Mark 12

Mark 12


Then he beganI to speak to them in parables.II “A manIII plantedIV a vineyard,V

Notes on verse 1a

I “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
II “parables” = parabole. From paraballo (literally to throw beside, compare, arrive, liken); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a parable, comparison, adage. Quite often a tale told or a metaphor to establish a point, but it could be a true story.
III “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
IV “planted” = phuteuo. 11x in NT. From phuton (a plant) OR from the base of phuo (to grow, produce, spring up; perhaps from the sense of puff or blow – to swell up; hence, to germinate; to grow literally or figuratively). This is plant or implant. Figuratively, this word is used for Christian teaching.
V “vineyard” = ampelos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from the base of amphoteros (both, all); {from amphi (around) + halon (the threshing floor where grain is rolled to separate from the chaff); {from halos (threshing floor); probably from helisso (to roll up, coil, wrap)}}. This is vine or grapevine as that which coils around.

put a fenceVI aroundVII it, dugVIII a pit for the wine press,IX

Notes on verse 1b

VI “fence” = phragmos. 4x in NT. From phrasso (to stop, fence in, obstruct); perhaps from phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is a fence, barrier, wall, or hedge. It is a fence literally or figuratively.
VII “put…around” = peritithemi. 8x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to place around i.e. to clothe. Figuratively, it can mean to bestow or to present.
VIII “dug” = orusso. 3x in NT. This is to dig, burrow, or excavate.
IX “pit for the wine press” = hupolenion. 1x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + lenos (the vat where one stomps the grapes or the vat below that where the new wine flows out of the press). This is a wine vat or trough that catches the wine.

and builtX a watchtower;XI then he leasedXII it to tenantsXIII and went to another country.XIV 

Notes on verse 1c

X “built” = oikodomeo. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
XI “watchtower” = purgos. This is a tower or other kind of structure that is fortified.
XII “leased” = ekdidomi. 4x in NT– all in the Parable of the Wicked Tenants in the synoptic gospels. From ek (from, from out of) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is to give up or out. It can also be to lease or rent.
XIII “tenants” = georgos. 19x in NT. From ge (earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area) + ergon (word, task, action, employment); {from ergo (to work, accomplish) or from erdo (to do)}. This is wine-dresser, farmer, someone who works the land. It is also where the name “George” comes from.
XIV “went to another country” = apodemeo. 6x in NT. From apodemos (to go abroad, sojourn in a foreign country); {from apo (from, away from) + demos (district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); {from deo (to tie, bind, compel, declare unlawful)}}. This is to travel abroad, be away from home. This word shares a root with “democracy” and “Nicodemus.”

When the seasonXV came, he sentXVI a slaveXVII to the tenants to collectXVIII from themXIX his share of the produceXX of the vineyard. 

Notes on verse 2

XV “season” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
XVI “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
XVII “slave” = doulos. Related to “went to another country” in v1. Perhaps from deo (see note XIV above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
XVIII “collect” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XIX “them” = georgos. Same as “tenants” in v1. See note XIII above.
XX “produce” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.

3 But they seizedXXI him, and beatXXII him, and sent him away empty-handed.XXIII And again he sent anotherXXIV slave to them; this one they beat over the headXXV and insulted.XXVI 

Notes on verses 3-4

XXI “seized” = lambano. Same as “collect” in v2. See note XVIII above.
XXII “beat” = dero. 15x in NT. To whip, flog, scourge, beat, thrash.
XXIII “empty-handed” = kenos. 18x in NT. Properly, this is something that is empty or void. Hence, it is worthless, foolish, ineffective, morally void, pretentious, unreal, or false.
XXIV “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
XXV “beat over the head” = kephalaioo. 1x in NT. From kephalaion (relating to the head, the principle matter, an amount of money); from kephale (head or chief; literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord, corner stone); from kapto (to seize). This is to hit or wound the head.
XXVI “insulted” = atimazo. 7x in NT. From atimos (without honor, lacking value, without dignity, despised); {from a (not, without) + time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to dishonor or disgrace, insult, shame, mistreat. It is mistreating someone because they are seen as lacking value or worth.

