Leviticus 19

Leviticus 19


The LordI spokeII to Moses,III saying:

Notes on verse 1

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “spoke” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
III “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

“Speak to allIV the congregationV of the IsraelitesVI and say to them:

Notes on verse 2a

IV “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
V “congregation” = edah. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.
VI “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

You shall beVII holy,VIII for I the Lord your GodIX am holy. 

Notes on verse 2b

VII “be” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
VIII “holy” = qadosh. From qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy); related to qadash (set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified; something or someone set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean). This is sacred or holy in a ritual or moral sense. As a noun, it refers to a holy one (like a saint or angel), a holy place (the sanctuary), or God (the Holy One).
IX “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v2. From eloah (God, a god); from el (see note VI above). This is most commonly used as a name for God. Technically, it’s in the plural, i.e. gods. It can also mean great, mighty, judge, or ruler.

You shall eachX revereXI your motherXII and father,XIII and you shall keepXIV my Sabbaths:XV I am the Lord your God. 

Notes on verse 3

X “each” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XI “revere” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
XII “mother” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
XIII “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XIV “keep” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
XV “Sabbaths” = shabbat. From shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is sabbath, literally meaning rest or intermission.

Do not turnXVI to idolsXVII or makeXVIII castXIX imagesXX for yourselves: I am the Lord your God.

Notes on verse 4

XVI “turn” = panah. This is to turn, regard, appear, look, prepare.
XVII “idols” = elil. Perhaps from al (not, nothing, lacking value). This is futility, vanity. It can also refer to an image or idol.
XVIII “make” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XIX “cast” = massekah. From nasak (to cover, pour out, offer; by analogy anointing a king). This is a pouring out or over. So it could be pouring molten metal to cast an image, making a libation (pouring out a drink offering), or otherwise covering.
XX “images” = elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note IX above.

“When you offerXXI a sacrificeXXII of well-beingXXIII to the Lord, offer it in such a way that it is acceptableXXIV on your behalf. 

Notes on verse 5

XXI “offer” = zabach. This is slaughtering an animal, generally for the purpose of sacrifice. It can mean kill or offer.
XXII “sacrifice” = zebach. Related to “offer” in v5. From zabach (see note XXI above). This is a slaughter – literally of an animal. So, it implies the act or the animals used in sacrifice. Further, it can mean offering.
XXIII “well-being” = shelem. From shalam (to make amends, finish, be safe, be friendly, to be complete or sound). This is a peace offering or a sacrifice of well-being. It was a voluntary offering given when one celebrated thanksgiving, alliance, or friendship.
XXIV “acceptable” = ratson. From ratsah (to be pleased with, delight, take pleasure in, or accept with favor; to approve or consent regarding something; can be used specifically of satisfying debts or being pardoned). This is delight shown in favor, good will, something that is accepted or acceptable.

6 It shall be eatenXXV on the same dayXXVI you offer it or on the next day, and anything left overXXVII until the thirdXXVIII day shall be consumedXXIX in fire.XXX 

Notes on verse 6

XXV “eaten” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVI “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XXVII “left over” = yathar. This is to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel. It can be to leave or to be in abundance.
XXVIII “third” = shelishi. From shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is third or one-third of something.
XXIX “consumed” = saraph. This is to burn or kindle. This is the root that “seraphim” comes from.
XXX “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.

If any of it is eaten on the third day, it is an abomination;XXXI it will not be acceptable.XXXII All who eat it shall be subject to punishment,XXXIII because they have profanedXXXIV

Notes on verses 7-8a

XXXI “abomination” = piggul. 4x in OT. This may come from a root with the sense of stinking. It is something that is foul or fetid. Therefore, it is offensive. It can be specially used for something that is ritually unclean or an abomination.
XXXII “be acceptable” = ratsah. Related to “acceptable” in v5. See note XXIV above.
XXXIII “subject to punishment” = avon + nasa. Avon is perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil. Nasa is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
XXXIV “profaned” = chalal. This is to pierce, which implies to wound. It is used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word. It can also mean to begin as though one opened a wedge. Also, to eat something as a common thing.

what is holyXXXV to the Lord, and any such personXXXVI shall be cut offXXXVII from the people.XXXVIII

Notes on verse 8b

XXXV “what is holy” = qodesh. Related to “holy” in v2. See note VIII above.
XXXVI “person” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
XXXVII “cut off” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
XXXVIII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

“When you reapXXXIX the harvestXL of your land,XLI you shall not reap to the very edgesXLII of your fieldXLIII or gatherXLIV the gleaningsXLV of your harvest. 

