John 18:1-19:42

John 18:1-19:42
Good Friday ABC


18:1 After JesusI had spoken these words, he went outII with his disciplesIII

Notes on verse 18:1a

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “went out” = exerchomai. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
III “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

across the KidronIV ValleyV to a place where there wasVI a garden,VII which he and his disciples entered.VIII 

Notes on verse 18:1b

IV “Kidron” = Kedron. 1x in NT. From Hebrew qidron (dusky or dusky place); from qadar (to be ashy, which would be a dark color; being dark or mourning as when one sits in sackcloth and ashes). This is Kidron, the wadi, meaning dusky.
V “Valley” = cheimarros. 1x in NT. From the same as cheimazo (to be storm tossed, driven by a storm); {from cheima (winter cold) or cheimon (storm, winter, rainy season); from cheo (to pour) + rheo (to flow, overflow)}. This is a ravine that has water flowing in it in the winter/during storms.
VI “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
VII “garden” = kepos. 5x in NT. This is a garden or a place where trees or herbs are grown.
VIII “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “went out” in v18:1. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note II above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.

Now Judas,IX who betrayedX him, also knewXI

Notes on verse 18:2a

IX “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
X “betrayed” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
XI “knew” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

the placeXII because Jesus oftenXIII metXIV there with his disciples. 

Notes on verse 18:2b

XII “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
XIII “often” = pollakis. 18x in NT. From polus (much, many, abundant). This is often, many, frequently, again and again.
XIV “met” = sunago. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”

So Judas broughtXV a detachment of soldiersXVI together with policeXVII

Notes on verse 18:3a

XV “brought” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XVI “detachment of soldiers” = speira. 7x in NT. From Latin spira (something wound up like a coil or twist, the base of a column, a hair braid, etc.); from Greek speira (a twist or wreath); from Proto-Indo-European *sper- (to twist, turn). This is a group of soldiers or military guard. Properly, this is something wound up. Figuratively, it refers to a group of men. Thus, a tenth of a legion. Also used for Levitical janitors. This is where the word “spiral” comes from. See
XVII “police” = huperetes. From huper (by, under, under the authority of another) + eresso (to row). Originally, this was a rower or someone who worked the oars on the lower deck of a boat. It is used figuratively of someone under the authority of another who follows their commands. So this could be servant, attendant, or office. It could also be someone who is a minister of the Gospel.

from the chief priestsXVIII and the Pharisees,XIX and they cameXX there

Notes on verse 18:3b

XVIII “chief priests” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
XIX “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
XX “came” = erchomai. Related to “went out” & “entered” in v18:1. See note II above.

with lanternsXXI and torchesXXII and weapons.XXIII 

Notes on verse 18:3c

XXI “lanterns” = phanos. 1x in NT. From phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is a torch or light.
XXII “torches” = lampas. 9x in NT. From lampo (to give light literally or figuratively). This is a torch or lantern that was hand held, perhaps made of clay with a flax wick and oil.
XXIII “weapons” = hoplon. 6x in NT. This is a tool or implement. It can also be armor or weapons in a literal or figurative sense.

Then Jesus, knowing allXXIV that was to happenXXV to him, came forwardXXVI and askedXXVII them, “Whom are you looking for?”XXVIII 

Notes on verse 18:4

XXIV “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XXV “happen” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v18:3. See note XX above.
XXVI “came forward” = exerchomai. Same as “went out” in v18:1. See note II above.
XXVII “asked” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXVIII “looking for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.

They answered,XXIX “Jesus of Nazareth.”XXX 

Jesus replied,XXXI “I am he.” Judas, who betrayed him, was standingXXXII with them. 

Notes on verse 18:5

XXIX “answered” = apokrinomai. From apo (from, away from) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.
XXX “Nazareth” = Nazoraios. 13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
XXXI “replied” = lego. Same as “asked” in v18:4. See note XXVII above.
XXXII “standing” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.

When Jesus said to them, “I am he,” they steppedXXXIII backXXXIV and fellXXXV to the ground.XXXVI 

Notes on verse 18:6

XXXIII “stepped” = aperchomai. Related to “went out” & “entered” in v18:1 & “came” in v18:3. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note II above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXIV “back” = opiso. From the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back); from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear). This is back, behind, after.
XXXV “fell” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.
XXXVI “ground” = chamai. 2x in NT– both in John. Perhaps from chasma (gap, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn); from chao (to gape, yawn). This is on or toward the ground.

Again he askedXXXVII them, “Whom are you looking for?”

And they said, “Jesus of Nazareth.” 

Jesus answered, “I told you that I am he. So if you are looking for me, letXXXVIII these people go.”XXXIX 

Notes on verses 18:7-8

XXXVII “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
XXXVIII “let” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XXXIX “go” = hupago. Related to “met” in v18:2. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note XIV above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.

This was to fulfillXL the wordXLI that he had spoken, “I did not loseXLII a single one of those whom you gaveXLIII me.” 

Notes on verse 18:9

XL “fulfill” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
XLI “word” = logos. Related to “asked” in v18:4. From lego (see note XXVII above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XLII “lose” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
XLIII “gave” = didomi. Related to “betrayed” in v18:2. See note X above.

10 Then SimonXLIV Peter,XLV who hadXLVI a sword,XLVII

Notes on verse 18:10a

XLIV “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
XLV “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XLVI “had” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
XLVII “sword” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.

drewXLVIII it, struckXLIX the high priest’sL slave,LI

Notes on verse 18:10b

XLVIII “drew” = helko. 8x in NT. Perhaps from haireomai (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to pull in or draw in. It can be drag in a literal or figurative sense. This places an emphasis on the power of the attraction.
XLIX “struck” = paio. 5x in NT. To strike or sting – a single blow.
L “high priest’s” = archiereus. Same as “chief priests” in v18:3. See note XVIII above.
LI “slave” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).

and cut offLII his rightLIII ear.LIV The slave’s nameLV was Malchus.LVI 

Notes on verse 18:10c

LII “cut off” = apokopto. 6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is to cut off or away, mutilate, amputate, emasculate.
LIII “right” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
LIV “ear” = otion. 5x in NT. From ous (ear; figuratively, hearing). This is ear or it might refer to the earlobe.
LV “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
LVI “Malchus” = Malchos. 1x in NT. From Hebrew melek (Melek – a name); from the same as melek (king, kingdom, royal); perhaps from malak (to reign, be king or queen, rise to the throne, to consult). This is Malchus, meaning king or reigning.

11 Jesus said to Peter, “PutLVII your sword back into its sheath.LVIII Am I not to drinkLIX the cupLX that the FatherLXI has given me?”

Notes on verse 18:11

LVII “put” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
LVIII “sheath” = theke. 1x in NT. From tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is something into which something else is laid or put away. So, a case, chest, box, receptacle, or sheath.
LIX “drink” = pino. Related to “cup” in v18:11. See note LX below.
LX “cup” = poterion. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is a drinking vessel. Figuratively, it can refer to one’s lot, to fate, or to what God has in store for you.
LXI “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.

