Matthew 24

Matthew 24


As JesusI came out of the templeII and was going away,III his disciplesIV came to point outV to him the buildingsVI of the temple. 

Notes on verse 1

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.
III “going away” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
IV “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
V “point out” = epideiknumi. 7x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is to show, demonstrate, prove, or display.
VI “buildings” = oikodome. 18x in NT. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + doma (house, housetop; often used to refer to the roof) {from demo (to build a house)}. This is the act of building, structure, architecture, a building, upbuilding. It is a building that is used as a home. Figuratively, this refers to spiritual progress – becoming a person who is a better home in which God can reside.

Then he asked them, “You seeVII all these, do you not? TrulyVIII I tell you, not one stone will be leftIX here upon another; all will be thrown down.”X

Notes on verse 2

VII “see” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
VIII “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
IX “be left” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
X “thrown down” = kataluo. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.

3 When he was sittingXI on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately,XII saying, “Tell us, when will this be, and what will be the signXIII of your comingXIV and of the endXV of the age?”XVI 

Notes on verse 3

XI “sitting” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
XII “privately” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
XIII “sign” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
XIV “coming” = parousia. From pareimi (to be present, have come) {from para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + eimi (to be, exist)}. This is presence, coming, arrival, advent. Properly, it was the term for an official visit of a king or someone else with formal authority. It is used specifically in the New Testament to refer to Jesus’s second coming.
XV “end” = sunteleia. 6x in NT. From sunteleo (to fulfill, accomplish, complete, bring to the desired result, to complete a goal literally or figuratively); {from sun (with, together with) + teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}}. This is completion, end, consummation – joint action or joint payment.
XVI “age” = aion. From the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.

Jesus answered them, “BewareXVII that no one leads you astray.XVIII For many will come in my name,XIX saying, ‘I am the Messiah!’XX and they will lead many astray. 

Notes on verses 4-5

XVII “beware” = blepo. Same as “see” in v2. See note VII above.
XVIII “leads…astray” = planao. From plane (wandering – used figuratively for deceit, error, sin, fraudulence, or wandering from orthodoxy); from planos (wandering, misleading, a deceiver or imposter). This is to wander, lead astray, mislead, mistake, seduce, or deceive. Generally used to refer to sin – going off the right path or roaming from truth/virtue. This word shares a root with “planet” (as a heavenly body that wanders).
XIX “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XX “Messiah” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

6 And you willXXI hearXXII of warsXXIII and rumorsXXIV of wars;

Notes on verse 6a

XXI “will” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
XXII “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XXIII “wars” = polemos. 18x in NT. From pelomai (to bustle) or from polus (much, many, abundant). This is war, quarrel, strife; battle, whether one time or on-going. It is war in a literal or figurative sense.
XXIV “rumors” = akoe. Related to “hear” in v6. From akouo (see note XXII above). This is hearing, ear, audience, fame, report, rumor.

seeXXV that you are not alarmed;XXVI for this mustXXVII take place,XXVIII but the endXXIX is not yet. 

Notes on verse 6b

XXV “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XXVI “alarmed” = throeo. 3x in NT. From throos (noise, tumult). This is to be disturbed, unsettled, troubled. It is feeling the desire to scream from fear, very upset, startled.
XXVII “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
XXVIII “take place” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XXIX “end” = telos. Related to “end” in v3. See note XV above.

For nationXXX will riseXXXI against nation, and kingdomXXXII against kingdom,

Notes on verse 7a

XXX “nation” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XXXI “rise” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XXXII “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.

and there will be faminesXXXIII and earthquakesXXXIV in various places:XXXV 8 all this is but the beginningXXXVI of the birth pangs.XXXVII

