Mark 14

Mark 14


It was twoI daysII before the PassoverIII and the festival of Unleavened Bread.IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “two” = duo. This is two or both.
II “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
III “Passover” = pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”
IV “Unleavened Bread” = azumos. 9x in NT. From a (not, without) + zume (yeast in a literal or figurative sense – an influence that grows, but is not easily detected); {perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest)}. This is unleavened – can refer specifically to the Passover meal. Figuratively, it is sincere or not corrupted.

The chief priestsV and the scribesVI were looking forVII a way to arrestVIII JesusIX by stealthX and killXI him; 

Notes on verse 1b

V “chief priests” = archiereus. From archomai (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
VI “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
VII “looking for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
VIII “arrest” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
IX “Jesus” = autos. Literally, “him.”
X “stealth” = dolos. 11x in NT. From dello (probably to decoy). This is literally bait, but used figuratively for treachery, stealth, guile, or deceit.
XI “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.

2 for they said, “Not during the festival,XII or there may be a riotXIII among the people.”XIV

While he was at BethanyXV in the houseXVI of SimonXVII the leper,XVIII 

Notes on verses 2-3a

XII “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
XIII “riot” = thorubos. 7x in NT. From the same as thoreo (to be troubled, agitated, alarmed, be unsettled, be frightened); from throos (clamor, noise) or from threomai (to wail). This is an uproar, noise, outcry, riot, disturbance, trouble. It can also be used figuratively for a very emotional wailing or hysteria. It is a commotion that leads to panic or terror.
XIV “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
XV “Bethany” = Bethania. 12x in NT. From Aramaic beth anya (house of affliction, misery, wretchedness). This is Bethany.
XVI “house” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
XVII “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
XVIII “leper” = lepros. 9x in NT. From lepis (fish scale, skin flake); from lepo (to peel). This is scaly or leprous. It can also refer to a person with leprosy.

as he satXIX at the table, a womanXX cameXXI withXXII

Notes on verse 3b

XIX “sat” = katakeimai. 12x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + keimai (to lie, recline, be placed, lie outstretched, be appointed). This is to lie down, whether for a meal or as one sick in bed.
XX “woman” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XXI “came” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
XXII “with” = echo. This is to have, hold, or possess.

an alabaster jarXXIII of very costlyXXIV ointmentXXV of nard,XXVI

Notes on verse 3c

XXIII “alabaster jar” = alabastron. 4x in NT– all of the anointing at Bethany. Perhaps from Egyptian ꜥj-r-bꜣstjt (“vessel of the Egyptian goddess Bast”) OR related to Arabic عُلْبَة‎ (ʿulba, box, chest); related to Akkadian a-la-mit-tu (palm tree). This is a box or vial of alabaster, generally containing a perfumed ointment. See
XXIV “very costly” = pistikos + poluteles. Pistikos is 2x in NT– both in the anointing of Jesus. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is trustworthy – as in, it can be trusted to be genuine or unadulterated. Poluteles is 3x in NT.  From polus (much, many, abundant) + telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one); {from tello (to start out with a definite goal in mind)}. This is very expensive or precious.
XXV “ointment” = muron. 14x in NT. This is ointment, perfume, or anointing oil. Probably olive oil mixed with spices and scents such as myrrh.
XXVI “nard” = nardos. 2x in NT– both in the anointing of Jesus. From Akkadian ardu; from Arabic rand; perhaps from Sanskrit nalada (all referring to nard). This is a fragrant Indian plant that was used to make perfume. See

and she broke openXXVII the jarXXVIII and pouredXXIX the ointment on his head.XXX 

Notes on verse 3d

XXVII “broke open” = suntribo. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + the same as tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); {from tribo (to rub or thresh)}. This is break in pieces, bruise, shatter, or crush completely.
XXVIII “jar” = alabastron. Same as “alabaster jar” in v3. See note XXIII above.
XXIX “poured” = katacheo. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + cheo (to pour). This is to pour over or pour down.
XXX “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.

But some were there who said to one another in anger,XXXI “Why was the ointment wastedXXXII in this way? For this ointment couldXXXIII have been soldXXXIV

Notes on verses 4-5a

XXXI “anger” = aganakteo. 7x in NT. Perhaps from agan (much) + achthos (grief); {related to agkale (bent arm); from agkos (bend, ache)}. This is being greatly grieved or displeased. Generally translated angry or indignant.
XXXII “wasted” = apoleiaginomai. Apoleia is 18x in NT. From apollumi (to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently; to cancel or remove); {from apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination)}. This is destruction, loss, something cut off, ruin, perdition. It can be any kind of loss whether tangible, spiritual, or eternal. Ginomai is related to “woman” in v3. See note XX above.
XXXIII “could” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
XXXIV “sold” = piprasko. 9x in NT. From pernemi (to sell by export). This is to sell with travel involved. It can also mean to sell into slavery or to be devoted to.

for more than three hundredXXXV denarii,XXXVI and the money givenXXXVII to the poor.”XXXVIII And they scoldedXXXIX her. 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXV “three hundred” = triakosioi. 2x in NT. From treis (three) + hekaton (hundred). This is 300.
XXXVI “denarii” = denarion. 16x in NT. From Latin deni (ten each) + arius (belonging to). This is a silver Roman coin.
XXXVII “given” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXVIII “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.
XXXIX “scolded” = embrimaomai. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + brimaomai (snorting due to anger). This is affected by anger, stern admonishment, scolding, or being deeply moved. It is snorting displeasure or anger or roaring from rage. It can also mean to blame, sigh or murmur against someone.

But JesusXL said, “Let her alone;XLI why do you troubleXLII her? She has performedXLIII a goodXLIV serviceXLV for me. 

Notes on verse 6

XL “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XLI “let…alone” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XLII “trouble” = kopos + parecho. Kopos is 18x in NT. From kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is trouble, toil, or labor. This is working to the point of exhaustion or weariness. At base, this refers to a blow that lands so swiftly that one is seriously weakened. Figuratively, this is being greatly tired or working to the point of being without strength. Parecho is related to “with” in v3. 16x in NT– including Luke 6:29: “if anyone strikes you on the cheek, offer the other also.” From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + echo (see not XXII above). This is present, to show, bring, give, offer to hold near.
XLIII “performed” = ergazomai. Related to “service” in v6. From ergon (see note XLV below). This is to work, labor, perform, toil.
XLIV “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
XLV “service” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

For you alwaysXLVI haveXLVII the poor with you, and you canXLVIII showXLIX kindnessL to them whenever you wish;LI but you will not always have me.