12 So the soldiers, their officer,LXII and the JewishLXIII police arrestedLXIV Jesus and boundLXV him. 

Notes on verse 18:12

LXII “officer” = chiliarchos. Related to “chief priests” in v18:3. From chilioi (thousand literal and figurative; can mean total inclusion) + archos (chief, leader); {from archo (see note XVIII above)}. This is chiliarch – one who commands a thousand.
LXIII “Jewish” = Ioudaios. Related to “Judas” in v18:2. From Ioudas (see note IX above). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
LXIV “arrested” = sullambano. Related to “brought” in v18:3. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (see note XV above). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arrest or take hold of someone.
LXV “bound” = deo. Related to “slave” in v18:10. See note LI above.

13 FirstLXVI they tookLXVII him to Annas,LXVIII who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas,LXIX the high priest that year.LXX 

Notes on verse 18:13

LXVI “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
LXVII “took” = ago. Related to “met” in v18:2 & “go” in v18:7. See note XIV above.
LXVIII “Annas” = Hannas. Related to “Jesus” in v18:1. 4x in NT. From Hebrew chananyah (Hannaniah; “the Lord has been gracious” or “the Lord has favored); {from chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note I above)}. This is Annas, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
LXIX “Caiaphas” = Kaiaphas. 9x in NT. From Aramaic (as beautiful) OR from kefa (rock, stone) OR from Akkadian kaypha (dell, depression). This is Caiaphas. See
LXX “year” = eniautos. 14x in NT. Perhaps from enos (year). This is a year or other cycle of time.

14 Caiaphas was the one who had advisedLXXI the Jews that it was betterLXXII to have oneLXXIII

Notes on verse 18:14a

LXXI “advised” = sumbouleuo. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + bouleuo (to plan, consider, deliberate, advise); {from boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}. This is people who come together to make a plan who are highly motivated to achiever their goals. It can mean deliberate, consult, or give advice.
LXXII “was better” = sumphero. 17x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to collect, bring together, or be profitable to. It is combining things such that there is gain or profit or advantage.
LXXIII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.

personLXXIV dieLXXV for the people.LXXVI

Notes on verse 18:14b

LXXIV “person” = anthropos. Related to “back” in v18:6. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (see note XXXIV above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
LXXV “die” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
LXXVI “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

15 Simon Peter and anotherLXXVII disciple followedLXXVIII Jesus. Since that disciple was knownLXXIX to the high priest, he went withLXXX Jesus into the courtyardLXXXI of the high priest, 

Notes on verse 18:15

LXXVII “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
LXXVIII “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
LXXIX “known” = gnostos. Related to “name” in v18:10. 15x in NT. From ginosko (see note LV above). This is known or acquaintance.
LXXX “went with” = suneiserchomai. Related to “went out” & “entered” in v18:1 & “came” in v18:3 & “stepped” in v18:6. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + eiserchomai (see note VIII above). This is to enter together, embark with, go with.
LXXXI “courtyard” = aule. 12x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a building that has a courtyard within it – an area that has no roof, but does have walls and is open to the air. It could also imply a palace or mansion as larger buildings that would include courtyards.

16 but Peter was standing outside at the gate.LXXXII So the otherLXXXIII disciple, who was knownLXXXIV to the high priest, went out, spoke to the woman who guarded the gate,LXXXV and brought Peter in.LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 18:16

LXXXII “gate” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
LXXXIII “other” = allos. Same as “another” in v18:15. See note LXXVII above.
LXXXIV “known” = gnostos. Same as “known” in v18:15. See note LXXIX above.
LXXXV “woman who guarded the gate” = thuroros. Related to “gate” in v18:16. 4x in NT. From thura (see note LXXXII above). This is a doorkeeper or porter.
LXXXVI “brought…in” = eisago. Related to “met” in v18:2 & “go” in v18:7 & “took” in v18:13. 11x in NT. From eis (to, into, towards, among) + ago (see note XIV above). This is to lead in or introduce.

17 The womanLXXXVII, LXXXVIII saidLXXXIX to Peter, “You are not also one of this man’sXC disciples, are you?”

He said, “I am not.” 

Notes on verse 18:17

LXXXVII “woman” = paidiske. Related to “struck” in v18:10. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (see note XLIX above). This is young girl or female slave or servant.
LXXXVIII Some manuscripts add “the woman who guarded the gate” = thuroros. Same as “woman who guarded the gate” in v18:16. See note LXXXV above.
LXXXIX “said” = lego. Same as “asked” in v18:4. See note XXVII above.
XC “man’s” = anthropos. Same as “person” in v18:14. See note LXXIV above.

18 Now the slaves and the police had madeXCI a charcoal fireXCII because it was cold,XCIII and they were standing around it and warmingXCIV themselves. Peter also was standing with them and warming himself.

Notes on verse 18:18

XCI “made” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XCII “charcoal fire” = anthrakia. 2x in NT– here and in Jn 21:9 when Jesus appears to the disciples and cooks fish on the shore. From anthrax (coal, a live coal). This is burning coals piled together. This is where the words “anthrax” and also “anthracite” come from.
XCIII “cold” = psuchos. 3x in NT. From psucho (to breathe, blow, breathe out, to cool or make cold). This is cold or coolness. It is connected to the root of psuche (psyche), which refers to the breathe of life and, by extension, life itself as expressed in individuality.
XCIV “warming” = thermaino. 6x in NT. From thermos (hot); from the same as theros (heat, which implies the summer); from thero (to heat). This is to warm or warm oneself. This root is where the words “thermometer” and “thermos” come from.

19 Then the high priest questionedXCV Jesus about his disciples and about his teaching.XCVI 20 Jesus answered, “I have spokenXCVII openlyXCVIII to the world;XCIX

Notes on verses 18:19-20a

XCV “questioned” = erotao. Related to “asked” in v18:7. See note XXXVII above.
XCVI “teaching” = didache. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teaching or doctrine.
XCVII “spoken” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
XCVIII “openly” = parresia. Related to “all” in v18:4. From pas (see note XXIV above) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (say, speak of, command)}. This is confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness. It can imply assurance – free speech.
XCIX “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

I have alwaysC taughtCI in synagoguesCII

Notes on verse 18:20b

C “always” = pantote. Related to “all” in v18:4 & “openly” in v18:20. From pas (see note XXIV above) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
CI “taught” = didasko. Related to “teaching” in v18:19. See note XCVI above.
CII “synagogues” = sunagoge. Related to “met” in v18:2 & “go” in v18:7 & “took” in v18:13 & “brought…in” in v18:16. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note XIV above). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.

and in the temple,CIII where all the Jews come together.CIV I have said nothing in secret.CV 

Notes on verse 18:20c

CIII “temple” = hieron. Related to “chief priests” in v18:3. From hieros (see note XVIII above). This is the word for temple.
CIV “come together” = sunerchomai. Related to “went out” & “entered” in v18:1 & “came” in v18:3 & “stepped” in v18:6 & “went with” in v18:15. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (see note II above). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
CV “secret” = kruptos. 19x in NT. From krupto (to hide by covering, secret, hidden things). This is something concealed, hidden, secret, or private. It can also refer to the inner nature. This is the root of the word “cryptography.”