Notes on verses 7b-8

XXXIII “famines” = limos. 12x in NT. Probably from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is hunger, famine, or lacking.
XXXIV “earthquakes” = seismos. 14x in NT. From seio (to shake, move, or quake to and fro; figuratively, to create agitation, fear, or worry). This is a commotion or shaking generally. It can also be a storm or earthquake. This is where “seismic” comes from.
XXXV “places” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
XXXVI “beginning” = arche. From archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). Properly, this is what is first. In a temporal sense, that is beginning or origin. It can also refer to the one who ranks first, i.e. king or ruler. So, it can also be magistrate, power, or principality. It can be used more generally for what is preeminent.
XXXVII “birth pangs” = odin. 4x in NT. Akin to odune (pain, distress, or anguish, whether physical or mental); perhaps from duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); from duo (to sink). This is severe agony, a snare, the pain from childbirth. It can refer figuratively to pain and difficulty that comes from ushering in something new.

“Then they will hand you overXXXVIII to be torturedXXXIX and will put you to death,XL and you will be hatedXLI by all nations because of my name. 

Notes on verse 9

XXXVIII “hand…over” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
XXXIX “tortured” = thlipsis. From thlibo (to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict; figuratively to oppress or afflict). This is pressure that hems us in – used often of internal pressure that makes us feel like we have no other options and are confined or restricted. So, this is persecution, affliction, trouble, distress, and anguish. There is a different word, stenoxoria, that refers to external pressure that we feel from what’s going on.
XL “put…to death” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
XLI “hated” = miseo. From misos (hatred). This word is used in two ways in the New Testament. One has to do with how we prioritize. In order to prioritize something the highest, it means we have to rank other things lower. We cannot have 10 number one priorities. So, the nine that are not number 1, we love less or we value them lower. We make a moral choice the springs from our values about where we put our time, efforts, energy, etc. The other way is detesting or hatred as we normally think of it. This sense has a particular affinity with persecuting the one we hate.

10 Then many will fall away,XLII and they will betrayXLIII one another and hate one another. 11 And many false prophetsXLIV will arise and lead many astray. 

Notes on verses 10-11

XLII “fall away” = skandalizo.  From skandalon (the bait or portion of the trap that closes down on the victim – the trap’s trigger; a stumbling block, offense, or cause for error; something that sets into motion a negative cause and effect; something that causes one to stumble); perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is to put a stumbling block in someone’s way. Figuratively, causing someone to sin or preventing them from good action. It can also mean to shock or offend. Literally, this is falling into a trap or tripping someone up. So, here, enticing someone to sin or apostasy.
XLIII “betray” = paradidomi. Same as “hand…over” in v9. See note XXXVIII above.
XLIV “false prophets” = pseudoprophetes. 11x in NT. From pseudes (false, lying, wicked); {from pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify)} + prophetes (prophet or poet; one who speaks with inspiration from God); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}}. This is false prophet – one who pretends they are prophesying from God or who teaches something that is false, but still attributes it to God.

12 And because of the increaseXLV of lawlessness,XLVI the loveXLVII of many will grow cold.XLVIII 13 But the one who enduresXLIX to the end will be saved.L 

Notes on verses 12-13

XLV “increase” = plethuno. 12x in NT. From plethos (fullness, multitude, great number); from pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is to increase, multiply, or abound. It is filling to its greatest potential or utmost capacity.
XLVI “lawlessness” = anomia. 15x in NT. From anomos (literally without law; could refer to someone who disregards authority or one who is not under the law (i.e. a Gentile); lawless, wicked, or a transgressor); {from a (not, without) + nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}}. This is lawlessness, disobedience, without law, violation. It is disregarding the law whether human or God’s law, including the harmful impact.
XLVII “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
XLVIII “grow cold” = psucho. 1x in NT. This is to breathe – to blow cool air on. It is voluntary, gentle exhale. Figuratively, it can be to wax cold.
XLIX “endures” = hupomeno. 17x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, enduring trials, and waiting in hope.
L “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

14 And this good newsLI of the kingdom will be proclaimedLII throughoutLIII the world,LIV as a testimonyLV to all the nations; and then the end will come.LVI

Notes on verse 14

LI “good news” = euaggelion. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel); {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
LII “proclaimed” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
LIII “throughout” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
LIV “world” = oikoumene. Related to “buildings” in v1. 15x in NT. From oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); from oikos (see note VI above). This is the world, inhabited land. It could also refer specifically to the lands of the Roman Empire.
LV “testimony” = marturion. 19x in NT. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is something that counts as evidence whether a witness, testimony, or other proof.
LVI “come” = heko. This is to come or arrive as at a final destination or goal. It can also mean being present in a literal or figurative sense.