Notes on verse 7

XLVI “always” = pantote. From pas (all, every, each) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
XLVII “have” = echo. Same as “with” in v3. See note XXII above.
XLVIII {untranslated} = pantote. Same as “always” in v7. See note XLVI above.
XLIX “show” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
L “kindness” = eu. 6x in NT. This is good well, well done, or rightly. It can also be a positive exclamation.
LI “wish” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

She has doneLII what she could;LIII she has anointedLIV my bodyLV beforehandLVI for its burial.LVII 

Notes on verse 8

LII “done” = poieo. Same as “show” in v7. See note XLIX above.
LIII “could” = echo. Same as “with” in v3. See note XXII above.
LIV “anointed” = murizo. Related to “ointment” in v3. 1x in NT. From muron (see note XXV above). This is to anoint with a perfumed ointment, particularly in preparation for burial.
LV “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
LVI “beforehand” = prolambano. 3x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to anticipate, take by surprise, take before others have the chance to, take before.
LVII “burial” = entaphiasmos. 2x in NT. From entaphiazo (to prepare a body to be buried, to embalm); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + taphos (a burial place such as a grave, sepulcher, or tomb); {from thapto (to bury, hold a funeral)}}. This is embalming or burial.

9 TrulyLVIII I tellLIX you, wherever the good newsLX is proclaimedLXI

Notes on verse 9a

LVIII “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
LIX “tell” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
LX “good news” = euaggelion. Related to “kindness” in v7. From eu (see note L above) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel); {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
LXI “proclaimed” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.

in the wholeLXII world,LXIII what she has done will be told in remembranceLXIV of her.”

Notes on verse 9b

LXII “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
LXIII “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
LXIV “remembrance” = mnemosunon. 3x in NT. From the same as mnemoneuo (to remember, recollect; does not necessarily imply remembering something that you forgot – it could be calling something to mind; to punish or rehearse); {from mnemon (mindful) OR from mneme (memory or mention); {from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence) or mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); or form meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); from masso (to knead, squeeze)}}. This is a remembrance, memory, memorial, record. It could also be an offering for remembrance.

10 Then JudasLXV Iscariot,LXVI who was oneLXVII of the twelve,LXVIII wentLXIX to the chief priests in order to betrayLXX him to them. 

Notes on verse 10

LXV “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
LXVI “Iscariot” = Iskariotes. 11x in NT. From Hebrew probably ish (man, husband); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be frail, feeble)} + qirya (city); {Aramaic corresponding to qiryah (city, building); from qarah (to happen, meet, bring about)}. Iscariot means person from Kerioth.
LXVII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
LXVIII “twelve” = dodeka. Related to “two” in v1. From duo (see note I above) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.
LXIX “went” = aperchomai. Related to “came” in v3. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note XXI above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
LXX “betray” = paradidomi. Related to “given” in v5. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note XXXVII above). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

11 When they heardLXXI it, they were greatly pleased,LXXII and promisedLXXIII to give him money.LXXIV So he began to look for an opportunityLXXV to betray him.

Notes on verse 11

LXXI “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LXXII “were greatly pleased” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
LXXIII “promised” = epagellomai. Related to “good news” in v9. 15x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (see note LX above)}. This is to proclaim, profess, or make a promise that is fitting.
LXXIV “money” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); from argos (shining). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.
LXXV “opportunity” = eukairos. Related to “kindness” in v7 & “good news” in v9. 2x in NT. From eukairos (timely, suitable, strategic, well-timed, opportune, festival); {from eu (see note L above) + kairos (season, opportunity, occasion; spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time)}. This is opportunely, season, conveniently.

12 On the firstLXXVI day of Unleavened Bread, when the Passover lambLXXVII is sacrificed,LXXVIII his disciplesLXXIX said to him, “Where do you wantLXXX us to goLXXXI and make the preparationsLXXXII for you to eatLXXXIII the Passover?” 

Notes on verse 12

LXXVI “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
LXXVII “Passover lamb” = pascha. Same as “Passover” in v1. See note III above.
LXXVIII “sacrificed” = thuo. 14x in NT. This is to rush along, breathe violently. It can also mean to offer sacrifice, specifically by fire (in reference to the blowing smoke).
LXXIX “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
LXXX “want” = thelo. Same as “wish” in v7. See note LI above.
LXXXI “go” = aperchomai. Same as “went” in v10. See note LXIX above.
LXXXII “make preparations” = hetoimazo. From hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge). This is to prepare or provide.
LXXXIII “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.

13 So he sentLXXXIV two of his disciples, saying to them, “GoLXXXV into the city,LXXXVI and a manLXXXVII

Notes on verse 13a

LXXXIV “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
LXXXV “go” = hupago. Related to “good news” in v9 & “promised” in v11. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note LX above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
LXXXVI “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
LXXXVII “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

carryingLXXXVIII a jarLXXXIX of waterXC will meetXCI you; followXCII him, 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXXVIII “carrying” = bastazo. Perhaps from the base of basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.
LXXXIX “jar” = keramion. 2x in NT. From keramos (a tile made from earth, a roof, awning); from kerannumi (to mix, mingle);from kerao (to mix). This is a pitcher or jar. It shares a root with “ceramic.”
XC “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
XCI “meet” = apantao. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + antao (to meet with personally) OR from apo (from, away from) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to meet or encounter.
XCII “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.

14 and wherever he enters,XCIII say to the owner of the house,XCIV ‘The TeacherXCV asks, Where is my guest roomXCVI where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?’ 

Notes on verse 14

XCIII “enters” = eiserchomai. Related to “came” in v3 & “went” in v10. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XXI above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
XCIV “owner of the house” = oikodespotes. Related to “house” in v3. 12x in NT. From oikos (see note XVI above) + despotes (lord, master, despot; authority who has unrestricted power and jurisdiction) + posis (husband). This is the master of the house, head of a family, or the householder.
XCV “Teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
XCVI “guest room” = kataluma. 3x in NT– 2x of the guest room that Jesus seeks in which to eat his Passover for the Last Supper (Mark 14:14) (Luke 22:11) & 1x of Jesus’ birth story. From kata (down, according to, by way of) + luo (to loose, release, dissolve, untie; figurative for break or destroy). This is a lodging place, inn, or guest room. Properly, it is a place where one unyokes or unharnesses animals for the purpose of lodging. Alternately, it’s a place to break up a long journey.

