Matthew 10

Matthew 10


Then Jesus summonedI his twelve disciplesII and gave them authorityIII over uncleanIV spirits,V

Notes on verse 1a

I “summoned” = proskaleo. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to oneself, summon.
II “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
III “authority” = exousia. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
IV “unclean” = akathartos. From a (not, without) + kathairo (to cleanse or purify by purging out unwanted elements); {from katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying)}. This is unclean or impure, whether a thing or a person. It is something that is not mixed with something that would taint. This is unclean in a ritual or moral sense. It can also mean demonic or foul.
V “spirits” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

to cast them out,VI and to cureVII every diseaseVIII and every sickness.IX 

Notes on verse 1b

VI “cast…out” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
VII “cure” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.
VIII “disease” = nosos. 11x in NT. This refers to a disease that is chronic and enduring. It can also be used for a moral failing.
IX “sickness” = malakia. From malakos (soft, delicate). This is softness, weakness, or illness. It is some kind of condition that leaves the sufferer feeling weaker. It can also be a disabling condition.

These are the namesX of the twelve apostles:XI first, Simon,XII also known as Peter,XIII and his brotherXIV Andrew;XV

Notes on verse 2a

X “names” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XI “apostles” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for)}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
XII “Simon” = simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
XIII “Peter” = petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XIV “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
XV “Andrew” = andreas. 13x in NT. From aner (man, male, sir, husband). This is Andrew, meaning manly.

JamesXVI son of Zebedee,XVII and his brother John;XVIII 3 PhilipXIX and Bartholomew;XX

Notes on verses 2b-3a

XVI “James” = iakobos. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
XVII “Zebedee” = zebedaios. 12x in NT. From Hebrew zebadyah (Zebadiah, “The Lord has bestowed”); {from Zabad (to bestow, confer, endure) + Yah (God, the Lord; a shortening of the sacred name of the God of Israel); {from YHVH (the holy name of the God of Israel, generally designated Lord; the self-existent and eternal one; the tetragrammaton); from havah (to become); or from hayah (to be become, happen)}}. This is Zebedee, meaning “the Lord has bestowed.”
XVIII “John” = ioannes. Related to “Zebedee” in v2. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XVII above)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John.
XIX “Philip” = philippos. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse). This is Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses.
XX “Bartholomew” = bartholomaios. 4x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son, age); {Aramaic corresponding to ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children)} + Talmay (Talmay, meaning “plowman” or “ridged”); {from the same as telem (furrow or ridge; root may mean to accumulate)}. This is Bartholomew, meaning “son of Tolmai.”

ThomasXXI and MatthewXXII the tax collector;XXIII James son of Alphaeus,XXIV and Thaddaeus;XXV 

Notes on verse 3b

XXI “Thomas” = thomas. 11x in NT. From Hebrew toam (twin). This is Thomas, meaning twin.
XXII “Matthew” = maththaios. Related to “Zebedee” and “John” in v2. 5x in NT. From maththaios (Matthew); from Hebrew mattityahu (Matthew, “gift of the Lord”); {from mattanah (gift, offering of sacrifice, present, bribe); {from mattan (gift, reward, to give); from natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively)} + YHVH (see note XVII above)}. This is Matthew or Matthaeus, meaning “give of the Lord” or “given of the Lord.” See
XXIII “tax collector” = telones. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is tax collector, one who worked for the Romans taking taxes from Jews. It also meant the toll house. Literally, this is “paying at the end.”
XXIV “Alphaeus” = alphaios. 5x in NT. From Hebrew halap (to exchange, renew, traverse). This is Alphaeus, which shares a root with Clopas. It means “traverse” or “exchange.” See
XXV “Thaddaeus” = thaddaios. 2x in NT. Perhaps from Aramaic taddai (perhaps breasts or large-hearted). This is Thaddaeus, perhaps meaning “courageous heart.” See &

Simon the Cananaean,XXVI and JudasXXVII Iscariot,XXVIII the one who betrayedXXIX him.