15 “So when you see the desolatingLVII sacrilegeLVIII standingLIX in the holyLX place,

Notes on verse 15a

LVII “desolating” = eremosis. 3x in NT – all in reference to the “desolating sacrilege” in Gospel parallels. From eremoo (to desolate, destroy, rob, abandon, desert; to lay waste in a literal or figurative sense); from eremos (properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated; could be a deserted area or a desert place; secluded, solitary, or lonesome; any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally). This is a desolation or devastation that comes from being cut off or separated.
LVIII “sacrilege” = bdelugma. 6x in NT. From bdelussomai (properly, to stink; to be foul and thus detestable like a bad odor; to be abhorrent or disgusted); from bdeo (to stink). This is something accursed or abominable. It is something that stinks and so is abhorrent. Specially, it can refer to an abomination or idolatry.
LIX “standing” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
LX “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.

as was spoken of by the prophetLXI DanielLXII (let the readerLXIII understand),LXIV 

Notes on verse 15b

LXI “prophet” = prophetes. Related to “false prophets” in v11. See note XLIV above.
LXII “Daniel” = Daniel. 2x in NT. From Hebrew Danieyl (Daniel, meaning “God is my judge”); {from din (to judge) + el (God, a god)}. This is Daniel, meaning “God is my judge.”
LXIII “reader” = anaginosko. Related to “name” in v5. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + ginosko (see note XIX above). This is literally to know again – to recognize, read, or discern.
LXIV “understand” = noeo. Related to “name” in v5 & “reader” in v15. 14x in NT. From nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (see note XIX above)}. This is to think, understand, conceive, realize, see. It is one who thinks things through sufficiently to reach a conclusion or value judgment. It is also one’s moral reasoning.

16 then those in JudeaLXV must fleeLXVI to the mountains; 17 the one on the housetopLXVII must not go down to takeLXVIII what is in the house;LXIX 

Notes on verses 16-17

LXV “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
LXVI “flee” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.
LXVII “housetop” = doma. Related to “buildings” in v1. 7x in NT. From demo (see note VI above). This is housetop or roof – a flat roof. Properly, it is more generally a building, but used specifically for roofs.
LXVIII “take” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
LXIX “house” = oikia. Related to “buildings” in v1 & “world” in v14. From oikos (see note VI above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.

18 the one in the fieldLXX must not turnLXXI back to getLXXII a coat.LXXIII 

Notes on verse 18

LXX “field” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”
LXXI “turn” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
LXXII “get” = airo. Same as “take” in v17. See note LXVIII above.
LXXIII “coat” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.

19 WoeLXXIV to those who are pregnantLXXV and to those who are nursing infantsLXXVI in those days! 

Notes on verse 19

LXXIV “woe” = ouai. This is alas or woe to show grief or to denounce something.
LXXV “are pregnant” = en + gaster + echo. Literally “in womb having.” Gaster is 9x in NT. This is belly or womb. It can be used specifically to mean pregnant. This is one of the roots of the word “gastronomy.”
LXXVI “nursing infants” = thelazo. 5x in NT. From thele (a nipple). This is to nurse or suckle – a nursing baby.

20 PrayLXXVII that your flightLXXVIII may not be in winterLXXIX or on a sabbath.LXXX 

Notes on verse 20

LXXVII “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
LXXVIII “flight” = phuge. Related to “flee” in v16. 1x in NT. From pheugo (see note LXVI above). This is fleeing or escape.
LXXIX “winter” = cheimon. 6x in NT. Related to the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn)}. This is winter, storm, bad weather – winter as the rainy season.
LXXX “sabbath” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.