21 Why do you askCVI me? AskCVII those who heardCVIII what I said to them;CIX they knowCX what I said.” 

Notes on verse 18:21

CVI “ask” = erotao. Same as “questioned” in v18:19. See note XCV above.
CVII “ask” = erotao. Same as “questioned” in v18:19. See note XCV above.
CVIII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CIX {untranslated} = idou. Related to “knew” in v18:12. From eido (see note XI above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CX “know” = eido. Same as “knew” in v18:2. See note XI above.

22 When he had said this, one of the police standing nearbyCXI struckCXII Jesus on the face, saying, “Is that how you answer the high priest?” 

23 Jesus answered, “If I have spoken wrongly,CXIII testifyCXIV to the wrong.CXV

Notes on verses 18:22-23a

CXI “standing nearby” = paristemi. Related to “standing” in v18:5. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note XXXII above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
CXII “struck” = didomi + rhapisma. Didomi is the same as “gave” in v18:9. See note XLIII above. Rhapisma is 3x in NT. From rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is a hit from a stick or an open-handed slap.
CXIII “wrongly” = kakos.16x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is wrongly, badly, cruelly, with bad motives, misery connected to affliction. It can be physically badly or morally badly, i.e. evilly.
CXIV “testify” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
CXV “wrong” = kakos. Related to “wrongly” in v18:23. See note CXIII above.

But if I have spoken rightly,CXVI why do you strikeCXVII me?” 24 Then Annas sentCXVIII him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.

25 Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. They asked him, “You are not also one of his disciples, are you?”

He deniedCXIX it and said, “I am not.” 

Notes on verses 18:23b-25

CXVI “rightly” = kalos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably.
CXVII “strike” = dero.15x in NT. To whip, flog, scourge, beat, thrash.
CXVIII “sent” = apostello. Related to “standing” in v18:5 & “standing nearby” in v18:22. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note XXXII above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CXIX “denied” = arneomai. Related to “openly” in v18:20. From a (not) + rheo (see note XCVIII above). This is to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict.

26 One of the slaves of the high priest, a relativeCXX of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, asked,CXXI “Did I not seeCXXII you in the garden with him?” 

Notes on verse 18:26

CXX “relative” = suggenes. 12x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth)}. This is relative, kinsman, offspring, or otherwise someone from the same stock. It can also be used for a fellow countryman.
CXXI “asked” = lego. Same as “asked” in v18:4. See note XXVII above.
CXXII “see” = horao. Related to “back” in v18:6 & “person” in v18:14.

27 Again Peter denied it, and at that momentCXXIII the cockCXXIV crowed.CXXV

Notes on verse 18:27

CXXIII “at that moment” = eutheos. Related to “sheath” in v18:11. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (see note LVIII above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
CXXIV “cock” = alektor. 12x in NT. Perhaps from aleko (to ward off). This is a cock or rooster.
CXXV “crowed” = phoneo. Related to “lanterns” in v18:3. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (see note XXI above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.

28 Then they took Jesus from Caiaphas to Pilate’s headquarters.CXXVI It was early in the morning.CXXVII They themselves did not enter the headquarters, so as to avoid ritual defilementCXXVIII and to be able to eatCXXIX the Passover.CXXX 

Notes on verse 18:28

CXXVI “Pilate’s headquarters” = praitorion. 8x in NT. From Latin praetorium (headquarters, general’s tent, villa, place where the governor lives); from prator (leader, chief, president); from pareeo (to lead, go before). This is praetorium or preatorian guard. It is the place where the governor lives or the place where the praetorian guard of Rome lived. It could also mean courtroom. See
CXXVII “early in the morning” = proi. 12x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior). This is early, at dawn, during the daybreak watch.
CXXVIII “avoid ritual defilement” = me + miaino. Literally “not be defiled.” Miaino is 5x in NT. Properly, it means staining something or dyeing it. Figuratively, it refers to staining the soul as with sin. So, it is to pollute or corrupt in a ritual or moral sense.
CXXIX “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
CXXX “Passover” = Pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”

29 So PilateCXXXI wentCXXXII out to them and said,CXXXIII “What accusationCXXXIV do you bringCXXXV against this man?” 

Notes on verse 18:29

CXXXI “Pilate” = Pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See
CXXXII “went” = exerchomai. Same as “went out” in v18:1. See note II above.
CXXXIII “said” = phemi. Related to “crowed” in v18:27. See note CXXV above.
CXXXIV “accusation” = kategoria. 3x in NT. Probably from kategoreo (to accuse, charge, or prosecute); from kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}}. This is accusation, complaint, criminal charge, or the person being accused in the charge. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.
CXXXV “bring” = phero. Related to “was better” in v18:14. See note LXXII above.

30 They answered, “If this man were not a criminal,CXXXVI we would not have handed him overCXXXVII to you.” 

31 Pilate said to them, “TakeCXXXVIII him yourselves and judgeCXXXIX him according to your law.”CXL

Notes on verses 18:30-31a

CXXXVI “criminal” = kakos + poieo. Literally, “evil doing.” Kakos is the same as “wrong” in v18:23. See note CXV above. Poieo is the same as “made” in v18:18. See note XCI above.
CXXXVII “handed…over” = paradidomi. Same as “betrayed” in v18:2. See note X above.
CXXXVIII “take” = lambano. Same as “brought” in v18:3. See note XV above.
CXXXIX “judge” = krino. Related to “answered” in v18:5. See note XXIX above.
CXL “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.

The Jews replied, “We are not permittedCXLI to put anyone to death.”CXLII 32 (This was to fulfill whatCXLIII Jesus had said when he indicatedCXLIV the kind of deathCXLV he was toCXLVI die.)

Notes on verses 18:31b-32

CXLI “permitted” = exesti. Related to “was” in v18:1. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note VI above). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
CXLII “put…to death” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
CXLIII “what” = logos. Same as “word” in v18:9. See note XLI above.
CXLIV “indicated” = semaino. 6x in NT. From sema (a sign or mark). This is to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known, communicate. In John’s Gospel miracles are referred to as signs.
CXLV “death” = thanatos. Related to “die” in v18:14. From thnesko (see note LXXV above). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CXLVI “was to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.

33 Then Pilate entered the headquarters again, summonedCXLVII Jesus, and asked him, “Are you the KingCXLVIII of the Jews?” 

34 Jesus answered, “Do you askCXLIX this on your own, or did others tell you about me?” 

Notes on verses 18:33-34

CXLVII “summoned” = phoneo. Same as “crowed” in v18:27. See note CXXV above.
CXLVIII “King” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
CXLIX “ask” = lego. Same as “asked” in v18:4. See note XXVII above.

35 Pilate replied,CL “I am notCLI a Jew, am I? Your own nationCLII and the chief priests have handed you over to me. What have you done?”CLIII 

Notes on verse 18:35

CL “replied” = apokrinomai. Same as “answered” in v18:5. See note XXIX above.
CLI “not” = meti. 17x in NT. From me (not, neither, never; rules out conditional statements and their implications) + tis (someone, anyone, anything). This is asking a question when you expect the answer to be no. It is if not, surely no. But it also keeps a small possibility floating – but could it be?
CLII “nation” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
CLIII “done” = poieo. Same as “made” in v18:18. See note XCI above.