5 Then he sent another, and that one they killed.XXVII And so it was with manyXXVIII others;XXIX someXXX they beat, and others they killed. He hadXXXI still oneXXXII other, a belovedXXXIII son.XXXIV

Notes on verses 5-6a

XXVII “killed” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
XXVIII “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XXIX “others” = allos. Same as “another” in v4. See note XXIV above.
XXX {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXXI “had” = echo. This is to have, hold, or possess.
XXXII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XXXIII “beloved” = agapetos. From agape (love, goodwill, benevolence; God’s divine love); from agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is Beloved or very dear one. It is a title for the Messiah, but also for Christians. Properly, this is one who personally experiences God’s love.
XXXIV “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.

FinallyXXXV he sent him to them, saying,XXXVI ‘They will respectXXXVII my son.’ 

But those tenants said to one another, ‘This isXXXVIII the heir;XXXIX come,XL let us kill him, and the inheritanceXLI will be ours.’ 

Notes on verses 6b-7

XXXV “finally” = eschatos. Related to “had” in v6. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (see note XXXI above). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
XXXVI “saying” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXXVII “respect” = entrepo. 9x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + trepo (to turn; may imply turn with change). This is to turn. It could be to turn to pay rapt attention to, to turn in shame, recoil, or to turn to in respect.
XXXVIII “is” = eimi. This is to be or exist.
XXXIX “heir” = kleronomos. 15x in NT. From kleros (lot, portion, heritage; that share assigned to you; also a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will); {perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread)} + the same as nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}}. This is heir, inheritor, or possessor – whether literal of figurative.
XL “come” = deute. 12x in NT. From deuro (come here, hither, hence, now, until now). This is come, follow – as an exclamatory mood.
XLI “inheritance” = kleronomia. Related to “heir” in v7. 14x in NT. From kleronomos (see note XXXIX above). This is inheritance, heritage, or possession.

So they seized him, killed him, and threwXLII him out of the vineyard. What then will the ownerXLIII of the vineyard do?XLIV He will comeXLV and destroyXLVI the tenants and giveXLVII the vineyard to others. 

Notes on verses 8-9

XLII “threw” = ekballo. Related to “parables” in v1. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (see note II above). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
XLIII “owner” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XLIV “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XLV “come” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
XLVI “destroy” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
XLVII “give” = didomi. Related to “leased” in v1. See note XII above.

10 Have you not readXLVIII this scripture:XLIX

‘The stoneL that the buildersLI rejectedLII

Notes on verse 10a

XLVIII “read” = anaginosko. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is literally to know again – to recognize, read, or discern.
XLIX “scripture” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
L “stone” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.
LI “builders” = oikodomeo. Same as “built” in v1. See note X above.
LII “rejected” = apodokimazo. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + dokimazo (to test, examine, prove; to approve after subjecting to a test to determine if it is real or acceptable; to test in a literal or figurative sense); {from dokimos (what passes the test, approved, acceptable, genuine, verified); from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense) or dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion)}}. This is rejected or disqualified following a test. It is rejected after rigorous investigation and so seen as useless or unworthy.

    has becomeLIII the cornerstone;LIV
11 this wasLV the Lord’sLVI doing,
    and it is amazingLVII in our eyes’?”LVIII

Notes on verses 10b-11

LIII “become” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LIV “cornerstone” = kephale + gonia. Literally, “the head of the corner.” Kephale is related to “beat over the head” in v4. See note XXV above. Gonia is 9x in NT. From gonu (knee or foot). This is an angle or corner. Figuratively, it can be somewhere hidden.
LV “was” = ginomai. Same as “become” in v10. See note LIII above.
LVI “Lord’s” = Kurios. Same as “owner” in v9. See note XLIII above.
LVII “amazing” = thaumastos. 6x in NT. From thaumazo (to marvel, wonder, or admire; to be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck; being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld); from thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is wonderful, marvelous, awe-inspiring. It is something that moves one to deepest feelings.
LVIII “eyes” = ophthalmos. Related to “man” in v1. From optanomai (see note III above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.

12 When they realizedLIX that he had told this parable against them, they wantedLX to arrestLXI him, but they fearedLXII the crowd. So they leftLXIII him and went away.LXIV

Notes on verse 12

LIX “realized” = ginosko. Related to “read” in v10. See note XLVIII above.
LX “wanted” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
LXI “arrest” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
LXII “feared” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
LXIII “left” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
LXIV “went away” = aperchomai. Related to “come” in v9. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note XLV about). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.