21 For at that time there will be great suffering,LXXXI such as has not been from the beginning of the worldLXXXII until now, no, and never will be. 22 And if those days had not been cut short,LXXXIII no oneLXXXIV would be saved; but for the sake of the electLXXXV those days will be cut short. 

Notes on verses 21-22

LXXXI “suffering” = thlipsis. Same as “tortured” in v9. See note XXXIX above.
LXXXII “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
LXXXIII “cut short” = koloboo. 4x in NT – all in Mt 24 & parallel in Mk 13.  From the same as kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked, dwarf). This is to curtail, cut short, abbreviate, or figuratively to abridge.
LXXXIV “one” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
LXXXV “elect” = eklektos. From eklego (to choose, select, elect); {from ek (from, from out of) + lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is to select or choose. It is making a person choice – a favorite.

23 Then if anyone says to you, ‘Look!LXXXVI Here is the Messiah!’ or ‘There he is!’—do not believeLXXXVII it. 24 For false messiahsLXXXVIII and false prophets will appearLXXXIX and produceXC great signs and omens,XCI to lead astray, if possible,XCII even the elect. 

Notes on verses 23-24

LXXXVI “look” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LXXXVII “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
LXXXVIII “false messiahs” = pseudochristos. Related to “Messiah” in v5 & “false prophets” in v11. 2x in NT. From pseudes (see note XLIV above) + christos (see note XX above). This is false Christ or false Messiah.
LXXXIX “appear” = egeiro. Same as “rise” in v7. See note XXXI above.
XC “produce” = didomi. Related to “hand…over” in v9. See note XXXVIII above.
XCI “omens” = teras. 16x in NT. This is a wonder or marvel performed to get bystanders to react. It could also be a portent or omen.
XCII “possible” = dunatos. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.

25 Take note,XCIII I have told you beforehand.XCIV 26 So, if they say to you, ‘Look! He is in the wilderness,’XCV do not go out. If they say, ‘Look! He is in the inner rooms,’XCVI do not believe it. 

Notes on verses 25-26

XCIII “take note” = idou. Same as “look” in v23. See note LXXXVI above.
XCIV “told…beforehand” = prolego. Related to “elect” in v22. 14x in NT. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + lego (see note LXXXV above). This is to say before, predict, forewarn.
XCV “wilderness” = eremos. Related to “desolating” in v15. See note LVII above.
XCVI “inner rooms” = tameion. 4x in NT. From tamieion (treasury) OR from tamias (dispenser, distributor). This is an inner chamber, store room, or secret closet. It would be on the interior of a house and it would be used to store things or for privacy.

27 For as the lightningXCVII comes from the eastXCVIII and flashesXCIX
as far as the west,C so will be the coming of the Son of Man.CI 

Notes on verse 27

XCVII “lightning” = astrape. 9x in NT. From astrapto (to flash with or like lightning, be dazzling); probably from aster (star literally or figuratively); probably from stronnumi or stronnuo (to spread, make a bed). This is lightning, brightness, glare, or ray.
XCVIII “east” = anatole. Related to “end” in v3 & “end” in v6. 11x in NT. From anatello (rise, shine, or dawn; most often used of the sun; figuratively, achieving a goal or reaching consummation after completing the needed steps); {from ana (up, again, back, anew) + tello (to cause to arise); {from telos (see note XV above)}. This is rising, as in the place where the sun rises. So, it refers to the east.
XCIX “flashes” = phaino. Related to “false prophets” in v11 & “prophet” in v15. See note XLIV above.
C “west” = dusme. Related to “birth pangs” in v8. 6x in NT. From duno (see note XXXVII above). This is a setting i.e. the west, the region to the west, or the sunset.
CI “Man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