36 Jesus answered, “My kingdomCLIV does not belong to this world. If my kingdom belonged to this world, my followersCLV would be fightingCLVI to keep me from being handed over to the Jews. But as it is, my kingdom is not from here.”CLVII 

Notes on verse 18:36

CLIV “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “king” in v18:33. From basileus (see note CXLVIII above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CLV “followers” = huperetes. Same as “police” in v18:3. See note XVII above.
CLVI “fighting” = agonizomai. Related to “met” in v18:2 & “go” in v18:7 & “took” in v18:13 & “brought…in” in v18:16 & “synagogues” in v18:12. 8x in NT. From agon (a gathering or contest – as an athletic competition such as a race; also conflict, struggle, opposition or a fight; used figuratively in a positive sense – as fighting the good fight of faith; used in a negative figurative sense for effort or anxiety; properly, refers to a place where people gather, which implies the game or contest); from ago (see note XIV above). This is to struggle, strive, or fight. It could be contending to win a prize or against an adversary or in war. It can also mean striving to accomplish something. This is where the word “agonize” comes from.
CLVII “from here” = enteuthen.  10x in NT. Related to enthen (from here); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, within)} OR from enthade (here, within, hither); {from en (see above)}. This is from here, on this side, thereupon, on both sides.

37 Pilate asked him, “So you are a king?”

Jesus answered, “You say that I am a king. For this I was born,CLVIII and for this I came into the world, to testify to the truth.CLIX EveryoneCLX who belongsCLXI to the truth listensCLXII to my voice.”CLXIII 

Notes on verse 18:37

CLVIII “born” = gennao. Related to “relative” in v18:26. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (see note CXX above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.
CLIX “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
CLX “everyone” = pas. Same as “all” in v18:4. See note XXIV above.
CLXI “belongs” = eimi. Same as “was” in v18:1. See note VI above.
CLXII “listens” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v18:21. See note CVIII above.
CLXIII “voice” = phone. Related to “lanterns” in v18:3 & “crowed” in v18:27 & “said” in v18:29. See note CXXV above.

38 Pilate askedCLXIV him, “What is truth?”

After he had said this, he went out to the Jews again and toldCLXV them, “I findCLXVI no caseCLXVII against him. 

Notes on verse 18:38

CLXIV “asked” = lego. Same as “asked” in v18:4. See note XXVII above.
CLXV “told” = lego. Same as “asked” in v18:4. See note XXVII above.
CLXVI “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CXLVII “case” = aitia. From aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.

39 But you haveCLXVIII a customCLXIX that I releaseCLXX someoneCLXXI for you at the Passover. Do you wantCLXXII me to release for you the King of the Jews?” 

Notes on verse 18:39

CLXVIII “have” = eimi. Same as “was” in v18:1. See note VI above.
CLXIX “custom” = sunetheia. Related to “nation” in v18:35. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + ethos (see note CLII above). This is a habit, custom, or practice.
CLXX “release” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
CLXXI “someone” = heis. Same as “one” in v18:14. See note LXXIII above.
CLXXII “want” = boulomai. Related to “advised” in v18:14. See note LXXI above.

40 They shoutedCLXXIII in reply,CLXXIV “Not this man but Barabbas!”CLXXV Now Barabbas was a rebel.CLXXVI

Notes on verse 18:40

CLXXIII “shouted” = kraugazo. 9x in NT. From krauge (a very emotional shout or cry generally or clamor against someone else; a cry of alarm, trouble, or grief); from krazo (to cry out, scream, shriek; onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call; figuratively, this is means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt). This is to cry, shout, clamor. It is a screaming or shrieking that is often impossible to understand exact words in. It is sound expressing feeling/urgency. Properly, this refers to loud animal sounds.
CLXXIV “reply” = lego. Same as “asked” in v18:4. See note XXVII above.
CLXXV “Barabbas” = Barabbas. 11x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son literal or figurative, age); {corresponding to Hebrew ben (son literal or figurative, subject, age)} + Aramaic abba (father) {from Aramaic ab (father); corresponding to Hebrew ab (father literal or figurative – ancestor, chief, grandfather, etc.)}. This is Barabbas, meaning son of the father.
CLXXVI “rebel” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barabbas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.

19:1 Then Pilate tookCLXXVII Jesus and had him flogged.CLXXVIII And the soldiersCLXXIX woveCLXXX

Notes on verses 19:1-2a

CLXXVII “took” = lambano. Same as “brought” in v18:3. See note XV above.
CLXXVIII “flogged” = mastigoo. 7x in NT. From mastix (a whip that had leather straps with metal bits sewn onto them; figurative for great pain, suffering, disease, or plague; a Roman whip used on criminals, the flagellum); probably from massaomai (to chew, gnaw, consume); from masso (to handle, squeeze). This is to flog or whip someone – the victim being strapped to a pole. Used figuratively for being chastised.
CLXXIX “soldiers” = stratiotes. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXX “wove” = pleko. 3x in NT– all in Gospel parallels of soldiers mocking Jesus. This is to twist, braid, or weave together.

a crownCLXXXI of thornsCLXXXII and put it onCLXXXIII his head,CLXXXIV

Notes on verse 19:2b

CLXXXI “crown” = stephanos. 18x in NT. From stepho (to twine, encircle). This is something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland. Properly, this refers to the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win. It symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek. This is the word used for the crown that the saints in heaven wear in, for example, Revelation 4:4.
CLXXXII “thorns” = akantha. 14x in NT. From akmen (even now, still yet); from the same as akmazo (ripe, to be vigorous); from akme (point, edge); related to ake (a point). This is thorn or thorn bush.
CLXXXIII “put…on” = epitithemi. Related to “sheath” in v18:11 & “at that moment” in v18:27. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (see note LVIII above). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
CLXXXIV “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.

and they dressed him inCLXXXV a purpleCLXXXVI robe.CLXXXVII 

Notes on verse 19:2c

CLXXXV “dressed…in” = periballo. Related to “put” in v18:11. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ballo (see note LVII above). This is to thrown around, clothe, array, put on.
CLXXXVI “purple” = porphurous. 4x in NT. From porphura (purple dye, cloth, or a garment from that cloth; ranged from violet to scarlet to blue; dye made from a snail; symbolized royalty, wealth, or power); perhaps from phuro (to mix something dry with something wet). This is purple, the cloth or the dye – associated with money, power, nobility, and kings.
CLXXXVII “robe” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.

They kept coming upCLXXXVIII to him, saying, “Hail,CLXXXIX King of the Jews!” and striking him on the face. 

Pilate wentCXC out again and said to them, “Look,CXCI I am bringingCXCII him out to you to let you knowCXCIII that I find no case against him.” 

Notes on verses 19:3-4

CLXXXVIII “coming up” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v18:3. See note XX above.
CLXXXIX “hail” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
CXC “went” = exerchomai. Same as “went out” in v18:1. See note II above.
CXCI “look” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v18:21. See note CIX above.
CXCII “bringing” = ago. Same as “took” in v18:13. See note LXVII above.
CXCIII “know” = ginosko. Related to “name” in v18:10 & rel to “known” in v18:15. See note LV above.

So Jesus cameCXCIV out wearingCXCV the crown of thornsCXCVI and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, “BeholdCXCVII the man!” 