Notes on verse 4

XXVI “Cananaen” = kananaios. 2x in NT. From Aramaic qanaan (jealous); from Hebrew qanna (jealous); from the same as qinah (zeal, jealousy, envy, anger, rivalry); from qanah (to be zealous or to provoke to jealousy). This s Cananaean, meaning Zealot, zealous, or Canaanite.
XXVII “Judas” = ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
XXVIII “Iscariot” = iskariotes. 11x in NT. From Hebrew probably ish (man, husband); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be frail, feeble)} + qirya (city); {Aramaic corresponding to qiryah (city, building); from qarah (to happen, meet, bring about)}. Iscariot means person from Kerioth.
XXIX “betrayed” = paradidomi. Related to “gave” in v1. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

These twelve JesusXXX sent outXXXI with the following instructions:XXXII

Notes on verse 5a

XXX “Jesus” = iesous. Related to “Zebedee” and “John” in v2 & “Matthew” in v3. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (see note XVII above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXXI “sent out” = apostello. Related to “apostles” in v2. See note XI above.
XXXII “instructions” = paraggello. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (lead, bring, drive, carry, guide, go)}. This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.

“Go nowhere amongXXXIII the Gentiles,XXXIV and enter no townXXXV of the Samaritans,XXXVI 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXIII “among” = eis + hodos. Literally “into the path of.” Hodos is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
XXXIV “Gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XXXV “town” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
XXXVI “Samaritans” = samarites. 9x in NT. From samareia (Samaria, the city and its region); from Hebrew Shomron (capital of the northern kingdom of Israel); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaritan.

but goXXXVII ratherXXXVIII to the lostXXXIX sheepXL of the houseXLI of Israel.XLII 

Notes on verse 6

XXXVII “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XXXVIII “rather” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
XXXIX “lost” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
XL “sheep” = probaton. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (to walk, to go)}}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
XLI “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
XLII “Israel” = israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

As you go, proclaimXLIII the good news, ‘The kingdomXLIV of heavenXLV has come near.’XLVI 

Notes on verse 7

XLIII “proclaim” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
XLIV “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
XLV “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
XLVI “come near” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.

Cure the sick,XLVII raiseXLVIII the dead,XLIX cleanseL the lepers,LI cast out demons.LII You received without payment;LIII give without payment. 

Notes on verse 8

XLVII “sick” = astheneo. From asthenes (not having strength or weak in a moral sense; sick); {from a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is sick, feeble, languishing, impotent. Can also refer to moral weakness.
XLVIII “raise” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XLIX “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
L “cleanse” = katharizo. Related to “unclean” in v1. From katharos (see note IV above). This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.
LI “lepers” = lepros. 9x in NT. From lepis (fish scale, skin flake); from lepo (to peel). This is scaly or leprous. It can also refer to a person with leprosy.
LII “demons” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.
LIII “without payment” = dorean. Related to “gave” in v1 & “betrayed” in v4. 9x in NT. From dorea (a free gift given voluntarily and not received by merit or entitlement; emphasizes the benevolence of the giver); from doron (gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily); from didomi (see note XXIX above). This is freely, as a gift, without payment. It could also be in vain or without cause.

TakeLIV no gold,LV or silver,LVI or copperLVII in your belts,LVIII 

Notes on verse 9

LIV “take” = ktaomai. 7x in NT. This is to get, purchase, possess, provide, have mastery over.
LV “gold” = chrusos. 10x in NT. Perhaps from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is gold or something made of gold. It is symbolic of purchasing power.
LVI “silver” = arguros. 5x in NT. From argos (shining). This is silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver.
LVII “copper” = chalkos. 5x in NT. Perhaps from chalao (let down, slacken, loosen). This is copper or bronze. Can also mean things made of brass – money, instruments.
LVIII “belts” = zone. 8x in NT. From zonnumi (to gird up – to tighten the belt so one can work or move quickly). This is belt, sash, waistband – the place where one puts the purse.

