migrash. From garash (to drive out or expel; to divorce or of an expatriate). This is common land – country around a city that can be used as pasture.

for their flocksXXXIX and herds.XL XLIThe Israelites didXLII as the Lord had commanded Moses; they allottedXLIII the land.

Notes on verses 4d-5

XXXIX “flocks” = miqneh. From qanah (to get, acquire, purchase, move to jealousy, buyer, keep cattle). This is something that is bought, which implies property or possession. However, it is generally used of livestock – cattle, flock, herds.
XL “herds” = qinyan. Related to “flocks” in v4. 10x in OT. From qanah (see note XXXIX above). This is possession, substance, creation, wealth.
XLI {untranslated} = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
XLII “did” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XLIII “allotted” = chalaq. Related to “portion” in v4. See note XXXV above.

Then the people of JudahXLIV cameXLV to Joshua at Gilgal,XLVI

Notes on verse 6a

XLIV “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
XLV “came” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
XLVI “Gilgal” = Gilgal. From galgal (wheel, wagon, whirl, whirlwind; something that rolls); from galal (to roll, roll away, wallow, commit, remove; rolling in a literal or figurative sense). This is Gilgal – perhaps circle of stones.

and CalebXLVII son of JephunnehXLVIII the KenizziteXLIX saidL to him,

Notes on verse 6b

XLVII “Caleb” = Kaleb. From the same as keleb (a dog, male prostitute; perhaps from a word meaning to yelp or attack). This is Caleb or Kaleb, meaning “dog” or “unsophisticated servant.” See
XLVIII “Jephunneh” = Yephunneh. 16x in OT. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is Jephunneh or Yephunneh, meaning “he will be prepared” or “he will turn to” or “he will face” or “he will be beheld.” See
XLIX “Kenizzite” = Qenizzi. 4x in OT. From Qenaz (Kenaz; the name of several people). Root may mean to hunt. This is the Kenizzites, perhaps meaning “hunter” or “trapper.” See
L “said” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.

“You knowLI whatLII the LordLIII saidLIV

Notes on verse 6c

LI “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
LII {untranslated} = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
LIII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Joshua” in v1 & “Lord” in v2 & “were” in v4. From the same as YHVH (see note VII above). This is a secondary spelling of the Lord, the name of the God of Israel. It has the same meaning.
LIV “said” = dabar. Related to {untranslated} in v6. See note LII above.

to Moses the manLV of GodLVI in Kadesh-barneaLVII

Notes on verse 6d

LV “man” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
LVI “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israelites” and “Eleazar” in v1. See note I above.
LVII “Kadesh-barnea” = Qadesh Barnea. 10x in OT. From Qadesh (Kadesh, a place whose name means sacred or sanctuary); {from the same as qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.)} + perhaps a word related to Aramaic bar (open field); {related to Hebrew bar (grain, wheat; an open field); from barar (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish)} + a word from nua (to waver in a literal or figurative sense; to tremble, quiver, totter; a fugitive). This is Kadesh-barnea or Qadesh Barnea, meaning “sacred desert of wandering” or “holy purifying staggerings” or “holy purifying wanderings.” See

concerningLVIII you andLIX me. I was fortyLX yearsLXI oldLXII

Notes on verses 6e-7a

LVIII “concerning” = odoth. 11x in OT. From the same as ud (firebrand, a poker). This is turning, occasion, cause, concerning.
LIX {untranslated} = odoth. Same as “concerning” in v6. See note LVIII above.
LX “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
LXI “years” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
LXII “old” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v1. See note I above.

when Moses the servantLXIII of the LordLXIV sentLXV me from Kadesh-barnea to spy outLXVI the land, and I broughtLXVII him

Notes on verse 7b

LXIII “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
LXIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XVI above.
LXV “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
LXVI “spy out” = ragal. From regel (foot, endurance, or journey; a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey; can euphemistically mean private parts). This is to walk along, spy out, slander.
LXVII “brought” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”

an honestLXVIII report.LXIX But my companionsLXX who went upLXXI with me

Notes on verses 7c-8a

LXVIII “honest” = im + lebab. Literally, “in my heart.” Lebab may be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
LXIX “report” = dabar. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LII above.
LXX “companions” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
LXXI “went up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.

made the heartLXXII of the peopleLXXIII melt,LXXIV yet I wholeheartedly followedLXXV the LordLXXVI my God. 

Notes on verse 8b

LXXII “heart” = leb. Related to “honest” in v7. From the same as lebab (see note LXVIII above). This is inner self, mind, will, feelings, the center.
LXXIII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
LXXIV “melt” = masah. 4x in OT. This is to melt, become liquid, consume. Figuratively, it can also be melt from fear.
LXXV “wholeheartedly followed” = male + achar. Male is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense. Achar is from achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
LXXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XVI above.