When the chief priests and the police saw him, they shouted, “CrucifyCXCVIII him! Crucify him!”

Pilate said to them, “TakeCXCIX him yourselves and crucify him; I find no case against him.” 

Notes on verses 19:5-6

CXCIV “came” = exerchomai. Same as “went out” in v18:1. See note II above.
CXCV “wearing” = phoreo. Related to “was better” in v18:14 & “bring” in v18:29. 6x in NT. From phero (see note LXXII above). This is to wear or bear regularly or continually. It can refer to clothing or bearing a burden.
CXCVI “of thorns” = akanthinos. Related to “thorns” in v19:2. 2x in NT. From akantha (see note CLXXXII above). This is related to thorns or thorny.
CXCVII “behold” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v18:21. See note CIX above.
CXCVIII “crucify” = stauroo. Related to “standing” in v18:5 & “standing nearby” in v18:22 & “sent” in v18:24. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (see note XXXII above). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.
CXCIX “take” = lambano. Same as “brought” in v18:3. See note XV above.

The Jews answered him, “We have a law, and according to that law he oughtCC to die because he has claimed to beCCI the SonCCII of God.”CCIII

Notes on verse 19:7

CC “ought” = opheilo. Perhaps from the base of ophelos (advantage, gain, profit); from ophello (heaped together, accumulate, increase). This is to be indebted morally or legally – having an obligation one must meet. This term came from the legal world, but was then adopted in reference to morality. In the New Testament it is used for humanity’s ethical responsibility.
CCI “claimed to be” = heautou + poieo. Literally, “made himself.” Poieo is the same as “made” in v18:18. See note XCI above.
CCII “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CCIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

Now when Pilate heard this,CCIV he was moreCCV afraidCCVI than ever. He entered his headquarters again and askedCCVII Jesus, “Where are you from?” But Jesus gave him no answer.CCVIII 

Notes on verses 19:8-9

CCIV {untranslated} = logos. Same as “word” in v18:9. See note XLI above.
CCV “more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
CCVI “afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
CCVII “asked” = lego. Same as “asked” in v18:4. See note XXVII above.
CCVIII “answer” = apokrisis. Related to “answered” in v18:5 & “judge” in v18:31. 4x in NT. From apokrinomai (see note XXIX above). This is reply or response.

10 Pilate therefore said to him, “Do you refuse to speak to me? Do you not knowCCIX that I have powerCCX to release you and power to crucify you?” 

11 Jesus answered him, “You would have no power over me unless it had been given you from above;CCXI

Notes on verses 19:10-11a

CCIX “know” = eido. Same as “knew” in v18:2. See note XI above.
CCX “power” = exousia. Related to “was” in v18:1 & “permitted” in v18:31. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note VI above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
CCXI “from above” = anothen. 13x in NT– this is the word used in John 3:3 in the being born “from above”/“again” conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus. From ano (up, above, up to the top, things above, heaven); from ana (up, upwards, again, back, among, anew). This is from above, from the top, again, beginning, from the source. It implies anew.

therefore the one who handed me over to you is guiltyCCXII of a greaterCCXIII sin.”CCXIV 

Notes on verse 19:11b

CCXII “is guilty” = echo. Same as “had” in v18:10. See note XLVI above.
CCXIII “greater” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CCXIV “sin” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

12 From then on Pilate triedCCXV to release him, but the Jews cried out,CCXVI “If you release this man, you are no friendCCXVII of Caesar.CCXVIII Everyone who claims to be a king sets himself againstCCXIX Caesar.”

Notes on verse 19:12

CCXV “tried” = zeteo. Same as “looking for” in v18:3. See note XXVIII above.
CCXVI “cried out” = kraugazo. Same as “shouted” in v18:40. See note CLXXIII above.
CCXVII “friend” = philos. This is dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person.
CCXVIII “Caesar” = kaisar. From Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors. See
CCXXIX “sets…against” = antilego. Related to “asked” in v18:4 & “word” in v18:9. 11x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + lego (see note XXVII above). This is literally to speak against – so, to contradict, oppose, resist. It is being argumentative, especially with a hostile bent through opposition. It can indicate attempts to thwart.

13 When Pilate heard these words, he broughtCCXX Jesus outside and satCCXXI on the judge’s benchCCXXII

Notes on verse 19:13a

CCXX “brought” = ago. Same as “took” in v18:13. See note LXVII above.
CCXXI “sat” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
CCXXII “judge’s bench” = bema. Related to “king” in v18:33. 12x in NT. From the same as basis (see note CXLVIII above). This is a place that is raised and has steps such as where a tribunal would meet to mete out justice. It also refers literally to the chair from which such justice would come whether for reward or punishment. This word was borrowed into Jewish religious practice from Byzantine Greek (from the same root) to describe the raised area of the synagogue from which the Torah was proclaimed – the bima. See

at a place calledCCXXIII The Stone Pavement,CCXXIV or in HebrewCCXV Gabbatha.CCXXVI 

Notes on verse 19:13b

CCXXIII “called” = lego. Same as “asked” in v18:4. See note XXVII above.
CCXXIV “Stone Pavement” = lithostrotos. Related to “soldiers” in v19:2. 1x in NT. From lithos (stone literal or figurative – stumbling, millstone, cornerstone) + strotos (spread or covered); {from stronnumi (see note CLXXIX above)}. This is paved with stone or a mosaic. It is the place where the Roman tribunal met.
CCXXV “in Hebrew” = Hebraisti. 7x in NT. From Hebrais (Hebrew language, Aramaic); from Eber (Heber); from Hebrew Eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Hebrew, perhaps meaning a descendant of Eber. This is in Hebrew or in Aramaic.
CCXXVI “Gabbatha” = Gabbatha. 1x in NT. From Aramaic gab (back or side); corresponding to Hebrew gab (back, rim, valut, bulwark, top, a prominent or high place). This is Gabbath, which may mean stone pavement like the Greek. It may also mean knoll or higher place.

14 Now it was the day of PreparationCCXXVII for the Passover, and it was about noon.CCXXVIII He said to the Jews, “HereCCXXIX is your King!” 

15 They cried out, “AwayCCXXX with him! Away with him! Crucify him!”

Pilate askedCCXXXI them, “Shall I crucify your King?”

The chief priests answered, “We have no king but Caesar.” 16 Then he handed him over to them to be crucified.

Notes on verses 19:14-16a

CCXXVII “day of preparation” = paraskeue. 6x in NT. From paraskeuazo (to prepare, get ready); {from para (from beside, by) + skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense); {from skeuazo (to prepare using a tool)}}. This is preparation or readiness. It can be used specifically to refer to preparing for the Sabbath or a festival.
CCXXVIII “was about noon” = hora + eimi + hos + hektos. Literally, “the hour was about the sixth.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from. Eimi is the same as “was” in v18:1. See note VI above. Hektos is 14x in NT. From hex (six). This is sixth.
CCXXIX “here” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v18:21. See note CIX above.
CXXX “away” = airo. Related to “drew” in v18:10. See note XLVIII above.
CXXXI “asked” = lego. Same as “asked” in v18:4. See note XXVII above.