10 no bagLIX for your journey,LX or two tunics,LXI or sandals,LXII or a staff;LXIII

Notes on verse 10a

LIX “bag” = pera. 6x in NT. This is a sack or bag for carrying food and money.
LX “journey” = hodos. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXIII above.
LXI “tunics” = chiton. 11x in NT. From a Semitic language – see Hebrew kethoneth (tunic). Root means to cover. This is the garment worn beneath the cloak or robe – the one that is closest to the skin.
LXII “sandals” = hupodema. 10x in NT. From hupodeo (to bind under wear on the feet); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited)}. This is a sandal – something bound under the sole.
LXIII “staff” = rhabdos. 12x in NT. Perhaps from the base of rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is staff, rod, cudgel. It is a staff that signifies power, royalty, or authority.

for laborersLXIV deserveLXV their food.LXVI 

Notes on verse 10b

LXIV “laborers” = ergates. 16x in NT. From ergazomai (to work, labor); {from ergon (word, task, action, employment)}. This is a field laborer – later used to refer to workers in general. It can also be used figuratively for teachers.
LXV “deserve” = axios. Related to “instructions” in v5. From ago (see note XXXII above). This is related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward.
LXVI “food” = trophe. 16x in NT. Perhaps from trepho (to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse; properly, to enlarge through proper nourishment). This is nourishment in a literal or figurative sense. By implication, it can be ration or wages.

11 Whatever town or villageLXVII you enter, find outLXVIII who in it is worthy,LXIX and stayLXX there until you leave. 12 As you enter the house,LXXI greetLXXII it. 

Notes on verses 11-12

LXVII “village” = kome. This is a village as contrasted with a city that has a wall.
LXVIII “find out” = exetazo. 3x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + etazo (examine). This is to inquire, examine thoroughly, meticulously. It can also be ascertain or interrogate.
LXIX “worthy” = axios. Same as “deserve” in v10. See note LXV above.
LXX “stay” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
LXXI “house” = oikia. Related to “house” in v6. From oikos (see note XLI above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
LXXII “greet” = aspazomai. Perhaps from a (with, together with) + a form of spao (to draw, draw out, pull). This is to welcome, salute, or greet. It can also be to embrace or acclaim.

13 IfLXXIII the house is worthy, let your peaceLXXIV come upon it; but if it is not worthy, let your peace returnLXXV to you. 

Notes on verse 13

LXXIII {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
LXXIV “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
LXXV “return” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.

14 If anyone will not welcomeLXXVI you or listenLXXVII to your words,LXXVIII shake offLXXIX the dustLXXX from your feet as you leave that house or town. 

Notes on verse 14

LXXVI “welcome” = dechomai. This is to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome. It is to receive in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVII “listen” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LXXVIII “words” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
LXXIX “shake off” = ektinasso. 4x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + tinasso (to swing). This is shake off or out.
LXXX “dust” = koniortos. 5x in NT. From the same as koniao (to whitewash, plaster); {from konia (dust, lime) + ornumi (to stir up)}. This is dust or powder as blown around.

15 TrulyLXXXI I tell you, it will be more tolerableLXXXII for the land of SodomLXXXIII and GomorrahLXXXIV on the day of judgmentLXXXV than for that town.

Notes on verse 15

LXXXI “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
LXXXII “more tolerable” = anektoteros. 6x in NT. From anektos (bearable, tolerable); from anecho (to endure, bear with, tolerate, persist, put up with); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + echo (to have, hold, possess)}. This is more tolerable or endurable.
LXXXIII “Sodom” = sodoma. 10x in NT. From Hebrew sedom (Sodom, the Canaanite city; root may mean scorch; perhaps this was a volcanic or coal rich area). This is Sodom.
LXXXIV “Gomorrah” = gomorra. 5x in NT. From Hebrew amorah (Amorah, Gomorrah; a ruined heap); from amar (to bind sheaves, heap; discipline as piling on blows). This is Gomorrah.
LXXXV “judgment” = krisis. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is a judging or a sentence. It is often used of God’s judgment, but can also be any accusation or condemnation. This is where the word “crisis” comes from.