Notes on verse 9

XXXIX “reap” = qatsar. This is to cut down, be short, reap, curtail. It is used especially for harvesting grass or grain. Figuratively, it can mean to be discouraged or grieve.
XL “harvest” = qatsir. Related to “reap” in v9. From qatsar (see note XXXIX above). This is severed, branch, harvest, reaper.
XLI “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XLII “very edges” = kalah + peah. Kalah is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed. Peah is from paah (to puff, scatter, cut in pieces) OR poh (here, side). This is a side, edge, region, temple, corner.
XLIII “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
XLIV “gather” = laqat. Related to “gleanings” in v9. See note XLV below.
XLV “gleanings” = leqet. 2x in OT– both in Leviticus. From laqat (to pick up, glean, gather). This is a gleaning.

10 You shall not strip your vineyardXLVI bareXLVII or gather the fallen grapesXLVIII of your vineyard; you shall leaveXLIX them for the poorL and the alien:LI I am the LordLII your God.

Notes on verse 10

XLVI “vineyard” = kerem. This is a vineyard, garden, vines, or a vintage.
XLVII “strip…bare” = alal. 19x in OT. This is to affect, abuse, mistreat, impose, practice, glean, defile.
XLVIII “fallen grapes” = peret. 1x in OT. From parat (to divide, chant, hum). This is something broken off. So it could be a stray grape or berry.
XLIX “leave” = azab. To loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute.
L “poor” = ani. From anah (to be bowed down; humility or being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed; literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance). This is humble, lowly, poor, or afflicted.
LI “alien” = ger. From gur (to abide or sojourn; to leave the road to lodge or for any other reason). This is sojourner, guest, stranger, foreigner.
LII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v1 & “be” in v2. It has a different vowel pointing, but the same meaning as “Lord.” See note I above.

11 “You shall not steal;LIII you shall not deal falsely;LIV and you shall not lieLV to oneLVI another.LVII 

Notes on verse 11

LIII “steal” = ganab. This is to steal in a stealthy way rather than through violence. It can also mean to deceive. There is a Yiddish word ganef that derives from this root. It means thief or scoundrel.
LIV “deal falsely” = kachash. This is deceive, fail, or deny. It can be lying or disappointing. It can also mean becoming lean or cringe.
LV “lie” = shaqar. 6x in OT. From sheqer (deception, lie, disappointment, or thing that is vain). This is to deal falsely, generally to lie. It can be to cheat, but it usually refer to lying words.
LVI “one” = ish. Same as “each” in v3. See note X above.
LVII “another” = amit. 12x in OT– 11x in Leviticus & 1x in Zechariah. Root may mean to associate. This is a companion, associate, relation, or neighbor.

12 And you shall not swearLVIII falselyLIX by my name,LX profaning the name of your God: I am the Lord.LXI

Notes on verse 12

LVIII “swear” = shaba. Perhaps from sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant. Properly, it can mean to be complete. This is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times.
LIX “falsely” = sheqer. Related to “lie” in v11. See note LV above.
LX “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
LXI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

13 “You shall not defraudLXII your neighbor;LXIII you shall not steal;LXIV

Notes on verse 13a

LXII “defraud” = ashaq. This is to wrong, deceive, violate, or use oppression.
LXIII “neighbor” = rea. From raah (to associate with). This is the same as neighbor in Leviticus 19:18 “love your neighbor as yourself.” This is friend, companion, fellow, neighbor. It is someone with whom you associate, whether more or less close.
LXIV “steal” = gazal. This is snatch, take violently, seize, tear away. It can also mean flay or rob.

and you shall not keepLXV for yourself the wagesLXVI of a laborerLXVII until morning.LXVIII 

Notes on verse 13b

LXV “keep” = lun. This is to stop – usually to lodge for the night. It can imply dwelling, enduring, or staying permanently. Figuratively, it can mean being obstinate, particularly with one’s words – to complain.
LXVI “wages” = peullah. 14x in OT. From paal (to do, make, work, or accomplish; generally refers to regularly repeated or systematic action – to practice). This is work, deed, reward, or wages.
LXVII “laborer” = sakir. 17x in OT. From sakar (to hire, earn). This is someone who earns a wage, a laborer. It could be one a day by day basis or for a longer term.
LXVIII “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.