15 He will showXCVII you a largeXCVIII room upstairs,XCIX furnishedC and ready.CI Make preparations for us there.” 

Notes on verse 15

XCVII “show” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.
XCVIII “large” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
XCIX “room upstairs” = anogeon. 2x in NT. From anagaion (second floor, over the ground); {from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + ge (earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area)}. This is an upper room on the second floor. It could also be a dome or balcony.
C “furnished” = stronnuo. 6x in NT. This is to spread, strew, make a bed.
CI “ready” = hetoimos. Related to “make the preparations” in v12. 17x in NT. See note LXXXII above.

16 So the disciples set outCII and wentCIII to the city, and foundCIV everything as he had told them; and they prepared the Passover meal.CV 17 When it wasCVI evening,CVII he came with the twelve. 

Notes on verses 16-17

CII “set out” = exerchomai. Related to “came” in v3 & “went” in v10 & “enters” in v14. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XXI above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
CIII “went” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v3. See note XXI above.
CIV “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CV “Passover meal” = pascha. Same as “Passover” in v1. See note III above.
CVI “was” = ginomai. Same as “wasted” in v4. See note XXXII above.
CVII “evening” = opsios. 15x in NT. From opse (after, late, in the end, in the evening); from opiso (back, behind, after); from the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back). This is afternoon, evening, nightfall, or late.

18 And when they had taken their placesCVIII and were eating,CIX Jesus said, “Truly I tell you, one of you will betray me, one who is eatingCX with me.” 

19 They beganCXI to be distressedCXII and to say to him one after another,CXIII “Surely, notCXIV I?” 

Notes on verses 18-19

CVIII “taken…places” = anakeimai. Related to “sat” in v3. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (see note XIX above). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.
CIX “eating” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.
CX “eating” = esthio. Same as “eating” in v18. See note CVIX above.
CXI “began” = archomai. Related to “chief priests” in v1. See note V above.
CXII “be distressed” = lupeo. From lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.
CXIII “one after another” = heis + kata + heis. Literally, “one by one.” Heis is the same as “one” in v10. See note LXVII above.
CXIV “surely, not” = meti. 17x in NT. From me (not, neither, never; rules out conditional statements and their implications) + tis (someone, anyone, anything). This is asking a question when you expect the answer to be no. It is if not, surely no. But it also keeps a small possibility floating – but could it be?

20 He said to them, “It is one of the twelve, one who is dippingCXV bread into theCXVI bowlCXVII with me. 21 For theCXVIII SonCXIX of Man goesCXX as it is writtenCXXI of him, but woeCXXII to that oneCXXIII by whom the Son of Man is betrayed!

Notes on verses 20-21a

CXV “dipping” = embapto. 2x in NT– both of the disciple who betrays Jesus in Mt 26:23 & Mk 14:20. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + bapto (to dip, dye, fully cover with liquid). This is to dip into, to touch liquid. This shares a root with “baptize.”
CXVI {untranslated} = heis. Same as “one” in v10. See note LXVII above.
CXVII “bowl” = trublion. 2x in NT– both in this and its parallel. This is bowl, deep dish, or platter.
CXVIII {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
CXIX “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CXX “goes” = hupago. Same as “go” in v13. See note LXXXV above.
CXXI “written” = grapho. Related to “scribes” in v1. See note VI above.
CXXII “woe” = ouai. This is alas or woe to show grief or to denounce something.
CXXIII “one” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v13. See note LXXXVII above.

It would have been betterCXXIV for that oneCXXV not to have been born.”CXXVI

Notes on verse 21b

CXXIV “better” = kalos. Same as “good” in v6. See note XLIV above.
CXXV “one” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v13. See note LXXXVII above.
CXXVI “been born” = gennao. Related to “woman” in v3 & “wasted” in v4. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note XX above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.

22 While they were eating,CXXVII he tookCXXVIII a loaf of bread,CXXIX and after blessingCXXX it he brokeCXXXI it, gave it to them, and said, “Take; this is my body.” 

Notes on verse 22

CXXVII “eating” = esthio. Same as “eating” in v18. See note CVIX above.
CXXVIII “took” = lambano. Related to “beforehand” in v8. See note LVI above.
CXXIX “loaf of bread” = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
CXXX “blessing” = eulogeo. Related to “kindness” in v7 & “good news” in v9 & “opportunity” in v11 & “tell” in v9. From eu (see note L above) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note LIX above)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
CXXXI “broke” = klao. 14x in NT. This is to break, to break in pieces as one breaks bread.

23 Then he took a cup,CXXXII and after giving thanksCXXXIII he gave it to them, and allCXXXIV of them drankCXXXV from it. 

Notes on verse 23

CXXXII “cup” = poterion. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is a drinking vessel. Figuratively, it can refer to one’s lot, to fate, or to what God has in store for you.
CXXXIII “giving thanks” = eucharisteo. Related to “kindness” in v7 & “good news” in v9 & “opportunity” in v11 & “blessing” in v22 & “were greatly pleased” in v11. From eu (see note L above) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (see note LXXII above)}. This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.
CXXXIV “all” = pas. This is all or every.
CXXXV “drank” = pino. Related to “cup” in v23. See note CXXXII above.

24 He said to them, “This is my bloodCXXXVI of the covenant,CXXXVII which is poured outCXXXVIII for many.CXXXIX 

Notes on verse 24

CXXXVI “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
CXXXVII “covenant” = diatheke. From diatithemi (to place separately – to make a will or covenant; this is arranging ahead of time how things will be accomplished); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is a will, covenant, contract, or agreement.
CXXXVIII “poured out” = ekcheo. Related to “poured” in v3. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (see note XXIX above). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.
CXXXIX “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.

25 Truly I tell you, I will never again drink of the fruitCXL of the vineCXLI until that day when I drink it newCXLII in the kingdomCXLIII of God.”CXLIV

Notes on verse 25

CXL “fruit” = gennema. Related to “woman” in v3 & “wasted” in v4 & “been born” in v21. 8x in NT. From gennao (see note CXXVI above). This is offspring, child, fruit, brood, or produce in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLI “vine” = ampelos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from the base of amphoteros (both, all); {from amphi (around) + halon (the threshing floor where grain is rolled to separate from the chaff); {from halos (threshing floor); probably from helisso (to roll up, coil, wrap)}}. This is vine or grapevine as that which coils around.
CXLII “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
CXLIII “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “carrying” in v13. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (see note LXXXVIII above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CXLIV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

26 When they had sung the hymn,CXLV they went outCXLVI to the MountCXLVII of Olives.CXLVIII

27 And Jesus said to them, “You will all become deserters;CXLIX, CL for it is written,

Notes on verses 26-27a

CXLV “sung the hymn” = humneo. 4x in NT. From humno (hymn, song to praise God, religious ode; also used in other faiths as songs that celebrated their gods, heroes, etc.); from hudeo (to celebrate). This is singing a hymn or religious ode, to praise or celebrate God.
CXLVI “went out” = exerchomai. Same as “set out” inv16. See note CII above.
CXLVII “Mount” = oros. Related to “loaf of bread” in v22. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (see note CXXIX above). This is mountain or hill.
CXLVIII “Olives” = Elaia. 15x in NT. This is olive or olive tree. Sometimes, its refers to the chosen people.
CXLIX “become deserters” = skandalizo. From skandalon (the bait or portion of the trap that closes down on the victim – the trap’s trigger; a stumbling block, offense, or cause for error; something that sets into motion a negative cause and effect; something that causes one to stumble); perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is to put a stumbling block in someone’s way. Figuratively, causing someone to sin or preventing them from good action. It can also mean to shock or offend. Literally, this is falling into a trap or tripping someone up. So, here, enticing someone to sin or apostasy.
CL Some manuscripts add “in me on this night.”