And Moses sworeLXXVII on that day,LXXVIII saying,LXXIX ‘Surely the land on which your footLXXX has troddenLXXXI shall be an inheritanceLXXXII

Notes on verse 9a

LXXVII “swore” = shaba. Perhaps from sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant. Properly, it can mean to be complete. This is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times.
LXXVIII “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
LXXIX “saying” = amar. Same as “said” in v6. See note L above.
LXXX “foot” = regel. Related to “spy out” in v7. See note LXVI above.
LXXXI “trodden” = darak. This is to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process. So, also an archer.
LXXXII “inheritance” = nachalah. Same as “inheritance” in v2. See note XIV above.

for you and your childrenLXXXIII forever,LXXXIV because you have wholeheartedly followed the LordLXXXV my God.’ 10 And now, as you see,LXXXVI the LordLXXXVII has kept me alive,LXXXVIII

Notes on verses 9b-10a

LXXXIII “children” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v1. See note I above.
LXXXIV “forever” = ad + olam. Literally, “even to eternity.” Olam is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
LXXXV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XVI above.
LXXXVI “see” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
LXXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XVI above.
LXXXVIII “kept…alive” = chayah. This is to live or keep alive in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be revive, nourish, or save.

as he said,LXXXIX these forty-fiveXC years since the time that the LordXCI spokeXCII this wordXCIII to Moses,

Notes on verse 10b

LXXXIX “said” = dabar. Same as “said” in v6. See note LIV above.
XC “five” = chamesh. This is five or fifth.
XCI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XVI above.
XCII “spoke” = dabar. Same as “said” in v6. See note LIV above.
XCIII “word” = dabar. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LII above.

while IsraelXCIV was journeyingXCV through the wilderness,XCVI and hereXCVII I am today,XCVIII eightyXCIX-five years old. 

Notes on verse 10c

XCIV “Israel” = Yisrael. Same as “Israelites” in v1. See note I above.
XCV “journeying” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XCVI “wilderness” = midbar. Related to {untranslated} and “said” in v6. From dabar (see note LII above). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
XCVII “here” = hinneh. Same as “see” in v10. See note LXXXVI above.
XCVIII “today” = yom. Same as “day” in v9. See note LXXVIII above.
XCIX “eighty” = shemonim. From the same as shemoneh (eight or eighth; abundance as being more than 7, the number of sacred fullness); perhaps from shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat); from shaman (to grow fat, shine, be oily). This is eighty.

11 I am still as strongC today as I was on the day that Moses sent me; my strengthCI now is as my strengthCII was then,

Notes on verse 11a

C “strong” = chazaq. From chazaq (to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden). This is strong, hard, powerful, loud, bold, violent, impudent. It is usually strong in a negative sense.
CI “strength” = koach. Root may mean to be firm. This is power, strength, force. It can be literal or figurative, positive or negative. It can also mean capacity or means – what something produces. Additionally, it could refer to some kind of small reptile.
CII “strength” = koach. Same as “strength” in v11. See note CI above.

for warCIII and for goingCIV and coming.CV 12 So now give me this hill countryCVI of which the LordCVII spoke on that day,

Notes on verses 11b-12a

CIII “war” = milchamah. From lacham (to eat or feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).
CIV “going” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CV “coming” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
CVI “hill country” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
CVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XVI above.

for you heardCVIII on that day how the AnakimCIX were there, with greatCX

Notes on verse 12b

CVIII “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
CIX “Anakim” = Anaq. 9x in OT– all in Deuteronomy & Joshua. From the same as Anaq (Anak, Anaq; a name meaning “neck”); from the same as anaq (necklace, ornament, chain); perhaps from anaq (to encircle like a necklace or function as a necklace; figuratively, to furnish with supplies). This is someone descended from Anak – an Anakite. It may mean “neck.”
CX “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.

fortifiedCXI cities;CXII it may beCXIII that the LordCXIV will be with me, and I will drive them out,CXV as the LordCXVI said.”CXVII

Notes on verse 12c

CXI “fortified” = batsar. This is to enclose, wall up, or make something inaccessible, impenetrable, isolated. It can also mean to fortify, something mighty. It can also mean to gather grapes.
CXII “cities” = iyr. Same as “towns” in v4. See note XXXVI above.
CXIII “may be” = ulay. Perhaps from o (or). This is perhaps, if, or suppose.
CXIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XVI above.
CXV “drive…out” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.
CXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XVI above.
CXVII“said” = dabar. Same as “said” in v6. See note LIV above.

13 Then Joshua blessedCXVIII him and gave HebronCXIX to Caleb son of Jephunneh for an inheritance.CXX 

Notes on verse 13

CXVIII “blessed” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
CXIX “Hebron” = Chebron. From cheber (company, society, enchantment, wide); from chabar (to unite, ally, attach, touch; to join in a literal or figurative sense; also, specially, using magic knots or spells to fascinate or connect). This is Hebron, meaning “seat of association” or “league.”
CXX “inheritance” = nachalah. Same as “inheritance” in v2. See note XIV above.

14 SoCXXI Hebron becameCXXII the inheritanceCXXIII of Caleb son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite to this day, because he wholeheartedly followed the Lord,CXXIV the God of Israel. 

Notes on verse 14

CXXI “so” = ken. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XLI above.
CXXII “became” = hayah. Same as “were” in v4. See note XXXII above.
CXXIII “inheritance” = nachalah. Same as “inheritance” in v2. See note XIV above.
CXXIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XVI above.

15 Now the nameCXXV of Hebron formerlyCXXVI was Kiriath-arba;CXXVII

Notes on verse 15a

CXXV “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
CXXVI “formerly” = paneh. Related to “Jephunneh” in v6. From panah (see note XLVIII above). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
CXXVII “Kiriath-arba” = Qiryath Arba. Related to “forty” in v7. 9x in OT. From qiryah (city, building); from qarah (to happen, meet, bring about)} + arba (see note LX above). This is Kiriath-arba, meaning “city of the four” or “four-fold city.” See

Arba was the greatestCXXVIII manCXXIX among the Anakim. And the land had restCXXX from war.

Notes on verse 15b

CXXVIII “greatest” = gadol. Same as “great” in v12. See note CX above.
CXXIX “man” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
CXXX “had rest” = shaqat. This is to be quiet, rest, calm, settle, be still, peace.

Image credit: “Hillel” – designed by E.M. Lilien, 1905.

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