28 Wherever the corpseCII is, there the vulturesCIII will gather.CIV

Notes on verse 28

CII “corpse” = ptoma. 7x in NT. From pipto (to fall literally or figuratively). This is a fall, misfortune, ruin, corpse.
CIII “vultures” = aetos. 5x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is eagle or vulture. It could also refer more generally to a bird of prey.
CIV “gather” = sunago. Related to “good news” in v14. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note LI above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”

29 “ImmediatelyCV after the suffering of those days
the sunCVI will be darkened,CVII

Notes on verse 29a

CV “immediately” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked). This is directly, soon, at once.
CVI “sun” = helios. This is sun, which would imply light in general or the east.
CVII “darkened” = skotizo. 5x in NT. From skotos (darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it; obscurity); from skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is to darken or obscure in a literal or figurative sense.

    and the moonCVIII will not giveCIX its light;CX

Notes on verse 29b

CVIII “moon” = selene. 9x in NT. From selas (bright flame). This is moon as bright.
CIX “give” = didomi. Same as “produce” in v24. See note XC above.
CX “light” = pheggos. Related to “false prophets” in v11 & “prophet” in v15 & “flashes” in v27. 2x in NT. Perhaps from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (see note XLIV above). This is light, splendor, radiance.

the starsCXI will fallCXII from heaven,CXIII
    and the powersCXIV of heaven will be shaken.CXV

Notes on verse 29c

CXI “stars” = aster. Related to “lightning” in v27. See note XCVII above.
CXII “fall” = pipto. Related to “corpse” in v28. See note CII above.
CXIII “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CXIV “powers” = dunamis. Related to “possible” in v24. From dunamai (see note XCII above). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
CXV “shaken” = saleuo. 15x in NT. From salos (tossing, agitation, rolling – like the sea swells). This is to agitate or shake up. It can mean to disturb, topple, incite, or destroy.

30 Then the sign of the Son of Man will appearCXVI in heaven, and then all the tribesCXVII of the earth will mourn,CXVIII and they will seeCXIX ‘the Son of Man coming on the cloudsCXX of heaven’ with power and great glory.CXXI

Notes on verse 30

CXVI “appear” = phaino. Same as “flashes” in v27. See note XLIV above.
CXVII “tribes” = phule. From phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow). This is clan, tribe, lineage. It is those who descend from a shared ancestor.
CXVIII “mourn” = kopto. 8x in NT. This is to cut, strike, cut off. It can also mean beating the chest to lament and so to mourn.
CXIX “see” = horao. Same as “see” in v6. See note XXV above.
CXX “clouds” = nephele. From nephos (cloud; figurative for a great crowd or multitude). This is cloud or cloudiness.
CXXI “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.

31 And he will sendCXXII out his angelsCXXIII with a loudCXXIV trumpet call,CXXV and they will gatherCXXVI his elect from the four winds,CXXVII from one end of heaven to the other.

Notes on verse 31

CXXII “send” = apostello. Related to “standing” in v15. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note LIX above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CXXIII “angels” = aggelos. Related to “good news” in v14 & “gather” in v28. Probably from ago (see note LI above). This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
CXXIV “loud” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CXXV “trumpet call” = salpigx. 11x in NT. Perhaps from salpizo (to play a trumpet, to sound a trumpet blast literally or figuratively); perhaps from salos (tossing like the waves of the sea; agitation, vibration); perhaps from saino (wag the tail, flatter, beguile, move, shake; figuratively, to disturb); related to seio (to shake, vibrate; figuratively to agitate or show fear). This is a trumpet, bugle, or the sound that a trumpet makes.
CXXVI “gather” = episunago. Related to “good news” in v14 & “gather” in v28 & “angels” in v31. 8x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + sunago (see note CIV above). This is to gather together, assemble.
CXXVII “winds” = anemos. Related to “vultures” in v28. From aer (see note CIII above). This is wind or a gust of air. It can also be used figuratively for empty doctrines.