So they tookCCXXXII Jesus, 17 and carryingCCXXXIII the crossCCXXXIV by himself

Notes on verses 19:16b-17a

CCXXXII “took” = paralambano. Related to “brought” in v18:3 & “arrested” in v18:12. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (see note XV above). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
CCXXXIII “carrying” = bastazo. Related to “king” in v18:33 & “judge’s bench” in v19:13. Perhaps from the base of basis (see note CXLVIIIa above). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.
CCXXXIV “cross” = stauros. Related to “standing” in v18:5 & “standing nearby” in v18:22 & “sent” in v18:24 & “crucify” in v19:6. See note CXCVIII above.

he went outCCXXXV to what is called the Place of the Skull,CCXXXVI which in Hebrew is called Golgotha.CCXXXVII 

Notes on verse 19:17b

CCXXXV “went out” = exerchomai. Same as “went out” in v18:1. See note II above.
CCXXXVI “Skull” = kranion. 4x in NT. From kara (the head) OR from the base of keras (horn or something horn-shaped; horn in a literal or figurative sense – that which prevails or a symbol of power). This is skull. It’s where we get the word “cranium” from.
CCXXXVII “Golgotha” = Golgotha. 3x in NT. From Aramaic golgolta (skull); from Hebrew gulgolet (skull, head; a census or poll that counts people by head); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Golgotha, skull. See &

18 There they crucified him and with him twoCCXXXVIII others, one on either side,CCXXXIX with Jesus betweenCCXL them. 

19 Pilate also had an inscriptionCCXLI writtenCCXLII and putCCXLIII on the cross. It read,CCXLIV “Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews.” 

Notes on verses 19:18-19

CCXXXVIII “two” = duo. This is two or both.
CCXXXIX “one on either side” = enteuthen + kai + enteuthen. Enteuthen is the same as “from here” in v18:36. See note CLVII above.
CCXL “between” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
CCXLI “inscription” = titlos. 2x in NT. From Latin titulus (“title, placard, tablet, inscription, epitaph”; probably from Etruscan). This is title, inscription, or notice. See
CCXLII “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
CCXLIII “put” = tithemi. Related to “sheath” in v18:11 & “at that moment” in v18:27 & “put…on” in v19:2. See note LVIII above.
CCXLIV “read” = grapho. Same as “written” in v19:19. See note CCXLII above.

20 ManyCCXLV of the Jews readCCXLVI this inscription because the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city,CCXLVII and it was written in Hebrew, in Latin,CCXLVIII and in Greek.CCXLIX 

21 Then the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate, “Do not write, ‘The King of the Jews,’ but, ‘This man said, I am King of the Jews.’” 

22 Pilate answered, “What I have written I have written.” 

Notes on verses 19:20-22

CCXLV “many” = polus. Related to “often” in v18:2. See note XIII above.
CCXLVI “read” = anaginosko. Related to “name” in v18:10 & “known” in v18:15 & “know” in v19:4. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + ginosko (see note LV above). This is literally to know again – to recognize, read, or discern.
CCXLVII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CCXLVIII “in Latin” = Rhomaisti. 1x in NT. From Rhomaios (Roman, of Rome); from Rhome (Rome); from the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This means in Latin. See
CCXLIX “in Greek” = Hellenisti. 2x in NT. From the same as Hellenistes (a Greek person, a Hellenist, a Jew who speaks Greek); from hellenizo (to hellenize); from Hellen (Greek; used in the New Testament for a Gentile who speaks Greek); from hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is in Greek or Hellistically. See

23 When the soldiers had crucified Jesus, they tookCCL his clothesCCLI and dividedCCLII them into fourCCLIII parts,CCLIV oneCCLV for eachCCLVI soldier.

Notes on verse 19:23a

CCL “took” = lambano. Same as “brought” in v18:3. See note XV above.
CCLI “clothes” = himation. Same as “robe” in v19:2. See note CLXXXVII above.
CCLII “divided” = poieo. Same as “made” in v18:18. See note XCI above.
CCLIII “four” = tessares. This is four – used figuratively for total coverage.
CCLIV “parts” = meros. Related to “sin” in v19:11. See note CCXIV above.
CCLV “one” = meros. Same as “parts” in v19:23. See note CCLIV above.
CCLVI “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.

They also took his tunic;CCLVII now the tunic was seamless,CCLVIII wovenCCLIX in one pieceCCLX from the top.CCLXI 

Notes on verse 19:23b

CCLVII “tunic” = chiton. 11x in NT. From a Semitic language – see Hebrew kethoneth (tunic). Root means to cover. This is the garment worn beneath the cloak or robe – the one that is closest to the skin.
CCLVIII “seamless” = arraphos. Related to “struck” in v18:22. 1x in NT. Related to araphos (seamless, unsewn); {from a (not, without) + rhapto (to sew) or the same as rhapis (needle); perhaps related to rhapizo (see note CXII above)}. This is seamless or made from a single piece.
CCLIX “woven” = huphantos. 1x in NT. From huphaino (to weave). This is woven or knitted.
CCLX “one piece” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CCLXI “top” = anothen. Same as “from above” in v19:11. See note CCXI above.

24 So they said to one another, “Let us not tearCCLXII it but cast lotsCCLXIII for it to see who will getCCLXIV it.”

This was to fulfill what the scriptureCCLXV says,

Notes on verse 19:24a

CCLXII “tear” = schizo. 11x in NT. This is to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).
CCLXIII “cast lots” = lagchano. 4x in NT. This is to choose by lot, to receive, determine.
CCLXIV “get” = eimi. Same as “was” in v18:1. See note VI above.
CCLXV “scripture” = graphe. Related to “written” in v19:19. From grapho (see note CCXLII above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.

“They dividedCCLXVI my clothes among themselves,
    and for my clothingCCLXVII they castCCLXVIII lots.”CCLXIX

25 AndCCLXX that is what the soldiers did.

Notes on verses 19:24b-25a

CCLXVI “divided” = diamerizo. Related to “sin” in v19:11 & “parts” in v19:23. 12x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); {from meros (see note CCXIV above)}. This is to divide up, distribute, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.
CCLXVII “clothing” = himatismos. Related to “robe” in v19:2. 6x in NT. From himatizo (to clothe, dress, give clothing); from himation (see note CLXXXVII above). This is clothing, apparel.
CCLXVIII “cast” = ballo. Same as “put” in v18:11. See note LVII above.
CCLXIX “lots” = kleros. 12x in NT. Perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This lot, portion, heritage. It is that share assigned to you. It could also refer to a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will.
CCLXX {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.

Meanwhile, standing near the cross of Jesus were his mother,CCLXXI and his mother’s sister,CCLXXII MaryCCLXXIII the wife of Clopas,CCLLXXIV and Mary Magdalene.CCLXXV 

Notes on verse 19:25b

CCLXXI “mother” = meter. This is mother in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLXXII “sister” = adelphe. From adelphos (brother in a literal or figurative sense); {from a (with, sharing) + delphus (womb)}. This is sister in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLXXIII “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
CCLXXIV “Clopas” = Klopas. 1x in NT. From Aramaic (Clopas); from halap (to make a transition, exchange, renew). This is Clopas. See
CCLXXV “Magdalene” = Magdalene. 12x in NT. From Magdala (Magadan, a place near the Sea of Galilee); perhaps from Aramaic migdal, see also Hebrew migdal (tower); from gadal (to grow, grow up, be great). This is from Magdala.

