Luke 13:31-35

Luke 13:31-35
Lent C16


31 At that very hourA some PhariseesB cameC and saidD to him,

Notes on verse 31a

A “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
B “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
C “came” = proserchomai. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
D “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

“Get awayE from here, for HerodF wantsG to killH you.” 

Notes on verse 31b

E “get away” = exerchomaiporeuomai. Exerchomai is related to “came” in v31. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note C above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.Poreuomai is from poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
F “Herod” = Herodes. Perhaps from heros (hero, warrior) + oide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aoide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aeido (to sing) + e (this is added to verbs to make them nouns)}} OR from hera (Hera) + oide (same as above). This is Herod, perhaps “hero’s song,” “Hera’s song,” or “heroic.” See
G “wants” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
H “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.

32 He said to them, “GoI and tell that foxJ for me, ‘Listen,K I am casting outL demonsM

Notes on verse 32a

I “go” = poreuomai. Same as “go” in v31. See note E above.
J “fox” = alopex. 3x in NT. Perhaps from Proto-Indo-European wel (to steal, tear). This is a fox or figuratively someone who is crafty or cunning. This is also where the word “alopecia” comes from. See
K “listen” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
L “casting out” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
M “demons” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.

and performingN curesO todayP and tomorrow, and on the thirdQ day I finish my work.R 

Notes on verse 32b

N “performing” = apoteleo. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}. This is to perform, complete, bring an end, accomplish.
O “cures” = iasis. 3x in NT. From iaomai (to heal, particularly from a physical illness, or a spiritual difficulty; to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense). This is healing or a cure.
P “today” = semeron. From hemera (day, time, daybreak); perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is today, now, at present.
Q “third” = tritos. From treis (three). This is third.
R “finish my work” = teleioo. Related to “performing” in v32. From teleios (going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one; reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect”; also full grown or mature); from telos (see note N above).  This is finish, accomplish, bring to an end, complete, reach a goal, finish a race, to consummate. It refers to completing stages or phases to get to an ultimate conclusion. It can also mean consecrate or fulfill.

33 Yet today, tomorrow, and the next day I mustS be on my way,T because it is impossibleU

Notes on verse 33a

S “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
T “be on my way” = poreuomai. Same as “go” in v31. See note E above.
U “is impossible” = ou + endechomai. Literally “not possible.” From en (in, on, at, by, with) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is to admit, allow, be accepted or possible.

for a prophetV to be killedW outside of Jerusalem.’X 

Notes on verse 33b

V “prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
W “killed” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
X “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

34 Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the city that killsY the prophets and stonesZ those who are sentAA to it!

Notes on verse 34a

Y “kills” = apokteino. Same as “kill” in v31. See note H above.
Z “stones” = lithoboleo. Related to “casting out” in v32. 7x in NT. From lithos (stone literal of figurative) + ballo (see note L above). This is to stone as in kill by throwing stones at.
AA “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

How often have I desiredBB to gather your childrenCC togetherDD asEE

Notes on verse 34b

BB “desired” = thelo. Same as “wants” in v31. See note G above.
CC “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
DD “gather…together” = episunago. 8x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + sunago (to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain); {from sun (with, together with) + ago (lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go)}. This is to bring together, assemble, collect.
EE “as” = tropos. 13x in NT. From the same as trope (turning, change, shifting); from trepo (to turn). This is turning and taking on a new direction or manner. It can refer to way, fashion, style, or character. This is where the word “trope” comes from.

a henFF gathers her broodGG under her wings,HH and you were not willing!II 35 See,JJ your houseKK is leftLL to you.

Notes on verses 34c-35a

FF “hen” = ornis. 2x in NT. Perhaps from oros (mountain, hill); from oro (to rise); perhaps related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is a bird like a hen.
GG “brood” = nossia. 1x in NT. From nossos (young bird); from neossos (young one); from neos (young, new, youth, person). This is a brood of young birds.
HH “wings” = pterux. 5x in NT. From pteron (feather, wing); from petomai (to fly). This is a wing or pinion.
II “were…willing” = thelo. Same as “wants” in v31. See note G above.
JJ “see” = idou. Same as “listen” in v32. See note K above.
KK “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
LL “is left” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.

And I tell you, you will not seeMM me until the time comesNN when you say, ‘Blessed isOO the one

Notes on verse 35b

MM “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
NN “comes” = heko. This is to come or arrive as at a final destination or goal. It can also mean being present in a literal or figurative sense.
OO “blessed is” = eulogeo. Related to “said” in v31. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note D above)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.

who comesPP in the nameQQ of the Lord.’”RR

Notes on verse 35c

PP “comes” = erchomai. Related to “came” and “get away” in v31. See note C above.
QQ “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
RR “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

Image credit: “IMG_7885” by cskk, 2012.

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