16 “See,LXXXVI I am sending you out like sheep into the midst of wolves;LXXXVII so beLXXXVIII wiseLXXXIX as serpentsXC and innocentXCI as doves. 

Notes on verse 16

LXXXVI “see” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LXXXVII “wolves” = lukos. 6x in NT. Perhaps related to leukos (bright, white); from luke (light). This is wolf or maybe jackal. Figuratively, it means cruel, greedy, or destructive.
LXXXVIII “be” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another. This is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LXXXIX “wise” = phronimos. 14x in NT. From phroneo (to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action); from phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is wise in a practical sense, prudent, or sensible. It is savvy, rooted in our own point of view, thoughtful. It can also mean conceited.
XC “serpents” = ophis. 14x n NT. Perhaps from optanomai (to be seen, to gaze at something with eyes wide open, to see something remarkable). This is snake or serpent, often used of the devil. It is the snake as a type that is sly or cunning – someone malicious.
XCI “innocent” = akeraios. 3x in NT. From a (not, without) + kerannumi (to mix, mingle); {from kerao (to mix)}. This is pure, simple, innocent, sincere, unmixed. It is not touched by sinful motives.

17 BewareXCII of them,XCIII for they will hand you overXCIV to councilsXCV and flogXCVI you in their synagogues;XCVII 

Notes on verse 17

XCII “beware” = prosecho. Related to “more tolerable” in v15. From pros (at, toward) + echo (see note LXXXII above). This is have towards, which is to say to give something your complete attention, beware, be cautious, hold to, turn to.
XCIII “them” = anthropos. Perhaps related to “Andrew” in v2. Probably from aner (see note XV above) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XCIV “hand…over” = paradidomi. Same as “betrayed” in v4. See note XXIX above.
XCV “councils” = sunedrion. From sun (with, together with) + hedra (convening, siting together, being firm and faithful); {from aphedron (seat, well-seated; figuratively, this is firm in purpose, steadfast); from hedra (a seat)}. This is Sanhedrin – literally a sitting together. It was the high court for Jews and had 71 members. This term could also mean council or meeting place and was used for the lower courts that were throughout the land and had 23 members.
XCVI “flog” = mastigoo. 7x in NT. From mastix (a whip that had leather straps with metal bits sewn onto them; figurative for great pain, suffering, disease, or plague; a Roman whip used on criminals, the flagellum); probably from massaomai (to chew, gnaw, consume); from masso (to handle, squeeze). This is to flog or whip someone – the victim being strapped to a pole. Used figuratively for being chastised.
XCVII “synagogues” = sunagoge. Related to “instructions” in v5 & “deserve” in v10. From sunago (to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain; assembly); from {sun (with, together with) + ago (see note XXXII above)}. Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.

18 and you will be draggedXCVIII before governorsXCIX and kingsC because of me, as a testimonyCI to them and the Gentiles. 19 When they hand you over, do not worryCII about how you are to speak or what you are to say; for what you are to say will be given to you at that time;CIII 20 for it is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you. 

Notes on verses 18-20

XCVIII “dragged” = ago. Related to “instructions” in v5 & “deserve” in v10 & “synagogues” in v17 & “governors” in v18. See note XXXII above.
XCIX “governors” = hegemon. Related to “instructions” in v5 & “deserve” in v10 & “synagogues” in v17. From hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); from ago (see note XXXII above). This is a leader in general, but also specifically a governor or commander. This is where “hegemony” comes from.
C “kings” = basileus. Related to “kingdom” in v7. See note XLIV above.
CI “testimony” = marturion. 19x in NT. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is something that counts as evidence whether a witness, testimony, or other proof.
CII “worry” = merimnao. 19x in NT. From merimna (care, worry, anxiety; being separated from the whole); from merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment). This is to be anxious, distracted, or care for. It is being pulled in different directions – usually a negative.
CIIII “time” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.