26 When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he lovedCCLXXVI standing besideCCLXXVII her, he said to his mother, “Woman,CCLXXVIII here is your son.” 

27 Then he said to the disciple, “Here is your mother.” And from that hourCCLXXIX the disciple tookCCLXXX her into his own home.CCLXXXI

Notes on verses 19:26-27

CCLXXVI “loved” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
CCLXXVII “standing beside” = paristemi. Same as “standing nearby” in v18:22. See note CXI above.
CCLXXVIII “woman” = gune. Related to “relative” in v18:26 & “born” in v18:37. Perhaps from ginomai (see note CXX above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CCLXXIX “hour” = hora. Same as “was about noon” in v19:14. See note CCXXVIII above.
CCLXXX “took” = lambano. Same as “brought” in v18:3. See note XV above.
CCLXXXI “own home” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).

28 After this, when Jesus knewCCLXXXII that all was now finished,CCLXXXIII he said (in order to fulfillCCLXXXIV the scripture), “I am thirsty.”CCLXXXV 

Notes on verse 19:28

CCLXXXII “knew” = eido. Same as “knew” in v18:2. See note XI above.
CCLXXXIII “finished” = teleo. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end.
CCLXXXIV “fulfill” = teleioo. Related to “finished” in v19:28. From teleios (going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one; reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect”; also full grown or mature); from telos (see note CCLXXXIII above).  This is finish, accomplish, bring to an end, complete, reach a goal, finish a race, to consummate. It refers to completing stages or phases to get to an ultimate conclusion. It can also mean consecrate or fulfill.
CCLXXXV “am thirsty” = dipsao. 16x in NT. From dipsa (thirst); from dipsos (thirst). This is thirst in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean keenly desire.

29 A jarCCLXXXVI fullCCLXXXVII of sour wineCCLXXXVIII was standingCCLXXXIX there.

Notes on verse 19:29a

CCLXXXVI “jar” = skeuos. Related to “day of preparation” in v19:14. See note CCXXVII above.
CCLXXXVII “full” = mestos. 9x in NT. This is filled with in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLXXXVIII “sour wine” = oxos. Related to “thorns” in v19:2 & “of thorns” in v19:5. 6x in NT– all of the crucifixion. From oxus (sharp, eager, quick); probably related to akmen (see note CLXXXII above). This is sour wine or vinegar. As the lowest grade of Roman wine, it was a common drink for Roman soldiers.
CCLXXXIX “standing” = keimai. This is to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined. It is to lie down literally or figuratively.

So they putCCXC a spongeCCXCI full of the wine on a branch of hyssopCCXCII and heldCCXCIII it to his mouth.CCXCIV 

Notes on verse 19:29b

CCXC “put” = peritithemi. Related to “sheath” in v18:11 & “at that moment” in v18:27 & “put…on” in v19:2 & “put” in v19:19. 8x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + tithemi (see note LVIII above). This is to place around i.e. to clothe. Figuratively, it can mean to bestow or to present.
CCXCI “sponge” = spoggos. 3x in NT– all during the crucifixion. Perhaps related to spoggos (sponge or tonsil) –  a “Mediterranean-Pontic Pre-Greek substrate loanword.” This is sponge. See
CCXCII “branch of hyssop” = hussopos. 2x in NT. A Semitic word – in Hebrew ezob (hyssop). Hyssop, either a stalk or stem.
CCXCIII “held” = prosphero. Related to “was better” in v18:14 & “bring” in v18:29 & “wearing” in v19:5. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (see note LXXII above). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
CCXCIV “mouth” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.

30 When Jesus had receivedCCXCV the wine, he said, “It is finished.” Then he bowedCCXCVI his head and gave upCCXCVII his spirit.CCXCVIII 

Notes on verse 19:30

CCXCV “received” = lambano. Same as “brought” in v18:3. See note XV above.
CCXCVI “bowed” = klino. 7x in NT. This is to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear. It can be bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee.
CCXCVII “gave up” = paradidomi. Same as “betrayed” in v18:2. See note X above.
CCXCVIII “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

31 Since it was the day of Preparation, the Jews did not want the bodiesCCXCIX leftCCC on the cross during the Sabbath,CCCI especially because that Sabbath was a dayCCCII of great solemnity.CCCIII

Notes on verse 19:31a

CCXCIX “bodies” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
CCC “left” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
CCCI “Sabbath” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
CCCII “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CCCIII “great solemnity” = megas. Same as “greater” in v19:11. See note CCXIII above.

So they askedCCCIV Pilate to have the legsCCCV of the crucified men brokenCCCVI and the bodies removed.CCCVII 

Notes on verse 19:31b

CCCIV “asked” = erotao. Same as “questioned” in v18:19. See note XCV above.
CCCV “legs” = skelos. 3x in NT– all in this passage. Perhaps from skello (to parch). This is leg, beginning at the hip.
CCCVI “broken” = katagnumi. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is to crush or beak in pieces.
CCCVII “removed” = airo. Same as “away” in v19:15. See note CCXXX above.

32 Then the soldiers cameCCCVIII and broke the legs of theCCCIX firstCCCX and of the other who had been crucified withCCCXI him. 

Notes on verse 19:32

CCCVIII “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v18:3. See note XX above.
CCCIX {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v19:24. See note CCLXX above.
CCCX “first” = protos. Related to “first” in v18:13. See note LXVI above.
CCCXI “crucified with” = sustauroo. Related to “standing” in v18:5 & “standing nearby” in v18:22 & “sent” in v18:24 & “crucify” in v19:6 & “cross” in v19:17. 5x in NT.  From sun (with, together with) + stauroo (see note CXCVIII above). This is to crucify with in a literal or figurative sense.

33 But when they cameCCCXII to Jesus and saw that he was already dead,CCCXIII they did not break his legs. 34 Instead, one of the soldiers piercedCCCXIV his sideCCCXV with a spear,CCCXVI

Notes on verses 19:33-34a

CCCXII “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v18:3. See note XX above.
CCCXIII “dead” = thnesko. Related to “die” in v18:14 & “death” in v18:32. 9x in NT. See note LXXV above.
CCCXIV “pierced” = nusso. 2x in NT. This is to prick or pierce.
CCCXV “side” = pleura. 6x in NT. This is the side or the side of the body. It is where “pleurisy” comes from.
CCCXVI “spear” = logche. 2x in NT. This is lance or spear.

and at onceCCCXVII bloodCCCXVIII and waterCCCXIX came out.CCCXX 

Notes on verse 19:34b

CCCXVII “at once” = eutheos. Same as “at that moment” in v18:27. See note CXXIII above.
CCCXVIII “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
CCCXIX “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
CCCXX “came out” = exerchomai. Same as “went out” in v18:1. See note II above.