14 You shall not revileLXIX the deafLXX or putLXXI a stumbling blockLXXII

Notes on verse 14a

LXIX “revile” = qalal. This is to be little, insignificant, swift. It can also mean to bring down in esteem, create contempt, curse
LXX “deaf” = cheresh. 9x in OT. From charash (to scratch, which implies etching or plowing; to manufacture regardless of materials used; figuratively, to devise or conceal; secrecy – hence, being silent, left alone, or speechless). This is deaf or a someone who is deaf in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXI “put” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LXXII “stumbling block” = mikshol. 14x in OT. From kashal (to stumble, fail, be weak or decayed, be overthrown, to totter; weak legs or ankles so to falter, faint, or fall). This is a stumbling or something that causes one to stumble like an obstacle literal or figurative.  It can also refer to an offense, an idol, or to ruin.

beforeLXXIII the blind;LXXIV you shall fearLXXV your God: I am the Lord.LXXVI

Notes on verse 14b

LXXIII “before” = paneh. Related to “turn” in v4. From panah (see note XVI above). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LXXIV “blind” = ivver. From avar (to blind, put out). This is blindness or someone who is blind. It can be used literally or figuratively.
LXXV “fear” = yare. Same as “revere” in v3. See note XI above.
LXXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

15 “You shall not renderLXXVII an unjustLXXVIII judgment;LXXIX you shall not be partial toLXXX the poorLXXXI

Notes on verse 15a

LXXVII “render” = asah. Same as “make” in v4. See note XVIII above.
LXXVIII “unjust” = evel. Perhaps from aval (to deal unjustly, act in a wrongful way, a wrongdoer). This is injustice, wrong, moral evil, acts of violence, or unrighteousness.
LXXIX “judgment” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
LXXX “be partial to” = nasa + paneh. Nasa is the same as “subject to punishment” in v8. See note XXXIII above. Paneh is the same as “before” in v14. See note LXXIII above.
LXXXI “poor” = dal. From dalal (to be low, hang, fade, be emptied, become poor, be oppressed). This is lean, weak, needy, poor. Properly, it is one who is dangling.

or deferLXXXII to the great:LXXXIII with justiceLXXXIV you shall judgeLXXXV your neighbor.LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 15b

LXXXII “defer” = hadar + paneh. Hadar is 7x in OT. This may mean to swell in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be honor, pride, respected, to adorn, claim honor. It could also refer to crooked or rough terrain. Additionally, it can refer to showing partiality or deference. Paneh is the same as “before” in v14. See note LXXIII above.
LXXXIII “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
LXXXIV “justice” = tsedeq. This is rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity.
LXXXV “judge” = shaphat. Related to “judgment” in v15. See note LXXIX above.
LXXXVI “neighbor” = amit. Same as “another” in v11. See note LVII above.

16 You shall not go aroundLXXXVII as a slandererLXXXVIII among your people, and you shall not stand idly byLXXXIX

Notes on verse 16a

LXXXVII “go around” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
LXXXVIII “slanderer” = rakil. 6x in OT. From rakal (to travel around, especially to trade; so, a merchant or trader; also trade itself). This is slander or one who slanders – a gossip or scandal-monger who goes from place to place.
LXXXIX “stand idly by” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.

when the bloodXC of your neighborXCI is at stake: I am the Lord.XCII

Notes on verse 16b

XC “blood” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.
XCI “neighbor” = rea. Same as “neighbor” in v13. See note LXIII above.
XCII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

17 “You shall not hateXCIII in your heartXCIV anyone of your kin;XCV

Notes on verse 17a

XCIII “hate” = sane. This is to hate, an enemy. It is a personal hatred and not an abstract one.
XCIV “heart” = lebab. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
XCV “kin” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.

you shall reproveXCVI your neighbor,XCVII or you will incurXCVIII guiltXCIX yourself. 