13 Then they sent to him some PhariseesLXV and some HerodiansLXVI to trapLXVII him in what he said.LXVIII 

Notes on verse 13

LXV “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
LXVI “Herodians” = Herodianoi. 3x in NT. From Herodes (Herod, perhaps meaning “hero’s song,” “Hera’s song,” or “heroic”); {perhaps from heros (hero, warrior) + oide (song, ode, legend, tale) [from aoide (song, ode, legend, tale) {from aeido (to sing) + e (this is added to verbs to make them nouns)}] OR from hera (Hera) + oide (same as above)}. This is Herodian – one who followed Herod Antipas. See
LXVII “trap” = agreuo. 1x in NT. From agra (a catch; what is taken from hunting or fishing); {perhaps related to agros (a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle; a farm or lands) or ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go)} This is capture or entrap – as in hunting.
LXVIII “what he said” = logos. Related to “saying” in v6. From lego (see note XXXVI above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

14 And they came and said to him, “Teacher,LXIX we knowLXX that you are sincere,LXXI and show deferenceLXXII to no one;

Notes on verse 14a

LXIX “Teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
LXX “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
LXXI “sincere” = alethes. From a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic.
LXXII “show deference” = melo. 10x in NT. This is to think about something, take an interest, to pay attention. It is to care or worry about something.

for you do not regardLXXIII peopleLXXIV with partiality,LXXV but teachLXXVI the wayLXXVII of GodLXXVIII in accordance with truth.LXXIX

Notes on verse 14b

LXXIII “regard” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
LXXIV “people” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v1. See note III above.
LXXV “partiality” = prosopon. Related to “man” in v1 & “eyes” in v11. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note III above)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
LXXVI “teach” = didasko. Related to “teacher” in v14. See note LXIX above.
LXXVII “way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
LXXVIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
LXXIX “truth” = aletheia. Related to “sincere” in v14. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (see note LXXI above)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.

Is it lawfulLXXX to payLXXXI taxesLXXXII to the emperor,LXXXIII or not? 15 Should we pay them, or should we not?”

Notes on verses 14c-15a

LXXX “is…lawful” = exesti. Related to “is” in v7. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note XXXVIII above). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
LXXXI “pay” = didomi. Same as “give” in v9. See note XLVII above.
LXXXII “taxes” = kensos. 4x in NT. From Latin census (a census of people and goods; the record of a census; gifts, wealth); from censeo (to think, decree, determine, count, judge, assess); from Proto-Italic kenseo; from Proto-Indo-European *ḱn̥s-é-ti, *ḱn̥s-eyé-ti, from *ḱens- (to announce). This is an annual tax based on a census. It can also refer to the money collected in that census. This is a tax paid to Rome as tribute. It is where the word “census” comes from. See
LXXXIII “emperor” = Kaisar. From Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors. See

But knowing their hypocrisy,LXXXIV he said to them, “Why are you putting me to the test?LXXXV BringLXXXVI me a denariusLXXXVII and let me seeLXXXVIII it.” 

Notes on verse 15b

LXXXIV “hypocrisy” = hupokrisis. 6x in NT. From hupokrinomai  (to answer, pretend, respond as an actor on stage; figuratively, to lie) {from hupo (by, under, about) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging)}. This is answer, play-acting, or hypocrisy. It is one who acts beneath a mask, i.e. lies or is a hypocrite.
LXXXV “putting…to the test” = peirazo. From peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative of peiro (to pierce). This is to test, try, tempt, or make proof of. It is to test, scrutinize, or assay something. It could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline.
LXXXVI “bring” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXVII “denarius” = denarion. 16x in NT. From Latin deni (ten each) + arius (belonging to). This is a silver Roman coin.
LXXXVIII “see” = horao. Related to “man” in v1 & “eyes” in v11 & “partiality” in v14. See note III above.

16 And they brought one. Then he said to them, “Whose headLXXXIX is this, and whose title?”XC

They answered, “The emperor’s.” 

17 JesusXCI said to them, “GiveXCII to the emperor the things that are the emperor’s, and to God the things that are God’s.” And they were utterly amazedXCIII at him.