21 Brother will betray brother to death,CIV and a father his child,CV and children will riseCVI against parentsCVII and have them put to death;CVIII 

Notes on verse 21

CIV “death” = thanatos. This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CV “child” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
CVI “rise” = epanistemi. Related to “sent out” in v5. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); {from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is stand up or rise against – used figuratively for attacking.
CVII “parents” = goneus. Related to “be” in v16. From ginomai (see note LXXXVIII above). This is parent or father.
CVIII “put to death” = thanatoo. Related to “death” in v21. 11x in NT. From thanatos (see note CIV above). This is to kill or put to death in a literal or figurative sense.

22 and you will be hatedCIX by all because of my name. But the one who enduresCX to the endCXI will be saved.CXII 

Notes on verse 22

CIX “hated” = miseo. From misos (hatred). This word is used in two ways in the New Testament. One has to do with how we prioritize. In order to prioritize something the highest, it means we have to rank other things lower. We cannot have 10 number one priorities. So, the nine that are not number 1, we love less or we value them lower. We make a moral choice the springs from our values about where we put our time, efforts, energy, etc. The other way is detesting or hatred as we normally think of it. This sense has a particular affinity with persecuting the one we hate.
CX “endures” = hupomeno. Related to “stay” in v11. 17x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + meno (see note LXX above). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, enduring trials, and waiting in hope.
CXI “end” = telos. Related to “tax collector” in v3. See note XXIII above.
CXII “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

23 When they persecuteCXIII you in one town, fleeCXIV to the next;CXV for truly I tell you, you will not have gone throughCXVI all the towns of Israel before the Son of ManCXVII comes.

Notes on verse 23

CXIII “persecute” = dioko. From dio (put to flight). This is chase or pursue in an aggressive fashion. By implication, it is persecute. It can also be used positively for eagerly pursuing something.
CXIV “flee” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.
CXV “next” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
CXVI “gone through” = teleo. Related to “tax collector” in v3 & “end” in v22. From telos (see note XXIII above). This is to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end.
CXVII “Man” = anthropos. Same as “them” in v17. See note XCIII above.

24 “A disciple is not above the teacher,CXVIII nor a slaveCXIX above the master;CXX 

Notes on verse 24

CXVIII “teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
CXIX “slave” = doulos. Perhaps related to “sandals” in v10. Perhaps from deo (see note LXII above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
CXX “master” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

25 it is enough for the disciple to be like the teacher, and the slave like the master. If they have calledCXXI the master of the houseCXXII Beelzebul,CXXIII how much moreCXXIV will they malign those of his household!CXXV

Notes on verse 25

CXXI “called” = epikaleo. Related to “summoned” in v1. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (see note I above). This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
CXXII “master of the house” = oikodespotes. Related to “house” in v6 & “house” in v12. 12x in NT. From oikos (see note XLI above) + despotes (lord, master, despot; authority who has unrestricted power and jurisdiction) + posis (husband). This is the master of the house, head of a family, or the householder.
CXXIII “Beelzebul” = beelzeboul. 7x in NT. From Hebrew baal zebub (Baal Zebub, meaning “Baal of flies,” a god of the Phoenicians); {from Baal (Baal); {from the same as baal (owner, master, husband); from baal (to marry, have dominion over, to master)}} + zebub (a fly, particularly one that stings; root may mean to flit). This is Beelzebul – literally “lord of the flies.”
CXXIV “more” = mallon. Same as “rather” in v6. See note XXXVIII above.
CXXV “household” = oikiakos. Related to “house” in v6 & “house” in v12 & “master of the house” in v25. 2x in NT. From oikia (see note LXXI above). This is part of a house or household (i.e. part of the family). It can include family, relatives, children, and servants in the household.