Notes on verse 17b

XCVI “reprove” = yakach + yakach. This is to decide, be right, argue, or convince. It can also be to decide, convict, reason together, or reprove. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
XCVII “neighbor” = amit. Same as “another” in v11. See note LVII above.
XCVIII “incur” = nasa. Same as “subject to punishment” in v8. See note XXXIII above.
XCIX “guilt” = chet. From chata (to miss, sin, bear blame, to forfeit, lack). This is sin, fault, or punishment of sin.

18 You shall not take vengeanceC or bear a grudgeCI against anyCII of your people, but you shall loveCIII your neighborCIV as yourself: I am the Lord.CV

Notes on verse 18

C “take vengeance” = naqam. This is to avenge, punish, have a grudge, execute.
CI “bear a grudge” = natar. 9x in OT. This is to guard, keep, reserve, take care of. Figuratively, it could be to keep a grudge or hold on to anger.
CII “any” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v2. See note VI above.
CIII “love” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
CIV “neighbor” = rea. Same as “neighbor” in v13. See note LXIII above.
CV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

19 “You shall keepCVI my statutes.CVII You shall not let your animalsCVIII breedCIX with a different kind;CX

Notes on verse 19a

CVI “keep” = shamar. Same as “keep” in v3. See note XIV above.
CVII “statutes” = chuqqah. From choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.
CVIII “animals” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
CIX “breed” = raba. 3x in OT– all in Leviticus. This is to lie down, to squat, breed.
CX “different kind” = kilayim. 4x in OT. From kala (to stop in the sense of holding back or restraining; to keep, refuse, forbid, or prohibit by word). This is two kinds of things that are mingled.

you shall not sowCXI your field with two kindsCXII of seed; nor shall you putCXIII on a garmentCXIV made of two differentCXV materials.CXVI

Notes on verse 19b

CXI “sow” = zara. This is to sow or scatter seed, conceive or yield. It can also refer to a sower. Figuratively, this can refer to other forms of dissemination.
CXII “two kinds” = kilayim. Same as “different kind” in v19. See note CX above.
CXIII “put” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
CXIV “garment” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.
CXV “two different” = kilayim. Same as “different kind” in v19. See note CX above.
CXVI “materials” = shaatnez. 2x in OT. This is mixed material. It could be linen and wool spun into one cloth.

20 “If a manCXVII has sexual relationsCXVIII with a womanCXIX who is a slave,CXX

Notes on verse 20a

CXVII “man” = ish. Same as “each” in v3. See note X above.
CXVIII “has sexual relations” = shakabshekabah + zera. Shakab is to lie down, lodge. It is lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons. Shekabah is related to “has sexual relations” in v20. 9x in OT. From shakab (see above). This is an act of lying so it could be a layer, the act of copulation, or an emission. Zera is related to “sow” in v19. From zara (see note CXI above). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
CXIX “woman” = ishshah. Related to “each” in v3.
CXX “slave” = shiphchah. Root may mean to spread out – it would be the same root used in mishpachah, which means family or clan. This is maidservant, female slave, or female bondslave.

designated forCXXI another man but not ransomedCXXII or givenCXXIII her freedom,CXXIV

Notes on verse 20b

CXXI “designated for” = charaph. This is to expose and so figuratively to reproach, defame, carp at, defy. It can also mean spend the winter or betroth.
CXXII “ransomed” = padahpadah. This is to sever, which is to say to ransom. To secure someone’s release (by paying their debt to free them from slavery) and thus redeem, rescue, deliver, preserve. Can also be the redemption price. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CXXIII “given” = natan. Same as “put” in v14. See note LXXI above.
CXXIV “freedom” = chuphshah. 1x in OT. From chaphash (to be free or loose; figuratively used for freeing slaves). This is freedom from slavery.

an inquiryCXXV shall be held.CXXVI They shall not be put to death,CXXVII since she has not been freed,CXXVIII 21 but he shall bringCXXIX a guilt offeringCXXX for himself to the Lord,CXXXI