Notes on verses 16-17

LXXXIX “head” = eikon. From eiko (resemble, be like) OR perhaps related to eiko (to submit, give way, be weak, yield). This is a likeness such as an image, statue, or other representation. It implies a prototype that is being mirrored – a replication rather than a shadow. It can be an image in a figurative sense as well. This is where the word “icon” comes from.
XC “title” = epigraphe. Related to “scripture” in v10. 5x in NT. From epigrapho (to write on, inscribe, read; a literal inscription or a mental one); {from epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + grapho (see note XLIX above)}. This is some kind of title or label like an inscription or superscription.
XCI “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XCII “give” = apodidomi. Related to “leased” in v1 & “give” in v9. From apo (from, away from) + didomi (see note XII above). This is to give back, return, give away. It is to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell.
XCIII “amazed” = thaumazo. Related to “amazing” in v11. See note LVII above.

18 Some Sadducees,XCIV who say there is no resurrection,XCV came to him and asked him a question,XCVI saying, 

Notes on verse 18

XCIV “Sadducees” = Saddoukaios. 14x in NT. Probably from Hebrew tsadoq (Zadok, a personal name); from tsadaq (to be just or righteous, do justice); from tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, just cause, vindication; that which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense; abstractly equity; figuratively prosperity). This is a Sadducee. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders.
XCV “resurrection” = anastasis. Related to “sent” in v2. From anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XVI above). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.
XCVI “asked…a question” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.

19 “Teacher, MosesXCVII wroteXCVIII for us that if a man’s brotherXCIX dies,C

Notes on verse 19a

XCVII “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
XCVIII “wrote” = grapho. Related to “scripture” in v10 & “title” in v16. See note XLIX above.
XCIX “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
C “dies” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.

leavingCI a wifeCII but noCIII child,CIV the man shall marryCV the widowCVI and raise upCVII childrenCVIII for his brother. 

Notes on verse 19b

CI “leaving” = kataleipo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing). This is to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve.
CII “wife” = gune. Related to “become” in v10. Perhaps from ginomai (see note LIII above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CIII {untranslated} = aphiemi. Same as “left” in v12. See note LXIII above.
CIV “child” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
CV “marry” = lambano. Same as “collect” in v2. See note XVIII above.
CVI “widow” = gune. Same as “wife” in v19. See note CII above.
CVII “raise up” = exanistemi. Related to “sent” in v2 & “resurrection” in v18. 3x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + anistemi (see note XCV above). This is to raise up, stand, beget.
CVIII “children” = sperma. From speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); perhaps from spao (to pull, to draw a sword). This is something sown so it could be seed or offspring and descendants. This is where the word “sperm” comes from.

20 There were sevenCIX brothers; the firstCX marriedCXI and, when he died, leftCXII no children;CXIII 

Notes on verse 20

CIX “seven” = hepta. This is seven or seventh. Figuratively, seven is the number of completeness or perfection.
CX “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
CXI “married” = lambano + gune. Literally, “took a wife. Lambano is the same as “collect” in v2. See note XVIII above. Gune is the same as “wife” in v19. See note CII above.
CXII “left” = aphiemi. Same as “left” in v12. See note LXIII above.
CXIII “children” = sperma. Same as “children” n v19. See note CVIII above.

21 and the secondCXIV married the widowCXV and died, leavingCXVI no children;CXVII and the thirdCXVIII likewise; 

Notes on verse 21

CXIV “second” = deuteros. From duo (two, both). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See
CXV “widow” = gune. Same as “wife” in v19. See note CII above.
CXVI “leaving” = kataleipo. Same as “leaving” in v19. See note CI above.
CXVII “children” = sperma. Same as “children” n v19. See note CVIII above.
CXVIII “third” = tritos. From treis (three). This is third.

22 none of the seven leftCXIX children.CXX LastCXXI of allCXXII the womanCXXIII herself died. 23 In the resurrectionCXXIV whose wife will she be? For the seven had married her.”CXXV

Notes on verses 22-23

CXIX “left” = aphiemi. Same as “left” in v12. See note LXIII above.
CXX “children” = sperma. Same as “children” n v19. See note CVIII above.
CXXI “last” = eschatos. Same as “finally” in v6. See note XXXV above.
CXXII “all” = pas. This is all or every.
CXXIII “woman” = gune. Same as “wife” in v19. See note CII above.
CXXIV {untranslated} = hotan + anistemi. Literally, “at the time of rising.” Anistemi is related to “sent” in v2 & “resurrection” in v18 & “raise up” in v19. See note XCV above
CXXV “had married her” = echo + autos + gune. Literally, “had her as wife.” Echo is the same as “had” in v6. See note XXXI above. Gune is the same as “wife” in v19. See note CII above.