32 “From the fig tree learnCXXVIII its lesson:CXXIX as soon as its branchCXXX becomes tenderCXXXI

Notes on verse 32a

CXXVIII “learn” = manthano. Related to “disciples” in v1. See note IV above.
CXXIX “lesson” = parabole. From paraballo (literally to throw beside, compare, arrive, liken); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a parable, comparison, adage. Quite often a tale told or a metaphor to establish a point, but it could be a true story.
CXXX “branch” = klados. 11x in NT. From klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This is a branch, twig, or bough. It can also refer to descendants.
CXXXI “tender” = hapalos. 2x in NT. This is tender or soft.

and puts forthCXXXII its leaves,CXXXIII you knowCXXXIV that summerCXXXV is near. 33 So also, when you see all these things, you know that he is near, at the very gates.CXXXVI 

Notes on verses 32b-33

CXXXII “puts forth” = ekphuo. Related to “tribes” in v13 & “leaves” in v32. 2x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + phuo (see note CXVII above). This is to sprout up or put forth.
CXXXIII “leaves” = phullon. Related to “tribes” in v13. 6x in NT. Perhaps from the same as phule (see note CXVII above). This is a sprout or a leaf.
CXXXIV “know” = ginosko. Related to “name” in v5 & “reader” in v15 & “understand” in v15. See note XIX above.
CXXXV “summer” = theros. 3x in NT. From thero (to heat). This is properly heat so it refers to the summer.
CXXXVI “gates” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.

34 Truly I tell you, this generationCXXXVII will not pass awayCXXXVIII until all these things have taken place. 35 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my wordsCXXXIX will not pass away.

Notes on verses 34-35

CXXXVII “generation” = genea. Related to “take place” in v6. From genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note XXVIII above). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.
CXXXVIII “pass away” = parerchomai. From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (to come, go). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.
CXXXIX “words” = logos. Related to “elect” in v22 & “told…beforehand” in v25. From lego (see note LXXXV above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

36 “But about that day and hourCXL no one knows,CXLI neither the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father. 37 For as the days of NoahCXLII were, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. 

Notes on verses 36-37

CXL “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
CXLI “knows” = eido. Related to “look” in v23. See note LXXXVI above.
CXLII “Noah” = Noe. 8x in NT. From Hebrew Noach (Noah or Noach, meaning “rest”); from nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is Noah, meaning rest.

38 For as in those days before the floodCXLIII they were eatingCXLIV and drinking,CXLV marryingCXLVI and giving in marriage,CXLVII until the day Noah entered the ark,CXLVIII 

Notes on verse 38

CXLIII “flood” = kataklusmos. 4x in NT – all referring to the Great Flood with Noah and the ark. From katakluzo (to inundate, flood over, overwhelm); {from kata (down, against, throughout) + kludon (billow of water, wave, surge of the sea); {from kluzo (to wash over)}}. This is a flood or deluge. It is also where the English “cataclysm” comes from.
CXLIV “eating” = trogo. 6x in NT. This is gnaw, crunch, eat, eat a meal.
CXLV “drinking” = pino. This is to drink, literally or figuratively.
CXLVI “marrying” = gameo. From gamos (a wedding, whether the ceremony, the feast, or the marriage itself). This is to marry.
CXLVII “giving in marriage” = gamisko. Related to “marrying” in v38. 8x in NT. From gamos (see note CXLVI above). This is to give a daughter in marriage.
CXLVIII “ark” = kibotos. 6x in NT – 4x of Noah’s ark, 2x of the ark of the covenant. This is a wooden box or chest, or the ark.

39 and they knew nothing until the flood came and sweptCXLIX them allCL away, so too will be the coming of the Son of Man. 40 Then two will be in the field; one will be takenCLI and one will be left. 41 Two women will be grindingCLII mealCLIII together; one will be taken and one will be left. 