Notes on verses 20c-21a

CXXV “inquiry” = biqqoreth. Related to “morning” in v13. 1x in OT. From baqar (see note LXVIII above). This is examination or punishment.
CXXVI “held” = hayah. Same as “be” in v2. See note VII above.
CXXVII “put to death” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
CXXVIII “freed” = chaphash. Related to “Freedom” in v20. 1x in OT. See note CXXIV above.
CXXIX “bring” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
CXXX “guilt offering” = asham. From asham (to be guilty, suffer, be punished; to destroy, condemn, be desolate, perish). This is guilt, sin, wrong, or offense. It is also a sin or guilt offering.
CXXXI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

at the entranceCXXXII of the tentCXXXIII of meeting,CXXXIV a ramCXXXV as guilt offering. 

Notes on verse 21b

CXXXII “entrance” = petach. From patach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense, loosen, plow, carve). This is opening, door, gate, entrance.
CXXXIII “tent” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
CXXXIV “meeting” = moed. Related to “congregation” in v2. From yaad (see note V above). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.
CXXXV “ram” = ayil. From the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power). This is strength so it is used to indicate things that are strong or powerful: political chiefs, rams, posts, trees, oaks.

22 And the priestCXXXVI shall make atonementCXXXVII for him with the ram of guilt offering beforeCXXXVIII the LordCXXXIX for his sinCXL that he committed,CXLI and the sin he committed shall be forgivenCXLII him.

Notes on verse 22

CXXXVI “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
CXXXVII “make atonement” = kaphar. This is to appease, cover, pacify, cancel, make atonement, placate. Specifically, it can mean to cover with bitumen.
CXXXVIII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v14. See note LXXIII above.
CXXXIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CXL “sin” = chatta’ah. Related to “guilt” in v17. From chata’ (see note XCIX above). This is sin itself as well as punishment for sin. It is sometimes used specifically to refer to sin that is habitual.
CXLI “committed” = chata. Related to “guilt” in v17 & “sin” in v22.  See note XCIX above.
CXLII “be forgiven” = salach. This is to pardon or spare.

23 “When you comeCXLIII into the land and plantCXLIV all kindsCXLV of treesCXLVI for food,CXLVII

Notes on verse 23a

CXLIII “come” = bo. Same as “bring” in v21. See note CXXIX above.
CXLIV “plant” = nata. To fix or fasten, establish or plant. This is planting in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLV “all kinds” = kol. Same as “all” in v2. See note IV above.
CXLVI “trees” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.
CXLVII “food” = maakal. Related to “be eaten” in v6. From akal (see note XXV above). This is food, something edible.

then you shall regardCXLVIII their fruitCXLIX as forbidden;CL threeCLI yearsCLII it shall be forbiddenCLIII to you; it must not be eaten. 

Notes on verse 23b

CXLVIII “regard” = aral. 2x in OT. From orlah (foreskin or uncircumcised; forbidden); perhaps from arel (uncircumcised, unskilled, exposed, forbidden); from arel (to strip or expose, restrain; to remove in a literal or figurative sense).
CXLIX “fruit” = peri. From parah (to bear fruit, grow, be fruitful, increase; bearing fruit in a literal or figurative sense). This is fruit or reward.
CL “forbidden” = orlah. Related to “regard” in v23. 16x in OT. See note CXLVIII above.
CLI “three” = shalosh. Related to “third” in v6. See note XXVIII above.
CLII “years” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
CLIII “forbidden” = arel. Related to “regard” and “forbidden” in v23. See note CXLVIII above

24 In the fourthCLIV year all their fruit shall be set apartCLV for rejoicingCLVI in the Lord.CLVII 

Notes on verse 24

CLIV “fourth” = rebii. Related to “breed” in v19. From the same as arba (four); perhaps from raba (to be square); perhaps from raba (see CIX above). This is fourth.
CLV “set apart” = qodesh. Same as “what is holy” in v8. See note XXXV above.
CLVI “rejoicing” = hillul. 2x in OT. From halal (to be clear – it originally referred to a sound, then a color; to shine, boast, rave; to celebrate, give glory, sing praise, be worthy of praise; to give in marriage). This is a rejoicing, praise, or celebration.
CLVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

25 But in the fifthCLVIII year you may eat of their fruit, that their yieldCLIX may be increasedCLX for you: I am the LordCLXI your God.