24 Jesus saidCXXVI to them, “Is not this the reason you are wrong,CXXVII that you know neither the scriptures nor the powerCXXVIII of God? 

Notes on verse 24

CXXVI “said” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.
CXXVII “are wrong” = planao. From plane (wandering – used figuratively for deceit, error, sin, fraudulence, or wandering from orthodoxy); from planos (wandering, misleading, a deceiver or imposter). This is to wander, lead astray, mislead, mistake, seduce, or deceive. Generally used to refer to sin – going off the right path or roaming from truth/virtue. This word shares a root with “planet” (as a heavenly body that wanders).
CXXVIII “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.

25 For when they riseCXXIX from the dead,CXXX they neither marryCXXXI nor are given in marriage,CXXXII but are like angelsCXXXIII in heaven.CXXXIV 

Notes on verse 25

CXXIX “rise” = anistemi. Same as {untranslated} in v23. See note CXXIV above.
CXXX “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
CXXXI “marry” = gameo. From gamos (a wedding, whether the ceremony, the feast, or the marriage itself). This is to marry.
CXXXII “given in marriage” = gamisko. Related to “marry” in v25. 8x in NT. From gamos (see note CXXXI above). This is to give a daughter in marriage.
CXXXIII “angels” = aggelos. Related to “trap” in v13. Probably from ago (see note LXVII above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
CXXXIV “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

26 And as for the dead being raised,CXXXV have you not read in the bookCXXXVI of Moses, in the story about the bush,CXXXVII

Notes on verse 26a

CXXXV “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
CXXXVI “book” = biblos. 10x in NT– 5x in reference to books of the Bible, 3x of the book of life, 1x of genealogical account of Jesus, 1x of books of magic. Perhaps from bublos (papyrus); from Phoenician Byblos (a Phoenician city that exported papyrus for writing); {from gb (well, origin) + I (God)}; from Proto-Canaanite g-b-l (Gubla – maybe meaning to border). This is the inside bark of papyrus so it could refer to anything that was written on – a scroll, book, record, roll. It could also have an association with the sacred. See
CXXXVII “bush” = batos. 5x in NT – 4x of the burning bush & 1x of a bramble bush. This is a bush, perhaps a thorn bush.

how God said to him, ‘I am the God of Abraham,CXXXVIII the God of Isaac,CXXXIX and the God of Jacob’?CXL 27 He is God not of the dead, but of the living;CXLI you are quiteCXLII wrong.”

Notes on verses 26b-27

CXXXVIII “Abraham” = Abraam. From Hebrew Abraham (exalted father); from the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (father literal or figurative) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
CXXXIX “Isaac” = Isaak. From Hebrew yitschaq (Isaac, “he laughs”); from tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
CXL “Jacob” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
CXLI “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
CXLII “quite” = polus. Same as “many” in v5. See note XXVIII above.

28 One of the scribesCXLIII came nearCXLIV and heardCXLV them disputing with one another,CXLVI and seeing that he answered them well,CXLVII he asked him, “Which commandmentCXLVIII is the first of all?” 

Notes on verse 28

CXLIII “scribes” = grammateus. Related to “scripture” in v10 & “title” in v16 & “wrote” in v19. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (see note XLIX above). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
CXLIV “came near” = proserchomai. Related to “come” in v9 & “went away” in v12. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note XLV above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
CXLV “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CXLVI “disputing with one another” = suzeteo. Related to “wanted” in v12. 10x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + zeteo (see note LX above). This is to seek together so a joint investigation, to argue, discuss, or debate.
CXLVII “well” = kalos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably.
CXLVIII “commandment” = entole. From entellomai (to charge, command, give orders or instructions) {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish) [from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)]}. This is an order, command, ordinance, or law. It focuses on the purpose of the command and its end result.