Notes on verses 39-41

CXLIX “swept” = airo. Same as “take” in v17. See note LXVIII above.
CL “all” = hapas. From hama (at once, together with) +pas (all, every, every kind of) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
CLI “taken” = paralambano. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
CLII “grinding” = aletho. 2x in NT– in this passage and in the parallel in Lk 17:35. From the same as aleuron (flour, meal); from aleo (to grind). This is to grind.
CLIII “meal” = mulos. 5x in NT. From molos (toil); probably related to mogis (with difficulty, scarcely); from mogos (laborious). This word is mill, millstone, or grinder. Perhaps milling as quite hard work.

42 Keep awakeCLIV therefore, for you do not knowCLV on what day your LordCLVI is coming. 

Notes on verse 42

CLIV “keep awake” = gregoreo. Related to “rise” in v7. From egeiro (see note XXXI above). This is to be or stay awake, watch. Figuratively, it can be alertness or vigilance.
CLV “know” = eido. Same as “knows” in v36. See note CXLI above.
CLVI “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

43 But understandCLVII this: if the owner of the houseCLVIII had knownCLIX in what part of the nightCLX the thiefCLXI was coming,

Notes on verse 43a

CLVII “understand” = ginosko. Same as “know” in v32. See note CXXXIV above.
CLVIII “owner of the house” = oikodespotes. Related to “buildings” in v1 & “world” in v14 & “house” in v17. 12x in NT. From oikos (see note VI above) + despotes (lord, master, despot; authority who has unrestricted power and jurisdiction) + posis (husband). This is the master of the house, head of a family, or the householder.
CLIX “known” = eido. Same as “knows” in v36. See note CXLI above.
CLX “part of the night” = phulake. From phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).
CLXI “thief” = kleptes. 16x in NT. From klepto (to steal secretively). This is a thief that steals using stealth rather than violence. It is a thief in a literal or figurative sense.

he would have stayed awake and would not have letCLXII his house be broken into.CLXIII 44 Therefore you also must be ready,CLXIV for the Son of Man is coming at an unexpectedCLXV hour.

Notes on verses 43b-44

CLXII “let” = eao. 11x in NT. This is to let alone, leave, allow, or permit. It implies a level of reluctance in putting up with something that is happening.
CLXIII “broken into” = diorusso. 4x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + orusso (to dig, burrow, or excavate). This is to dig through i.e. break into a house.
CLXIV “be ready” = hetoimos. 17x in NT. From heteos (fitting, fitness). This is make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge.
CLXV “unexpected” = hos + ou + dokeo. Literally “that you do not expect.” Dokeo is from dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”

45 “Who then is the faithfulCLXVI and wiseCLXVII slave,CLXVIII

Notes on verse 45a

CLXVI “faithful” = pistos. Related to “believe” in v23. From peitho (see note LXXXVII above). This is faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true. It is a fullness of faith. This is the same root as the word “faith” in Greek.
CLXVII “wise” = phronimos. 14x in NT. From phroneo (to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action); from phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is wise in a practical sense, prudent, or sensible. It is savvy, rooted in our own point of view, thoughtful. It can also mean conceited.
CLXVIII “slave” = doulos. Related to “must” in v6. Perhaps from deo (see note XXVII above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).

whom his masterCLXIX has putCLXX in charge of his household,CLXXI to give the other slaves their allowance of foodCLXXII at the proper time?CLXXIII 

Notes on verse 45b

CLXIX “master” = kurios. Same as “Lord” in v42. See note CLVI above.
CLXX “put” = kathistemi. Related to “standing” in v15 & “send” in v31. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (see note LIX above). This is to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge, designate.
CLXXI “household” = oiketes. Related to “buildings” in v1 & “world” in v14 & “house” in v17 & “owner of the house” in v43. 5x in NT. From oikeo (see note LIV above). This is a servant working in a house.
CLXXII “allowance of food” = trophe. 16x in NT. Perhaps from trepho (to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse; properly, to enlarge through proper nourishment). This is nourishment in a literal or figurative sense. By implication, it can be ration or wages.
CLXXIII “proper time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.