26 “You shall not eat anything with its blood. You shall not practice auguryCLXII or witchcraft.CLXIII 

Notes on verses 25-26

CLVIII “fifth” = chamishi. From chamesh (five, fifth). This is fifth.
CLIX “yield” = tebuah. Related to “bring” in v21. From bo (see note CXXIX above). This is produce, increase or gain – can be literal or figurative.
CLX “increased” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
CLXI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLXII “practice augury” = nachash. 11x in OT. This is to practice divination, learn by experience, to use an enchantment. It can also mean to hiss as in whispering a spell.
CLXIII “witchcraft” = anan. 11x in OT. This is cover, cloud over. Figuratively, it is acting in a secret way, practicing magic or soothsaying.

27 You shall not round offCLXIV the hair on your templesCLXV or marCLXVI the edges of your beard.CLXVII 

Notes on verse 27

CLXIV “round off” = naqaph. 19x in OT. This is to strike, cut down, surround, destroy, corrode, knock together, or enclose. It can be to surround as a guard or like the sea. It can meaning coming to the end of a festival time or enclosing in a net or trap.
CLXV “hair on…temples” = peah + rosh. Peah is the same as “very edges” in v9. See note XLII above. Rosh may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
CLXVI “mar” = shachat. This is to slaughter, slay, or beat. It can be slaying for a sacrifice or in a massacre.
CLXVII “beard” = zaqan. 19x in OT. Perhaps from zaqen (to grow old, an old person). This is beard, especially as referring to someone older.

28 You shall not makeCLXVIII any gashesCLXIX in your fleshCLXX for the deadCLXXI or tattooCLXXII any marksCLXXIII upon you: I am the Lord.CLXXIV

Notes on verse 28

CLXVIII “make” = natan. Same as “put” in v14. See note LXXI above.
CLXIX “gashes” = seret. 2x in OT. From sarat (to scratch, cut, injure). This is a cutting or incision.
CLXX “flesh” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
CLXXI {untranslated} = nephesh. Same as “person” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
CLXXII “tattoo” = kethobethnatan. Kethobeth is 1x in OT. From kathab (to write, decree, describe, record). This is imprint or mark. Natan is the same as “put” in v14. See note LXXI above.
CLXXIII “marks” = qaaqa. 1x in OT. Perhaps related to quts (summer, clip off). This is an incision, tattoo, or gash.
CLXXIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

29 “Do not profane your daughterCLXXV by making her a prostitute,CLXXVI that the land not become prostituted and fullCLXXVII of depravity.CLXXVIII 30 You shall keepCLXXIX my Sabbaths and revere my sanctuary:CLXXX I am the Lord.CLXXXI

Notes on verses 29-30

CLXXV “daughter” = bat. Related to “Israelites” in v2. From ben (see note VI above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXVI “making…a prostitute” = zanah. This is being or playing a prostitute. Figuratively, it can also mean fornicating.
CLXXVII “full” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXVIII “depravity” = zimmah. From zamam (to devise, plot, imagine, intend, scheme, think evil; usually in an evil sense). This is a plan – usually a negative one. So, it could be a scheme, wickedness, mischief, immorality, a crime, or evil intent.
CLXXIX “keep” = shamar. Same as “keep” in v3. See note XIV above.
CLXXX “sanctuary” = miqdash. Related to “holy” in v2 & “what is holy” in v8. From the same as qodesh (see note VIII above). This is a sacred place, sanctuary, holy place. It is something or somewhere that is consecrated, whether to God or to another.
CLXXXI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

31 “Do not turn to mediumsCLXXXII and spiritualists;CLXXXIII do not seek them out,CLXXXIV to be defiledCLXXXV by them: I am the LordCLXXXVI your God.