‘I will strikeCLI the shepherd,CLII
    and the sheepCLIII will be scattered.’CLIV

Notes on verse 27b

CLI “strike” = patasso. 10x in NT. Perhaps from paio (to strike, hit, sting). This can be strike or hit in a gentle sense like tapping someone on the side (Acts 12:7) or the beating of the heart. It can also be violent as in the disciples striking with the sword when Jesus is arrested (Mt 26:31 & Mk 22:49-50). It can also refer to slaying or death (Acts 7:24; Acts 12:23).
CLII “shepherd” = poimen. 18x in NT. This is shepherd or pastor – one who protects. It is also used figuratively to mean ruler. 
CLIII “sheep” = probaton. Related to “carrying” in v13 & “kingdom” in v25. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (see note LXXXVIII above)}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
CLIV “be scattered” = diaskorpizo. 9x in NT. From dia (through, on account of, across, thoroughly) + skorpizo (to scatter, distribute, dissipate, waste). This is to separate or disperse. Figuratively, it can be squander or waste.

28 But after I am raised up,CLV I will go beforeCLVI you to Galilee.”CLVII 

29 PeterCLVIII saidCLIX to him, “Even though all become deserters, I will not.” 

Notes on verses 28-29

CLV “raised up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
CLVI “go before” = proago. Related to “good news” in v9 & “promised” in v11 & “go” in v13. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note LX above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
CLVII “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
CLVIII “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
CLIX “said” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.

30 Jesus said to him, “Truly I tell you, this day, this veryCLX night, before the cockCLXI crowsCLXII twice,CLXIII you will denyCLXIV me three times.”CLXV 

Notes on verse 30

CLX “very” = semeron. Related to “days” in v1. From hemera (see note II above). This is today, this very, now.
CLXI “cock” = alektor. 12x in NT. Perhaps from aleko (to ward off). This is a cock or rooster.
CLXII “crows” = phoneo. Related to “said” in v29. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi (see note CLIX above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
CLXIII “twice” = dis. Related to “two” in v1 & “twelve” in v10. 7x in NT. From duo (see note I above). This is twice, again, entirely.
CLXIV “deny” = aparneomai. 11x in NT– 8x of Peter’s denial of Jesus, 2x “let them deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me” (Mt 16:24 & Mk 8:34), 1x “whoever denies me before others will be denied before the angels of God” (Lk 12:9). From apo (from, away from) + arneomai (to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict); {from a (not) + rheo (say, speak of)}. This is a strong denial or rejection – utter denial, disowning, or repudiation.
CLXV “three times” = tris. Related to “three hundred” in v5. 12x in NT. From treis (see note XXXV above). This is three times.

31 But he said vehemently,CLXVI “Even though I mustCLXVII die withCLXVIII you, I will not deny you.” And all of them said the same.

Notes on verse 31

CLXVI “vehemently” = perissos. 17x in NT. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundantly, exceedingly, far more, or all the more. This is going beyond what is anticipated or past the upper limit.
CLXVII “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
CLXVIII “die with” = sunapothnesko. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.

32 They went to a placeCLXIX calledCLXX Gethsemane;CLXXI and he said to his disciples, “SitCLXXII here while I pray.”CLXXIII 

Notes on verse 32

CLXIX “place” = chorion. 10x in NT. From chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is place, estate, possession, piece of ground, property.
CLXX “called” = hos + ho + onoma. Literally, “of which the name [is].” Onoma may be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
CLXXI “Gethsemane” = Gethsemani. 2x in NT. From Hebrew gath (wine press); {perhaps from nagan (to strike a stringed instrument, to pluck or play it)} + shemen (fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume; figurative for fertile, lavish, rich); {from shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat)}. This is Gethsemane, meaning oil-press, an olive orchard.
CLXXII “sit” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
CLXXIII “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.

33 He tookCLXXIV with him Peter and JamesCLXXV and John,CLXXVI and began to be distressedCLXXVII and agitated.CLXXVIII 

Notes on verse 33

CLXXIV “took” = paralambano. Related to “beforehand” in v8 & “took” in v22. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (see note LVI above). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
CLXXV “James” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
CLXXVI “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v6. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XL above)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
CLXXVII “be distressed” = ekthambeo. 4x in NT– 1x when Jesus healed a boy with a spirit and the crowd was overcome with awe in Mark 9:15, 1x when Jesus was distressed at Gethsemane in Mark 14:33 & 2x when Mary Magdalene, Mary, and Salome were alarmed at seeing the angel at the empty tomb and the angel says, “do not be alarmed” in Mark 16:5-6. From ekthambos (amazed, filled with wonder that affects the viewer greatly); {from ek (from, from out of) + thambos (amazement, wonder, being stunned or dumbfounded because something unusual happened; it can be positive or negative); {akin to tapho (dumbfounded)}}. This is to amaze, be full of awe, to be distressed.
CLXXVIII “agitated” = ademoneo. 3x in NT. Perhaps from adeo (to be full to the point of loathing). This is being distressed, troubled, fearful, lacking courage.

34 And he said to them, “ICLXXIX am deeply grieved,CLXXX even to death;CLXXXI remainCLXXXII here, and keep awake.”CLXXXIII 

Notes on verse 34

CLXXIX “I” = psuche. Literally, “very sorrowful is my soul.” From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CLXXX “deeply grieved” = perilupos. Related to “be distressed” in v19. 5x in NT– including 2x when Jesus prays in Gethsemane in Matthew and Mark. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + lupe (see note CXII above). This is very sorrowful, deeply grieved.
CLXXXI “death” = thanatos. Related to “die with” in v31. From thnesko (see note CLXVIII above). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CLXXXII “remain” = meno. Related to “remembrance” in v9. See note LXIV above.
CLXXXIII “keep awake” = gregoreo. Related to “raised up” in v28. From egeiro (to awake, raise up or lift up; to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death; figuratively, rising from inactivity or from ruins). This is to be or stay awake, watch. Figuratively, it can be alertness or vigilance.