26 “So have no fearCXXVI of them; for nothing is covered upCXXVII that will not be uncovered,CXXVIII and nothing secretCXXIX that will not become known.CXXX 

Notes on verse 26

CXXVI “have…fear” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
CXXVII “covered up” = kalupto. 8x in NT. Related to kalube (hut, cabin). This is to cover, hide, veil, or conceal. Figuratively, it can mean to keep hidden or secret.
CXXVIII “uncovered” = apokalupto. Related to “covered up” in v26. From apo (from, away from) + kalupto (see note CXXVII above). This is properly to uncover so it means revealing something that was hidden or obstructed. It particularly refers to revealing the essence of something. This is to make plain or manifest. This is the root verb that “apocalypse” comes from.
CXXIX “secret” = kruptos. 19x in NT. From krupto (to hide by covering, secret, hidden things). This is something concealed, hidden, secret, or private. It can also refer to the inner nature. This is the root of the word “cryptography.”
CXXX “become known” = ginosko. Related to “names” in v2. See note X above.

27 What I say to you in the dark,CXXXI tell in the light;CXXXII and what you hear whispered,CXXXIII proclaim from the housetops.CXXXIV 

Notes on verse 27

CXXXI “dark” = skotia. 16x in NT. From skotos (darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it; obscurity); from skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness or dimness. Figuratively, it can be a spiritual darkness. This is obscurity in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXII “light” = phos. From phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.
CXXXIII “whispered” = eis + ho + ous. Literally “into the ear.”
CXXXIV “housetops” = doma. 7x in NT. From demo (to build). This is housetop or roof – a flat roof. Properly, it is more generally a building, but used specifically for roofs.

28 Do not fear those who killCXXXV the bodyCXXXVI but cannot kill the soul;CXXXVII rather fear him who can destroyCXXXVIII both soul and body in hell.CXXXIX 

Notes on verse 28

CXXXV “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
CXXXVI “body” = soma. Perhaps related to “saved” in v22. Perhaps from sozo (see note CXII above). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
CXXXVII “soul” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CXXXVIII “destroy” = apollumi. Same as “lost” in v6. See note XXXIX above.
CXXXIX “hell” = geenna. 12x in NT. From Hebrew Gehinnom (valley of Hinnom); from gay (valley; a gorge that is not a winter torrent) + Hinnom (most likely of foreign origin, perhaps from the Jebusites). This is Gehenna or hell, referring to a valley outside of Jerusalem and used figuratively for hell.   

29 Are not two sparrowsCXL sold for a penny?CXLI Yet not one of them will fall to the ground apart from your Father. 30 And even the hairs of your headCXLII are all counted.CXLIII 31 So do not be afraid; you are of more valueCXLIV than many sparrows.

Notes on verses 29-31

CXL “sparrows” = strouthion. 4x in NT. From strouthos (sparrow). A sparrow or other small bird.
CXLI “penny” = assarion. 2x in NT. From Latin assarius (related to an “as”); from as (a Roman coin that is bronze). This is an assarion or penny, one tenth of a drachma. It does not have a high value. See &
CXLII “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.
CXLIII “counted” = arithmeo. 3x in NT. From arithmos (a number or total that has been counted to together); from airo (to raise, take up, lift, remove). This is to number of count. It shares a root with “arithmetic,” which literally means the “art of counting.” See
CXLIV “of more value” = diaphero. 13x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry through as in all the way to the end. It is differing or fully distinguishing – separating by comparison. Literally, it means transport – figuratively it can mean report or surpass.

32 “Everyone therefore who acknowledgesCXLV me before others,CXLVI I also will acknowledge before my Father in heaven; 33 but whoever deniesCXLVII me before others, I also will deny before my Father in heaven.

Notes on verses 32-33

CXLV “acknowledges” = homologeo. Related to “known” in v2 & “words” in v14. From homologos (of one mind); {from homou (the same) + lego (see note LXXVIII above)}. This is to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate. It can mean to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse.
CXLVI “others” = anthropos. Same as “them” in v17. See note XCIII above.
CXLVII “denies” = arneomai. From a (not) + rheo (say, speak of). This is to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict.