Notes on verse 31

CLXXXII “mediums” = ob. 17x in OT. Perhaps from the same as ab (father in a literal or figurative sense – grandfather, chief, ancestor). This is literally a bottle made from hide. One could mumble into this bottle and make a hollow sound. So, it refers to mediums, ventriloquists, or necromancers. It can also refer to a familiar spirit.
CLXXXIII “spiritualists” = yiddeoni. 11x in OT. From yada (to know, be aware, see and so understand – includes observation, care, recognition; can also be used as a euphemism). This is one who knows, a conjurer or wizard. It can also refer to a ghost or spirit.
CLXXXIV “seek…out” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.
CLXXXV “defiled” = tame. From tame (to defile, be unclean, pollute in a ritual or ethical sense). This is unclean, ill, or ritually impure.
CLXXXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

32 “You shall riseCLXXXVII beforeCLXXXVIII the agedCLXXXIX and deferCXC to the old,CXCI and you shall fear your God: I am the Lord.CXCII

Notes on verse 32

CLXXXVII “rise” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
CLXXXVIII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v14. See note LXXIII above.
CLXXXIX “aged” = sebah. 19x in OT. From sib (to have gray hair, become old). This is being gray or old.
CXC {untranslated} = paneh. Same as “before” in v14. See note LXXIII above.
CXCI “old” = zaqen. Related to “beard” in v27. See note CLXVII above.
CXCII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

33 “When an alien residesCXCIII with you in your land, you shall not oppressCXCIV the alien. 34 The alien who resides with you shall be to you as the native-bornCXCV among you; you shall love the alien as yourself, for you were aliens in the land of Egypt:CXCVI I am the LordCXCVII your God.

Notes on verses 33-34

CXCIII “resides” = gur. Related to “alien” in v10. See note LI above.
CXCIV “oppress” = yanah. 19x in OT. This is to do wrong, oppress, destroy, mistreat, or suppress. It can imply violence or anger.
CXCV “native-born” = ezrach. 17x in OT. From zarach (to rise, shine, or dawn; can also describe symptoms of leprosy). This is native or native-born. It can also refer to spontaneous growth, a bay tree.
CXCVI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
CXCVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

35 “You shall not cheatCXCVIII in measuring length,CXCIX weight,CC or quantity.CCI 

Notes on verse 35

CXCVIII “cheat” = asah + evel + mishpat. Asah is the same as “make” in v4. See note XVIII above. Evel is the same as “unjust” in v15. See note LXXVIII above. Mishpat is the same as “judgment” in v15. See note LXXIX above.
CXCIX “measuring length” = middah. From mad (measure, cloth, cloak, armor, stature, height); from madad (to measure, stretch, be extended, continue). This is a measure, size, garment, height, width, or tribute.
CC “weight” = mishqal. From shaqal (to weigh, spend, trade). This is to weigh, or a unit of weight. It shares a root with the word “shekel.”
CCI “quantity” = mesurah. 4x in OT. May come from a word meaning to divide. This is a unit of measurement – a volume for liquids.

36 You shall haveCCII honestCCIII balances,CCIV honest weights,CCVan honest ephah,CCVI and an honest hin:CCVII

Notes on verse 36a

CCII “have” = hayah. Same as “be” in v2. See note VII above.
CCIII “honest” = tsedeq. Same as “justice” in v15. See note LXXXIV above.
CCIV “balances” = mozen. 15x in OT. From azan (to weigh, prove, ponder, test). This is balances or scales.
CCV “weights” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”
CCVI “ephah” = ephah. Perhaps from Egyptian ipet (“a dry measure of volume equivalent to…about 19.2 litres”). This is an ephah – specifically, a measure for flour or grain. It can also be used ore generally to refer to a measure. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/jpt#Egyptian
CCVII “hin” = hin. From Egyptian hwn (jar, unit of measurement for liquid; around .48 liters). This is hin, a unit of measurement used for liquids. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hin

I am the LordCCVIII your God who brought you outCCIX of the land of Egypt. 37 You shall keepCCX all my statutes and all my ordinancesCCXI and observeCCXII them: I am the Lord.”CCXIII

Notes on verses 36b-37

CCVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CCIX “brought…out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CCX “keep” = shamar. Same as “keep” in v3. See note XIV above.
CCXI “ordinances” = mishpat. Same as “judgment” in v15. See note LXXIX above.
CCXII “observe” = asah. Same as “make” in v4. See note XVIII above.
CCXIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

Image credit: “Folds from Ethiopian Processional Icon” from circa 1450-1500.

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