35 And going a littleCLXXXIV farther,CLXXXV he threwCLXXXVI himself on the groundCLXXXVII and prayed that, if it were possible,CLXXXVIII the hourCLXXXIX might passCXC from him. 

Notes on verse 35

CLXXXIV “little” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
CLXXXV “going…farther” = proerchomai. Related to “came” in v3 & “went” in v10 & “enters” in v14 & “set out” in v16. From pro (before, earlier, above) + erchomai (see note XXI above). This is to go ahead, advance, precede.
CLXXXVI “threw” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.
CLXXXVII “ground” = ge. Related to “room upstairs” in v15. See note XCIX above.
CLXXXVIII “possible” = dunatos. Related to “could” in v5. From dunamai (see note XXXIII above). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
CLXXXIX “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
CXC “pas” = parerchomai. Related to “came” in v3 & “went” in v10 & “enters” in v14 & “set out” in v16 & “going…farther” in v35. From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (see note XXI above). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.

36 He said, “Abba,CXCI Father,CXCII for you all things are possible; removeCXCIII this cup from me; yet, not what I want, but what you want.” 

37 He came and found them sleeping;CXCIV and he said to Peter, “Simon, are you asleep?CXCV CouldCXCVI you not keep awake one hour? 

Notes on verses 36-37

CXCI “Abba” = Abba. 3x in NT. From Aramaic ab (father); corresponding to Hebrew ab (father in a literal or figurative sense – grandfather, chief, ancestor). This is abba, which means father – not a diminutive daddy.
CXCII “father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
CXCIII “remove” = paraphero. 4x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry away, remove, mislead, to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense.
CXCIV “sleeping” = katheudo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + heudo (to sleep). This is to settle down to rest, to sleep, fall asleep in a literal or figurative sense.
CXCV “are…asleep” = katheudo. Same as “sleeping” in v37. See note CXCIV above.
CXCVI “could” = ischuo. Related to “with” in v3 & “trouble” in v6. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); {perhaps from is (force) + echo (see note XXII above)}. This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.

38 Keep awake and pray that you may not come into the time of trial;CXCVII the spiritCXCVIII indeedCXCIX is willing,CC but the fleshCCI is weak.”CCII 

Notes on verse 38

CXCVII “time of trial” = peirasmos. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.
CXCVIII “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CXCIX “indeed” = men. Same as {untranslated} in v21. See note CXVIII above.
CC “willing” = prothumos. Related to “sacrificed” in v12. 3x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + thumos (passion, actions that stem from passion or impulse; can be rage, indignation); {from thuo (see note LXXVIII above)}. This is willing, eager, ready, enthusiastic, free from resistance. It can also be predisposed, willing, or generous from one’s own impulse.
CCI “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
CCII “weak” = asthenes. From a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}. This is without strength so weak, sick, helpless, frail, feeble. It can also be unimpressive or impotent. It can be used for physical or moral weakness.

39 And again he went awayCCIII and prayed, saying the same words.CCIV 40 And once more he came and found them sleeping, for their eyesCCV were very heavy;CCVI and they did not knowCCVII what to say to him. 

Notes on verses 39-40

CCIII “went away” = aperchomai. Same as “went” in v10. See note LXIX above.
CCIV “words” = logos. Related to “tell” in v9 & “blessing” in v22. See note CXXX above.
CCV “eyes” = ophthalmos. From optanomai (to appear, be seen by); from horao (to see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience; to stare at, which implies clear discernment; by extension, attending to what was seen and learned; to see, often with a metaphorical sense, which can include inward spiritual seeing). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
CCVI “very heavy” = katabareo. Related to “carrying” in v13 & “kingdom” in v25 & “sheep” in v27. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout) + bareo (heavy, press, weigh down, or burden); {from barus (heavy, burdensome; figuratively, violent, oppressive; that which presses down on someone so that they cannot move freely); from the same as baros (weight, burden in a literal or figurative sense; authority); from the same as basis (see note LXXXVIII above). This is to weigh down, oppress, to be a destructive force on something. It is often used for financial burdens.
CCVII “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

41 He came a third timeCCVIII and said to them, “Are you stillCCIX sleeping and taking your rest?CCX Enough!CCXI The hour has come;CCXII the Son of Man is betrayed into the handsCCXIII of sinners.CCXIV 

Notes on verse 41

CCVIII “third time” = tritos. Related to “three hundred” in v5 & “three times” in v30. From treis (see note XXXV above). This is third.
CCIX “still” = loipon. 13x in NT. From loipos (the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue); from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is what remains, from now on, finally.
CCX “taking…rest” = anapauo. 12x in NT– including Matthew 11:28 “come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest.” From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + pauo (to stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, come to an end). This is a break from work, which implies being refreshed. It denotes that rest that one gets once a necessary task is finished.
CCXI “enough” = apecho. Related to “with” in v3 & “trouble” in v6 & “could” in v37. 19x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + echo (see note XXII above). This is to be distant, have fully, abstain, be paid, be distant, be enough. It is having something by detaching it from something else or releasing something else.
CCXII {untranslated} = idou. Related to “know” in v40. From eido (see note CCVII above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CCXIII “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CCXIV “sinners” = hamartolos. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.

42 Get up,CCXV let us be going.CCXVI See,CCXVII my betrayerCCXVIII is at hand.”CCXIX

Notes on verse 42

CCXV “get up” = egeiro. Same as “raised up” in v28. See note CLV above.
CCXVI “going” = ago. Related to “good news” in v9 & “promised” in v11 & “go” in v13 & “go before” in v28. See note LX above.
CCXVII “see” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v41. Se note CCXII above.
CCXVIII “betrayer” = paradidomi. Same as “betray” in v10. See note LXX above.
CCXIX “is at hand” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.

43 Immediately,CCXX while he was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve, arrived;CCXXI and with him there was a crowd with swordsCCXXII and clubs,CCXXIII from the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders.CCXXIV 

Notes on verse 43

CCXX “immediately” = eutheos. Related to “kindness” in v7 & “good news” in v9 & “opportunity” in v11 & “blessing” in v22 & “covenant” in v24. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (see note L above) + tithemi (see note CXXXVII above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
CCXXI “arrived” = paraginomai. Related to “woman” in v3 & “wasted” in v4 & “been born” in v21 & “fruit” in v25. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note XX above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
CCXXII “swords” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.
CCXXIII “clubs” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.
CCXXIV “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.