29 Jesus answered, “The first is, ‘Hear, O Israel:CXLIX the Lord our God, the Lord is one; 30 you shall loveCL the Lord your God with allCLI your heart,CLII

Notes on verses 29-30a

CXLIX “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.
CL “love” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
CLI “all” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CLII “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

and with allCLIII your soul,CLIV and with allCLV your mind,CLVI

Notes on verse 30b

CLIII “all” = holos. Same as “all” in v30. See note CLI above.
CLIV “soul” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CLV “all” = holos. Same as “all” in v30. See note CLI above.
CLVI “mind” = dianoia. Related to “read” in v10 & “realized” in v12. 12x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from ginosko (see note XLVIII above)}. This is thought, intellect, or insight. It is thorough, critical thinking to reason through issues to reach a conclusion that is both logically sound and personal.

and with allCLVII your strength.’CLVIII 31 The second is this, ‘You shall love your neighborCLIX as yourself.’ There is no other commandment greaterCLX than these.” 

Notes on verses 30c-31

CLVII “all” = holos. Same as “all” in v30. See note CLI above.
CLVIII “strength” = ischus. Related to “had” and “finally” in v6. 10x in NT. Perhaps from is (force) + echo (see note XXXI above). This is strength, might, power, force, or ability. It is power that engages immediate resistance.
CLIX “neighbor” = plesion. 17x in NT. From pelas (near). This is near, nearby, or neighboring. As one nearby, it can also refer to a neighbor, a member of one’s country, a Christian, or a friend.
CLX “greater” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.

32 Then the scribe said to him, “You are right,CLXI Teacher; you have trulyCLXII said that ‘he is one, and besides him there is no other’; 33 and ‘to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding,CLXIII and with all the strength,’

Notes on verses 32-33a

CLXI “right” = kalos. Same as “well” in v28. See note CXLVII above.
CLXII “truly” = aletheia. Same as “truth” in v14. See note LXXIX above.
CLXIII “understanding” = sunesis. Related to “left” in v12. 7x in NT. From suneimi (to put together – used figuratively to mean understand, consider, gain insight; this is bringing together facts or notions and synthesizing them into a whole; making a summary to arrive at a final conclusion that includes how to apply the insight to life; it can also imply acting piously or being wise); from sun (with, together with) + hiemi (see note LXIII above). This is understanding, cleverness, intelligence, knowledge, or insight. Just as the root verb, it is synthesized reasoning that brings facts together to understand indirect truths from the facts at hand.

and ‘to love one’s neighbor as oneself,’—this is much more importantCLXIV than allCLXV whole burnt offeringsCLXVI and sacrifices.”CLXVII 

Notes on verse 33b

CLXIV “more important” = perissos. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently.
CLXV “all” = pas. Same as “all” in v22. See note CXXII above.
CLXVI “whole burnt offerings” = holokautoma. Related to “all” in v30. 3x in NT. From holos (see note CLI above) + kaio (to burn, light, kindle). This is a burnt offering – something that is burned entirely as part of a sacrifice.
CLXVII “sacrifices” = thusia. From thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general). This is a sacrifice or offering. It can refer to the act of sacrifice or the thig being sacrificed. Also, this is sacrifice in a literal or figurative sense.

34 When Jesus saw that he answered wisely,CLXVIII he said to him, “You are not far from the kingdomCLXIX of God.” After that no one daredCLXX to ask him any question.

35 While Jesus was teaching in the temple,CLXXI he said, “How can the scribes say that the MessiahCLXXII is the son of David?CLXXIII 

Notes on verses 34-35

CLXVIII “wisely” = nounechos. Related to “read” in v10 & “realized” in v12 & “mind” in v30 & “had” and “finally” in v6 & “strength” in v30. 1x in NT. From nous (see note CLVI above) + echo (see note XXXI above). This is literally having a mind. So, it could be sensibly, prudently, or intelligently.
CLXIX “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CLXX “dared” = tolmao. Related to “commandment” in v28. 16x in NT. From tolma (boldness); perhaps from telos (see note CXLVIII above). This is to show courage to take a risk, to venture decisively, to put it on the line for something that matters.
CLXXI “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.
CLXXII “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CLXXIII “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”

36 David himself, by the HolyCLXXIV Spirit,CLXXV declared,

‘The Lord said to my Lord,
“SitCLXXVI at my right hand,CLXXVII
    until I putCLXXVIII your enemiesCLXXIX under your feet.”’CLXXX

Notes on verse 36

CLXXIV “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CLXXV “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CLXXVI “sit” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
CLXXVII “right hand” = dexios. Related to “rejected” in v10. Perhaps from dechomai (see note LII above). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
CLXXVIII “put” = tithemi. Related to “put…around” in v1. See note VII above.
CLXXIX “enemies” = echthros. From echthos (hatred). This is an openly hostile person so an enemy, a foe, or a hated person. This speaks of irreconcilable hostility. It can also mean adversary and/or refer to Satan.
CLXXX “feet” = pous. This is foot, literally or figuratively.