35 (He who saw this has testified so that you also may believe. His testimonyCCCXXI is true,CCCXXII and he knowsCCCXXIII 

Notes on verse 19:35a

CCCXXI “testimony” = marturia. Related to “testify” in v18:23. From martureo (see note CXIV above). This is testimony, witness, evidence, record, reputation.
CCCXXII “true” = alethinos. Related to “truth” in v18:37. From alethes (see note CLIX above). This is literally made of truth – that which is true or real, authentic. Something that is true from its source and has integrity.
CCCXXIII “knows” = eido. Same as “knew” in v18:2. See note XI above.

that he tellsCCCXXIV the truth,CCCXXV so that you also may continue to believe.)CCCXXVI, CCCXXVII 

Notes on verse 19:35b

CCXXIV “tells” = lego. Same as “asked” in v18:4. See note XXVII above.
CCXXV “truth” = alethes. Related to “truth” in v18:37 & “true” in v19:35. See note CLIX above.
CCXXVI “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CCXXVII Literally, “and the one who saw bore witness and true is his testimony. And that truth he is speaking so that also you might believe.”

36 These things occurredCCCXXVIII so that the scripture might be fulfilled,CCCXXIX “None of his bonesCCCXXX shall be broken.”CCCXXXI 

Notes on verse 19:36

CCCXXVIII “occurred” = ginomai. Related to “relative” in v18:26 & “born” in v18:37 & “woman” in v19:26. See note CXX above.
CCCXXIX “fulfilled” = pleroo. Same as “fulfill” in v18:9. See note XL above.
CCCXXX “bones” = osteon. 5x in NT. This is bone. It is one of the roots of “osteopath.”
CCCXXXI “broken” = suntribo. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + the same as tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); {from tribo (to rub or thresh)}. This is break in pieces, bruise, shatter, or crush completely.

37 And again anotherCCCXXXII passage of scripture says, “They will lookCCCXXXIII on the one whom they have pierced.”CCCXXXIV 

Notes on verse 19:37

CCCXXXII “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
CCCXXXIII “look” = horao. Same as “see” in v18:26. See note CXXII above.
CCCXXXIV “pierced” = ekkenteo. 2x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + the same as kentron (a sting or sharp point; figuratively, poison or death); {from kenteo (to prick)}. This is to pierce or transfix.

38 After these things, JosephCCCXXXV of Arimathea,CCCXXXVI who was a disciple of Jesus, though a secretCCCXXXVII one because of his fearCCCXXXVIII of the Jews,

Notes on verse 19:38a

CCCXXXV “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
CCCXXXVI “Arimathea” = Harimathaia. 4x in NT. From Hebrew compare Ramah (Ramah, height); from rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively). This is Arimathea, a city by Jerusalem.
CCCXXXVII “secret” = krupto. Related to “secret” in v18:20. 18x in NT. See note CV above.
CCCXXXVIII “fear” = phobos. Related to “afraid” in v19:8. See note CCVI above.

askedCCCXXXIX Pilate to let him take awayCCCXL the body of Jesus. Pilate gave him permission,CCCXLI so he cameCCCXLII and removed his body. 

Notes on verse 19:38b

CCCXXXIX “asked” = erotao. Same as “questioned” in v18:19. See note XCV above.
CCCXL “take away” = airo. Same as “away” in v19:15. See note CCXXX above.
CCCXLI “gave…permission” = epitrepo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + the same as trope (turning, change, shifting); {from trepo (to turn)}. This is to allow, permit, yield, entrust, give license.
CCCXLII “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v18:3. See note XX above.

39 Nicodemus,CCCXLIII who had at firstCCCXLIV comeCCCXLV to Jesus by night, also came,CCCXLVI

Notes on verse 19:39a

CCCXLIII “Nicodemus” = Nikodemos. Related to “slave” in v18:10 & “bound” in v18:12. 5x in NT. From nikos (victory, triumph – especially a conquest); {from nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful)} + demos (district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); {from deo (to tie, bind, compel, declare unlawful)}. This is Nicodemus, meaning “victorious among his people.”
CCCXLIV “first” = protos. Same as “first” in v19:32. See note CCCX above.
CCCXLV “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v18:3. See note XX above.
CCCXLVI “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v18:3. See note XX above.

bringingCCCXLVII a mixtureCCCXLVIII of myrrhCCCXLIX

Notes on verse 19:39b

CCCXLVII “bringing” = phero. Same as “bring” in v18:29. See note CXXXV above.
CCCXLVIII “mixture” = migma. 1x in NT. From mignumi (to mix). This is a mixture or compound.
CCCXLIX “myrrh” = smurna. 2x in NT. Perhaps from muron (ointment, perfume, or oil for anointing); compare Arabic murr (myrrh, literally meaning bitterness) & Hebrew mo (myrrh, literally meaning bitterness). This is myrrh, used in preparing the body for burial. Can also be figurative for romantic desire. See

and aloes,CCCL weighing about a hundredCCCLI pounds.CCCLII 

Notes on verse 19:39c

CCCL “aloes” = aloe. 1x in NT. This is either sap from a tree called the aquillaria agallocha, the eaglewood tree, or it could refer to proper aloe. In addition to its use for embalming, aloe is associated with love in the Song of Songs 4:14.
CCCLI “hundred” = hekaton. 17x in NT. This is hundred literal or figurative.
CCCLII “pounds” = litra. 2x in NT. From Latin libra (a Roman weight – twelve ounces; also a level or set of scales); from Proto-Italic lithra (pound). This is a pound, which is about 327.5 grams. See

40 They tookCCCLIII the body of Jesus and wrappedCCCLIV it with the spicesCCCLV in linen cloths,CCCLVI according to the burialCCCLVII customCCCLVIII of the Jews. 

Notes on verse 19:40

CCCLIII “took” = lambano. Same as “brought” in v18:3. See note XV above.
CCCLIV “wrapped” = deo. Same as “bound” in v18:12. See note LXV above.
CCCLV “spices” = aroma. Related to “drew” in v18:10 & “away” in v19:15. 4x in NT– all used of bringing spices for Jesus’ body. Perhaps from airo (see note XLVIII above). This is a sweet spice, seasoning, or perfume. It is where the word “aroma” comes from.
CCCLVI “linen cloths” = othonion. 5x in NT. From othone (a cloth made of linen, a sail). This is a band of linen, a wrapping.
CCCLVII “burial” = entaphiazo. 2x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + taphos (a burial place such as a grave, sepulcher, or tomb); {from thapto (to bury, hold a funeral)}. This is to prepare a body to be buried, to embalm.
CCCLVIII “custom” = ethos. Related to “nation” in v18:35 & “custom” in v18:39. 12x in NT. See note CLXIX above.

41 Now there was a garden in the place where he was crucified, and in the garden there was a newCCCLIX tombCCCLX in which no one had ever been laid.CCCLXI 42 And so, because it was the Jewish day of Preparation and the tomb was nearby,CCCLXII they laid Jesus there.

Notes on verses 19:41-42

CCCLIX “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
CCCLX “tomb” = mnemeion. Related to “left” in v19:31 & “flogged” in v19:1. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (see note CCC above). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
CCCLXI “laid” = tithemi. Same as “put” in v19:19. See note CCXLIII above.
CCCLXII “nearby” = eggus. Perhaps from agcho (to squeeze). This is nearby or near in time.

Image credit: “Christ Crowned with Thorns” by Hans Breinlinger, 1958.

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