44 Now the betrayer had given them a sign,CCXXV saying, “The one I will kissCCXXVI is the man; arrest him and lead him awayCCXXVII under guard.”CCXXVIII 

Notes on verse 44

CCXXV “sign” = suussemon. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); {from sema (a sign or mark)}. This is a prearranged signal or sign.
CCXXVI “kiss” = phileo. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person). This is friendship love and fondness with personal attachment.
CCXXVII “lead…away” = apago. Related to “good news” in v9 & “promised” in v11 & “go” in v13 & “go before” in v28 & “going” in v42. 16x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ago (see note LX above). This is to lead away, take away, or bring. Figuratively, it can refer to being led astray or put to death.
CCXXVIII “under guard” = asphalos. 3x in NT. From asphales (certain, reliable, secure, definite; literally unfailing – something that is secure because it is solid and constructed on something that will not fall or slip; it is literal or figurative); {from a (not, without) + sphallo (to trip up or fail)}. This is securely in a literal or figurative sense. Also, it’s certainly, steadfastly, or assuredly.

45 So when he came, he went upCCXXIX to him at onceCCXXX and said, “Rabbi!”CCXXXI and kissedCCXXXII him. 46 Then they laidCCXXXIII hands on him and arrested him. 

Notes on verses 45-46

CCXXIX “went up” = proserchomai. Related to “came” in v3 & “went” in v10 & “enters” in v14 & “set out” in v16 & “going…farther” and “pass” in v35. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note XXI above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
CCXXX “at once” = eutheos. Same as “immediately” in v43. See note CCXX above.
CCXXXI “Rabbi” = Rhabbi. 15x in NT– 8x in the Gospel of John. From Hebrew rab (chief); from rabab (to be many, increase, multiply). This is a title of respect for a teacher-scholar. Literally, it means great one or honorable sir. It can also be understood as my master or my teacher.
CCXXXII “kissed” = kataphileo. Related to “kiss” in v44. 6x in NT– 2x of Judas’s betrayal, 2x of the woman who washes Jesus’s feet and kisses them (Lk 7:38, 45), 1x when the father kisses the prodigal son (Lk 15:20), and 1x when Paul kisses the Ephesian elders goodbye (Acts 20:37). From kata (down, against, according to) + phileo (see note CCXXVI above)}. This is kissing with great emotion or kissing repeatedly, earnestly, affectionately.
CCXXXIII “laid” = epiballo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to place on, fall, lay, throw over, think about, waves crashing, emotions emerging.

47 But one of those who stood nearCCXXXIV drewCCXXXV his sword and struckCCXXXVI the slaveCCXXXVII of the high priest, cutting offCCXXXVIII his ear.CCXXXIX 

Notes on verse 47

CCXXXIV “stood near” = paristemi. Related to “sent” in v13. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note LXXXIV above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
CCXXXV “drew” = spao. 2x in NT. This is to pull or draw like one draws a sword.
CCXXXVI “struck” = paio. Related to “strike” in v27. 5x in NT. See note CLI above.
CCXXXVII “slave” = doulos. Related to “must” in v31. Perhaps from deo (see note CLXVII above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
CCXXXVIII “cutting off” = aphaireo. Related to “loaf of bread” in v22 & “Mount” in v26. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (see note CXXIX above)}. This is remove, take away, cut in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXXXIX “ear” = otion. 5x in NT. From ous (ear; figuratively, hearing). This is ear or it might refer to the earlobe.

48 Then Jesus said to them, “Have you come outCCXL with swords and clubs to arrestCCXLI me as though I were a bandit?CCXLII 

Notes on verse 48

CCXL “come out” = exerchomai. Same as “set out” in v16. See note CII above.
CCXLI “arrest” = sullambano. Related to “beforehand” in v8 & “took” in v22 & “took” in v33. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (see note LVI above). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arrest or take hold of someone.
CCXLII “bandit” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barrabbas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.

49 Day after day I was with you in the templeCCXLIII teaching,CCXLIV and you did not arrestCCXLV me. But let the scripturesCCXLVI be fulfilled.”CCXLVII 50 All of them desertedCCXLVIII him and fled.CCXLIX

Notes on verses 49-50

CCXLIII “temple” = hieron. Related to “chief priests” in v1. From hieros (see note V above). This is the word for temple.
CCXLIV “teaching” = didasko. Related to “Teacher” in v14. See note XCV above.
CCXLV “arrest” = krateo. Same as “arrest” in v1. See note VIII above.
CCXLVI “scriptures” = graphe. Related to “scribes” in v1 & “written” in v21. From grapho (see note VI above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
CCXLVII “fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
CCXLVIII “deserted” = aphiemi. Same as “let…alone” in v6. See note XLI above.
CCXLIX “fled” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.

51 A certain young manCCL was followingCCLI him, wearingCCLII nothing butCCLIII a linen cloth.CCLIV They caught hold ofCCLV him, 52 but he leftCCLVI the linen cloth and ran offCCLVII naked.CCLVIII

Notes on verses 51-52

CCL “young man” = neaniskos. 11x in NT. From neanias (youth, young man; someone in their prime to the age of 40); from neos (young, new, youth, person). This is a youth or young man in their prime up to 40.
CCLI “following” = sunakoloutheo. Related to “follow” in v13. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + akoloutheo (see note XCII above). This is to follow together, accompany.
CCLII “wearing” = periballo. Related to “laid” in v46. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ballo (see note CCXXXIII above). This is to thrown around, clothe, array, put on.
CCLIII “nothing but” = gumnos. 15x in NT. This is naked. Generally, it refers to someone who is not completely clothed i.e. only wearing the undergarment and not the complete attire for going out. Rarely, it can mean completely naked. It can be naked in a literal or figurative sense – open, bare, ill-clad. This is where “gymnasium” comes from.
CCLIV “linen cloth” = sindon. 6x in NT. This is byssos, a fine linen cloth, garment, or sheet.
CCLV “caught hold of” = krateo. Same as “arrest” in v1. See note VIII above.
CCLVI “left” = kataleipo. Related to “still” in v41. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (see note CCIX above). This is to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve.
CCLVII “ran off” = pheugo. Same as “fled” in v50. See note CCXLIX above.
CCLVIII “naked” = gumnos. Same as “nothing but” in v51. See note CCLIII above.