37 David himself calls him Lord; so how can he be his son?” And the largeCLXXXI crowd was listeningCLXXXII to him with delight.CLXXXIII

38 As he taught,CLXXXIV he said, “BewareCLXXXV of the scribes, who likeCLXXXVI to

Notes on verses 37-38a

CLXXXI “large” = polus. Same as “many” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CLXXXII “listening” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v28. See note CXLV above.
CLXXXIII “with delight” = hedeos. 3x in NT. From hedus (sweet) or from hedone (pleasure, passion – particularly of physical senses); {from hedomai (to enjoy oneself); from handano (to please)}. This is sweetly, gladly, enjoyable, with pleasure.
CLXXXIV “taught” = didache. Related to “teacher” and “teach” in v14. From didasko (see note LXIX above). This is teaching or doctrine.
CLXXXV “beware” = blepo. Same as “regard” in v14. See note LXXIII above.
CLXXXVI “like” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

walk aroundCLXXXVII in long robes,CLXXXVIII and to be greetedCLXXXIX with respect in the marketplaces,CXC 

Notes on verse 38b

CLXXXVII “walk around” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
CLXXXVIII “robes” = stole. Related to “sent” in v2 & “resurrection” in v18 & “rase up” in v19 & {untranslated} in v23. 9x in NT– the scribes who want to be greeted with respect in marketplaces (Mk 12:13; Lk 20:46), the angel presenting as a young man at the resurrection (Mk 16:5), the robe brought for the prodigal son (Lk 15:22), and the attire of the martyrs and saints in heaven in Revelation 6, 7, and 22. From stello (see note XVI above). This is clothing, in particular a long, flowing robe associated with elites.
CLXXXIX “be greeted” = aspasmos. Related to “children” in v19. 10x in NT. From aspazomai (to welcome, salute, or greet. It can also be to embrace or acclaim); {perhaps from a (with, together with) + a form of spao (see note CVIII above)}. This is a greeting whether face to face or in a letter.
CXC “marketplaces” = agora. 11x in NT. From ageiro (to gather). This is assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare. This is where “agoraphobia” comes from.

39 and to have the best seatsCXCI in the synagoguesCXCII and places of honorCXCIII at banquets!CXCIV 

Notes on verse 39

CXCI “best seats” = protokathedria. Related to “first” in v20. 4x in NT– all in parallel passages in the gospels. From protos (see note CX above) + kathedra (a seat or bench in a literal or figurative sense); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + the same as hedraios (sitting, well-seated, immovable; figuratively, steadfast, firm, morally fixed); {from hedra (seat)}}. This is the best or most honorable seat – the one who sits down first or who sits up front.
CXCII “synagogues” = sunagoge. Related to “trap” in v13 & “angels” in v25. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note LXVII above). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
CXCIII “places of honor” = protoklisia. Related to “first” in v20 & “best seats” in v39. 5x in NT. From protos (see note CX above)} + klisia (a place where one reclines; a dining couch or a group of people eating together); {from klino (to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear; to bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee)}. This is literally reclining first. It can refer to the chief place or the place with the most honor – highest, preeminent.
CXCIV “banquets” = deipnon. 16x in NT. From the same as dapane (cost or expense); from dapto (to devour). This is a dinner or a feast – a meal in the afternoon or, more commonly, the evening.

40 They devourCXCV widows’CXCVI housesCXCVII and for the sake of appearanceCXCVIII say long prayers.CXCIX They will receiveCC the greaterCCI condemnation.”CCII

Notes on verse 40

CXCV “devour” = katesthio. 15x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + esthio (to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust). This is to eat up, to consume totally so that there is nothing left. It can also be to annoy, injure, or squander.
CXCVI “widows’” = chera. Perhaps from the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn). This is widow literally or figuratively.
CXCVII “houses” = oikia. Related to “built” in v1. From oikos (see note X above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
CXCVIII “for the sake of appearance” = prophasis. 7x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is outward appearance, pretense, excuse, pretext.
CXCIX “say…prayers” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
CC “receive” = lambano. Same as “collect” in v2. See note XVIII above.
CCI “greater” = perissos. Same as “more important” in v33. See note CLXIV above.
CCII “condemnation” = krima. Related to “hypocrisy” in v15. From krino (see note LXXXIV above). This is judgment, sentence, verdict. Sometimes, this can have a negative sense – condemnation. It is the decision and the full force of its effect negative and positive.