34 “Do not thinkCXLVIII that I have come to bringCXLIX peace to the earth; I have not come to bring peace, but a sword.CL

Notes on verse 34

CXLVIII “think” = nomizo. 15x in NT. From nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); from nemo (to parcel out, assign). This is to practice, think, consider, suppose, hold by custom. This is thinking that something applies given precedent and practice – to do by law.
CXLIX “bring” = ballo. Related to “cast…out” in v1. See note VI above.
CL “sword” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.

35 For I have come to setCLI a man against his father,
and a daughter against her mother,
and a daughter-in-lawCLII against her mother-in-law;CLIII
36 and one’sCLIV foesCLV will be members of one’s own household.

Notes on verses 35-36

CLI “set” = dichazo. 1x in NT. From dicha (apart) OR from dis (twice, utterly, again); from duo (two, both). This is to separate or alienate. It can also be to split apart or to cause hostility.
CLII “daughter-in-law” = numphe. 8x in NT. Perhaps from nupto (to put on a veil as a bride does – in Latin nupto means simple to marry); related to numphon (the room where the marriage bed is). This is bride, daughter-in-law, young wife, or young woman. This share a root with “nymph” and “nymphomaniac.”
CLIII “mother-in-law” = penthera. 6x in NT. From pentheros (specifically a wife’s father). This is the wife’s mother.
CLIV “one’s” = anthropos. Same as “them” in v17. See note XCIII above.
CLV “foes” = echthros. From echthos (hatred). This is an openly hostile person so an enemy, a foe, or a hated person. This speaks of irreconcilable hostility. It can also mean adversary and/or refer to Satan.

37 Whoever lovesCLVI father or mother more than me is not worthy of me; and whoever loves son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me; 38 and whoever does not take up the crossCLVII and followCLVIII me is not worthy of me. 39 Those who findCLIX their lifeCLX will loseCLXI it, and those who lose their life for my sake will find it.

Notes on verses 37-39

CLVI “loves” = phileo. Related to “Philip” in v3. From philos (see note XIX above). This is friendship love and fondness with personal attachment.
CLVII “cross” = stauros. Related to “sent out” in v5 & “rise” in v21. From the same as histemi (see note CVI above). This is an upright stake, cross. Literally refers to the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die.
CLVIII “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
CLIX “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CLX “life” = psuche. Same as “soul” in v28. See note CXXVII above.
CLXI “lose” = apollumi. Same as “lost” in v6. See note XXXIX above.

40 “Whoever welcomes you welcomes me, and whoever welcomes me welcomes the one who sent me. 41 Whoever welcomes a prophetCLXII in the name of a prophet will receive a prophet’s reward;CLXIII and whoever welcomes a righteousCLXIV person in the name of a righteous person will receive the reward of the righteous; 

Notes on verses 40-41

CLXII “prophet” = prophetes. Related to “light” in v27. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (see note CXXXII above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CLXIII “reward” = misthos. This is wages, pay, or salary. It can also be reward, recompense, or punishment. It is pay for services rendered in a literal or figurative way, either good or bad.
CLXIV “righteous” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.

42 and whoever givesCLXV even a cupCLXVI of coldCLXVII water to one of these little onesCLXVIII in the name of a disciple—truly I tell you, none of these will lose their reward.”

Notes on verse 42

CLXV “gives” = potizo. 15x in NT. From potos (drink or for drinking) OR from pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is to give to drink, water, furnish, irrigate, or feed.
CLXVI “cup” = poterion. Related to “gives” in v42. From pino (see note CLXV above). This is a drinking vessel. Figuratively, it can refer to one’s lot, to fate, or to what God has in store for you.
CLXVII “cold” = psuchros. Related to “soul” in v28. 4x in NT. From psuchos (cold or coolness); from psucho (see note CXXXVII above). This is cold or cool. Figuratively, it can mean cold-hearted.
CLXVIII “little ones” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.

Image credit: “Twelve Apostles” from Saint Mary Church in Castelldefels, Spain. Photo by Enrique Lopez-Tamayo Biosca.

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