53 They tookCCLIX Jesus to the high priest; and all the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes were assembled.CCLX 54 Peter had followed him at a distance, right into the courtyardCCLXI of the high priest; and he was sittingCCLXII with the guards,CCLXIII warmingCCLXIV himself at the fire.CCLXV 

Notes on verses 53-54

CCLIX “took” = apago. Same as “lead…away” in v44. See note CCXXVII above.
CCLX “assembled” = sunerchomai. Related to “came” in v3 & “went” in v10 & “enters” in v14 & “set out” in v16 & “going…farther” and “pass” in v35 & “went up” in v45. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (see note XXI above). This is go with, accompany, live together, convene.
CCLXI “courtyard” = aule. 12x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a building that has a courtyard within it – an area that has no roof, but does have walls and is open to the air. It could also imply a palace or mansion as larger buildings that would include courtyards.
CCLXII “sitting” = sugkathemai. Related to “sit” in v32. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + katemai (to sit, be enthroned, or reside); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (see note II above)}. This is to sit with.
CCLXIII “guards” = huperetes. From huper (by, under, subordinate to another) + eresso (to row). This is originally a rower or someone who crewed a boat on the lower deck. It came to mean underling, servant, or attendant. It is also used in the New Testament of disciples under the gospel.
CCLXIV “warming” = thermaino. 6x in NT. From thermos (hot); from the same as theros (heat, which implies the summer); from thero (to heat). This is to warm or warm oneself. This root is where the words “thermometer” and “thermos” come from.
CCLXV “fire” = phos. Related to “crows” in v30. From phao (see note CLIX above). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.

55 Now the chief priests and the whole councilCCLXVI were looking for testimonyCCLXVII against Jesus to put him to death;CCLXVIII but they found none. 

Notes on verse 55

CCLXVI “council” = sunedrion. From sun (with, together with) + hedra (convening, siting together, being firm and faithful); {from aphedron (seat, well-seated; figuratively, this is firm in purpose, steadfast); from hedra (a seat)}. This is Sanhedrin – literally a sitting together. It was the high court for Jews and had 71 members. This term could also mean council or meeting place and was used for the lower courts that were throughout the land and had 23 members.
CCLXVII “testimony” = marturia. From martureo (to bear witness, testify, give evidence; to testify in a literal or figurative sense); from martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is testimony, witness, evidence, record, reputation.
CCLXVIII “put…to death” = thanatoo. Related to “die with” in v31 & “death” in v34. 11x in NT. From thanatos (see note CLXXXI above). This is to kill in a literal or figurative sense – subdue, mortify, be apart from.

56 For many gave false testimonyCCLXIX against him, and their testimony did not agree.CCLXX 57 Some stood upCCLXXI and gave false testimony against him, saying, 58 “We heard him say, ‘I will destroyCCLXXII this templeCCLXXIII that is made with hands,CCLXXIV

Notes on verses 56-58a

CCLXIX “gave false testimony” = pseudomartureo. Related to “testimony” in v55. 5x in NT. From pseudomartus (false witness); {from pseudes (false, lying, wicked); {from pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify)}} + martus (see note CCLXVII above). This is to bear false witness or give untrue evidence.
CCLXX “agree” = isos. Related to “know” in v40 & {untranslated} in v41. 8x in NT. Perhaps from eido (see note CCVII above). This is equal, same, like, similar number or substance.
CCLXXI “stood up” = anistemi. Related to “sent” in v13 & “stood near” in v47. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note LXXXIV above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CCLXXII “destroy” = kataluo. Related to “guest room” in v14. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (see note XCVI above). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
CCLXXIII “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
CCLXXIV “made with hands” = cheiropoietos. Related to “hands” in v41 & “show” in v7. 6x in NT. From cheir (see note CCXIII above) + poieo (see note XLIX above). This is literally made by hand, i.e. artificial. It can also mean to perform.

and in threeCCLXXV days I will buildCCLXXVI another,CCLXXVII not made with hands.’”CCLXXVIII 59 But even on this point their testimony did not agree. 

Notes on verses 58b-59

CCLXXV “three” = treis. Related to “three hundred” in v5 & “three times” in v30 & “third time” in v41. See note XXXV above.
CCLXXVI “build” = oikodomeo. Related to “house” in v3 & “owner of the house” in v14. From oikos (see note XVI above) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
CCLXXVII “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
CCLXXVIII “not made with hands” = acheiropoietos. Related to “hands” in v41 & “show” in v7 & “made with hands” in v58. 3x in NT. From a (not, without) + cheiropoietos (see note CCLXXIV above). This is literally not made by hand i.e. unmanufactured.

60 Then the high priest stood up before them and askedCCLXXIX Jesus, “Have you no answer? What is it that they testify againstCCLXXX you?” 61 But he was silentCCLXXXI and did not answer.

Again the high priest asked him, “Are you the Messiah,CCLXXXII the Son of the Blessed One?”CCLXXXIII 

Notes on verses 60-61

CCLXXIX “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
CCLXXX “testify against” = katamartureo. Related to “testimony” in v55 & “gave false testimony” in v56. 3x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + martureo (see note CCLXVII above). This is testify or bear witness against.
CCLXXXI “was silent” = siopao. 10x in NT. From siope (silence or muteness). This is to be silent whether by choice or not. Figuratively, this is being calm as water, keeping one’s peace.
CCLXXXII “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CCLXXXIII “Blessed One” = eulogetos. Related to “tell” in v9 & “blessing” in v22 & “words” in v39. 8x in NT. From eulogeo (see note CXXX above). This is blessed, spoken well of, to be praiseworthy, or adorable. This is the root that “eulogy” comes from.

62 Jesus said, “I am; and

‘you will seeCCLXXXIV the Son of Man
seatedCCLXXXV at the right handCCLXXXVI of the Power,’CCLXXXVII
and ‘coming with the cloudsCCLXXXVIII of heaven.’”CCLXXXIX

Notes on verse 62

CCLXXXIV “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
CCLXXXV “seated” = kathemai. Related to “sit” in v32 & “sitting” in v54. See note CCLXII above.
CCLXXXVI “right hand” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
CCLXXXVII “Power” = dunamis. Related to “could” in v5 & “possible” in v35. From dunamai (see note XXXIII above). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
CCLXXXVIII “clouds” = nephele. From nephos (cloud; figurative for a great crowd or multitude). This is cloud or cloudiness.
CCLXXXIX “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “Mount” in v26. May be related to oros (see note CXLVII above) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

63 Then the high priest toreCCXC his clothesCCXCI and said, “Why do we still needCCXCII witnesses?CCXCIII 

Notes on verse 63

CCXC “tore” = diarresso. 5x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is to tear apart or burst.
CCXCI “clothes” = chiton. 11x in NT. From a Semitic language – see Hebrew kethoneth (tunic). Root means to cover. This is the garment worn beneath the cloak or robe – the one that is closest to the skin.
CCXCII “need” = chreia + echo. Chreia is from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution. Echo is the same as “with” in v3. See note XXII above.
CCXCIII “witnesses” = martus. Related to “testimony” in v55 & “gave false testimony” in v56 & “testify against” in v60. See note CCLXVII above.