46 BlessedCLXXIV is that slave whom his master will findCLXXV at work when he arrives. 47 Truly I tell you, he will put that one in charge of all his possessions.CLXXVI 

Notes on verses 46-47

CLXXIV “blessed” = makarios. From makar (happy); from mak– (to become long or large). This is blessed, happy, fortunate. It is when God’s grace/abundance is extended.
CLXXV “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CLXXVI “possessions” = huparcho. Related to “beginning” in v8. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (see note XXXVI above). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.

48 But if that wickedCLXXVII slave says to himself,CLXXVIII ‘My master is delayed,’CLXXIX 

Notes on verse 48

CLXXVII “wicked” = kakos. This is bad, evil, harm, ill. It is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm. It refers to deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character. Can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue.
CLXXVIII “himself” = kardia + autos. Literally “his heart.” Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CLXXIX “delayed” = chronizo. 5x in NT. From chronos (time in the chronological sense, quantitative time, a duration of time). This is to take time, delay, linger.

49 and he beginsCLXXX to beatCLXXXI his fellow slaves,CLXXXII and eatsCLXXXIII and drinks with drunkards,CLXXXIV 

Notes on verse 49

CLXXX “begins” = archomai. Related to “beginning” in v8 & “possessions” in v47. See note XXXVI above.
CLXXXI “beat” = tupto. 14x in NT. This is to strike, beat, or wound – generally with a stick or cudgel. It is hitting with repeated blows. So, it contrasts with paiso and patasso, which describe single blows by hand or weapon. Also contrast plesso (beating with a fist or hammer), rhapizo (to slap), and tugchaono (hitting accidentally). This word is hitting to punish. Figuratively, it can refer to being offended.
CLXXXII “fellow slaves” = sundoulos. Related to “must” in v6 & “slave” in v45. 10x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + doulos (see note CLXVIII above). This is fellow servant or slave – one that serves the same master. It can also refer to another member of the church.
CLXXXIII “eats” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.
CLXXXIV “drunkards” = methuo. 6x in NT. From methu (wine) OR from methe (drunkenness, an intoxicant). This is to drink freely, be drunk.

50 the master of that slave will comeCLXXXV on a day when he does not expectCLXXXVI him and at an hour that he does not know. 51 He will cut him in piecesCLXXXVII and putCLXXXVIII him with the hypocrites,CLXXXIX

Notes on verses 50-51a

CLXXXV “come” = heko. Same as “come” in v14. See note LVI above.
CLXXXVI “expect” = prosdokao. 16x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + dokeuo (to watch). This is to await, anticipate, expect, look for.
CLXXXVII “cut…in pieces” = dichotomeo. 2x in NT. From the same as dichazo (to separate, cut in two, make hostile, alienate); {from dicha (apart) or from dis (twice, utterly, again); from duo (two, both)} + temno (to cut as with a single slice). This is to cut in two or in pieces. It can also mean to flog harshly. It’s the root that “dichotomy” comes from.
CLXXXVIII “put” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
CLXXXIX “hypocrites” = hupokrites. 18x in NT. From hupokrinomai (to answer, pretend, respond as an actor on stage; figuratively, to lie) {from hupo (by, under, about) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.)}. This is literally an actor. Figuratively, it is someone playing out a role, which is to say, lying, pretending, or being a hypocrite. This is where the word “hypocrite” comes from.

where there will be weepingCXC and gnashingCXCI of teeth.CXCII

Notes on verse 51b

CXC “weeping” = klauthmos. 9x in NT. From klaio (to weep, lament, or sob; weeping aloud). This is weeping, lamentation, shrieks, intense pain.
CXCI “gnashing” = brugmos. 7x in NT. From brucho (to bite, grind, grate teeth – in rage or pain). This is biting, grinding, grating teeth.
CXCII “teeth” = odous. Related to “eats” in v49. 12x in NT. Perhaps from esthio (see note CLXXXIII above). This is a tooth.

Image credit: “Cross with Trumpet” at the Benton Chapel at Vanderbilt University, 1960.

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