41 He sat downCCIII opposite the treasury,CCIV and watchedCCV the crowd puttingCCVI moneyCCVII into the treasury.

Notes on verse 41a

CCIII “sat down” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
CCIV “treasury” = gazophulakion. 5x in NT– 4 in this story in Mk and Lk, 1x in Jn to locate Jesus saying “I am the light of the world.” From gaza (treasure, treasury, riches) + phulake (guard, watch, keeping guard, imprisonment); {from phulasso (to guard, protect, preserve through vigilance)}. This is a court in the Temple area that had collection boxes for offerings. In Nehemiah, it also refers to a storage space for public records.
CCV “watched” = theoreo. Related to “amazing” in v11 & “amazed” in v17. From theaomai (see note LVII above). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
CCVI “putting” = ballo. Related to “parables” in v1 & “threw” in v8. See note II above.
CCVII “money” = chalkos. 5x in NT. Perhaps from chalao (let down, slacken, loosen). This is copper or bronze. Can also mean things made of brass – money, instruments.

Many rich peopleCCVIII put in large sums.CCIX 42 A poorCCX widowCCXI came and put in twoCCXII small copper coins,CCXIII which are worth a penny.CCXIV 

Notes on verses 41b-42

CCVIII “rich people” = plousios. From ploutos (abundance, wealth, or riches; money, possessions, spiritual abundance, or a valuable bestowment); from polus (much, many, abundant) OR pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is wealthy, having full resources. It can be a rich person or refer to God’s abundance.
CCIX “large sums” = polus. Same as “many” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CCX “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.
CCXI “widow” = chera. Same as “widow” in v40. See note CXCVI.
CCXII “two” = duo. Related to “second” in v21. See note CXIV above.
CCXIII “small copper coins” = leptos. 3x in NT. From lepo (to peel) from the same as lepis (a scale of a fish or flaky substance from the body). This word can mean peeled, fine, thin, small, light. So, this would be a very small piece of money, likely the smallest possible unit as insubstantial as a fish scale.
CCXIV “penny” = kodrontes. 2x in NT. A Latin root from quattuor (four). This is a quadrans in Latin, which is one fourth of an assarion (smallest Roman coin).

43 Then he calledCCXV his disciplesCCXVI and said to them, “TrulyCCXVII I tell you, this poor widowCCXVIII has put in moreCCXIX than all those who are contributingCCXX to the treasury. 

Notes on verse 43

CCXV “called” = proskaleo. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to oneself, summon.
CCXVI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
CCXVII “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
CCXVIII “widow” = chera. Same as “widow” in v40. See note CXCVI.
CCXIX “more” = pleios. Related to “many” in v5. From polus (see note XXVIII above). This is having greater value, more, many.
CCXX “contributing” = ballo. Same as “putting” in v41. See note CCVI above.

44 For all of them have contributed out of their abundance;CCXXI but she out of her povertyCCXXII has put in everythingCCXXIII she had, allCCXXIV she had to liveCCXXV on.”

Notes on verse 44

CCXXI “abundance” = perisseuo. Related to “more important” in v33. From perissos (see note CLXIV above). This is more than what is ordinary or necessary. It is abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond. It is super-abounding in number or quality.
CCXXII “poverty” = husteresis. 2x in NT. From hustereo (to come late, be behind, come short, be lacking, suffer need, be inferior to); from hutsteros (last, at the end); from hupo (by, under, about; under authority). This word is poverty, need, or want.
CCXXIII “everything” = pas. Same as “all” in v22. See note CXXII above.
CCXXIV “all” = holos. Same as “all” in v30. See note CLI above.
CCXXV “live” = bios. 10x in NT. 10x in NT. This is physical life, livelihood, goods, or the way one lives one’s life.

Image credit: “Parable of the Vineyard and Tenants” by LUMO Project.

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