64 You have heard his blasphemy!CCXCIV What is your decision?”CCXCV All of them condemnedCCXCVI him as deservingCCXCVII death. 

Notes on verse 64

CCXCIV “blasphemy” = blasphemia. Related to “said” in v29 & “crows” in v30. 18x in NT. From perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (see note CLIX above)}. This is slander, blasphemy, or abusive language. It is calling something wrong that is right or calling something right that is wrong – mis-identifying what is good and bad. This is particularly used for vilifying God. This is where the word “blasphemy” comes from.
CCXCV “decision” = phaneroo. Literally, “what to you does it appear?” Related to “crows” in v30 & “fire” in v54. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (see note CCLXV above). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
CCXCVI “condemned” = katakrino. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn. This is a decisive judgment of guilt. It can also be to damn someone.
CCXCVII “deserving” = enochos. Related to “with” in v3 & “trouble” in v6 & “could” in v37 & “enough” in v41. 10x in NT. From enecho (to hold in, ensnare, be angry at); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + echo (see note XXII above)}. This is bound by, liable to, deserving, guilty, subject, in danger of.

65 Some began to spit on him, to blindfoldCCXCVIII him, and to strikeCCXCIX him, saying to him, “Prophesy!”CCC The guards also took him overCCCI and beatCCCII him.

Notes on verse 65

CCXCVIII “blindfold” = perikalupto + autos + ho + prosopon. Literally, “cover his face.” Perikalupto is 3x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is to cover around, veil, overlay. Prosopon is related to “man” in v13 & “see” in v62.  From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note LXXXVII above)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
CCXCIX “strike” = kolaphizo. 5x in NT. From kolaphos (to hit with a fist); from the base of kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked). This is to punch – literally to hit with knuckles. It can also more generally mean violent mistreatment.
CCC “prophesy” = propheteuo. Related to “said” in v29 & “crows” in v30 & “blasphemy” in v64. From prophetes (prophet or poet; one who speaks with inspiration from God); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note CLIX above)}. This is to prophesy, foretell, or tell forth.
CCCI “took…over” = lambano. Same as “took” in v22. See note CXXVIII above.
CCCII “beat” = rhapisma. 3x in NT. From rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is a hit from a stick or an open-handed slap.

66 While Peter was below in the courtyard, one of the servant-girlsCCCIII of the high priest came by. 67 When she saw Peter warming himself, she staredCCCIV at him and said, “You also were with Jesus, the man from Nazareth.”CCCV 

68 But he deniedCCCVI it, saying, “I do not know or understandCCCVII what you are talking about.” And he wentCCCVIII out into the forecourt.CCCIX Then the cock crowed. 

Notes on verses 66-68

CCCIII “servant-girls” = paidiske. Related to “strike” in v27 & “struck” in v47. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is young girl or female slave or servant.
CCCIV “stared” = emblepo. 12x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look at, gaze, consider, stare, see clearly, look with particular interest.
CCCV “Nazareth” = Nazarenos. 6x in NT. Probably from Nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
CCCVI “denied” = arneomai. Related to “deny” in v30. See note CLXIV above.
CCCVII “understand” = epistamai. Related to “sent” in v13 & “stood near” in v47 & “stood up” in v57. 14x in NT. From epihistemi (to stand upon, be present, stand by, be urgent; to attack, confront, appear); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + histemi (see note LXXXIV above)}. This is to know, stand on, get knowledge face to face or with personal effort, comprehend, be acquainted.
CCCVIII “went” = exerchomai. Same as “set out” in v16. See note CII above.
CCCIX “forecourt” = proaulion. Related to “courtyard” in v54. 1x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + aule (see note CCLXI above). This is a vestibule, porch, or alley.

69 And the servant-girl, on seeing him, began again to say to the bystanders,CCCX “This man is one of them.” 

70 But again he deniedCCCXI it. Then after a little while the bystanders again said to Peter, “CertainlyCCCXII you are one of them; for you are a Galilean.”CCCXIII, CCCXIV 

71 But he began to curse,CCCXV and he swore an oath,CCCXVI “I do not know this man you are talking about.” 

Notes on verses 69-71

CCCX “bystanders” = paristemi. Literally, “to those standing by.” Same as “stood near” in v47. See note CCXXXIV above.
CCCXI “denied” = arneomai. Same as “denied” in v68. See note CCCVI above.
CCCXII “certainly” = alethos. 18x in NT. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
CCCXIII “Galilean” = Galilaios. Related to “Galilee” in v28.11x in NT. From Galilaia (see note CLVII above). This is Galilean.
CCCXIV Some manuscripts add, “and your manner of speech agrees.”
CCCXV “curse” = anathematizo. Related to “covenant” in v24 & “immediately” in v43. 4x in NT. From anathema (solemn, anathema, or accursed; a thing that is laid up, such as a votive offering or something one pledges to God; it can be a divine curse or a divine ban, something or someone that is cast out); {from anatithemi (to set up or fort, communicate, submit, declare); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + tithemi (see note CXXXVII above)}}. This is to curse or make a solemn oath or vow. It can also mean devote to destruction.
CCCXVI “swore an oath” = omnuo. This is to swear, to make an oath.

72 At that momentCCCXVII the cock crowed for the second time.CCCXVIII Then Peter rememberedCCCXIX, CCCXX that Jesus had said to him, “Before the cock crows twice, you will deny me three times.” And he broke downCCCXXI and wept.CCCXXII

Notes on verse 72

CCCXVII “at that moment” = eutheos. Same as “immediately” in v43. See note CCXX above.
CCCXVIII “second time” = deuteros. Related to “two” in v1 & “twelve” in v10 & “twice” in v30. From duo (see note I above). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See
CCCXIX “remembered” = anamimnesko. Related to “remembrance” in v9. 6x in NT. From ana (up, again, among, anew) + mimnesko (see note LXIV above). This is to remind, admonish; to follow the path of memory.
CCCXX {untranslated} = rhema. Related to “deny” in v30 & “denied” in v68. From rheo (see note CLXIV above). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
CCCXXI “broke down” = epiballo. Same as “laid” in v46. See note CCXXXIII above.
CCCXXII “wept” = klaio. This is to weep, lament, or sob. It is weeping aloud.

Image credit: “Peter’s Denial” by Robert Leinweber.

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