Matthew 25

Matthew 25


“Then the kingdomI of heavenII will be likeIII this.

Notes on verse 1a

I “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
II “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
III “be like” = homoioo. 15x in NT. From homoios (similar to, resembling, like); from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is to compare, liken, resemble, become similar.

Ten bridesmaidsIV tookV their lampsVI and went to meetVII the bridegroom.VIII Five of them were foolish,IX and five were wise.X 

Notes on verses 1b-2

IV “bridesmaids” = parthenos. 15x in NT. This is virgin, chaste, unmarried. It can also refer to a woman past puberty who is not yet married, since she was presumed to be a virgin.
V “took” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
VI “lamps” = lampas. 9x in NT. From lampo (to give light literally or figuratively). This is a torch or lantern that was hand held, perhaps made of clay with a flax wick and oil.
VII “meet” = hupantesis. 3x in NT. From hupantao (to encounter someone or to go to meet them); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + antao (to meet with personally) OR from hupo (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against)}. This is meeting or encounter.
VIII “bridegroom” = numphios. 16x in NT. From numphe (bride, daughter-in-law, young wife, or young woman); perhaps from nupto (to put on a veil as a bride does – in Latin nupto means simple to marry); related to numphon (the room where the marriage bed is). This is bridegroom in a literal or figurative sense.
IX “foolish” = moros. 12x in NT. This is foolish, dull, stupid. It is something lacking an edge so figuratively it refers to someone who has a loose grasp of reality or whose understanding is dull. It is someone who acts as though they have not brain.
X “wise” = phronimos. 14x in NT. From phroneo (to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action); from phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is wise in a practical sense, prudent, or sensible. It is savvy, rooted in our own point of view, thoughtful. It can also mean conceited.

When the foolish took their lamps, they took no oil with them; but the wise took flasksXI of oil with their lamps. As the bridegroom was delayed,XII all of them became drowsyXIII and slept.XIV 

Notes on verses 3-5

XI “flasks” = aggeion. 2x in NT. From aggos (vessel, container); perhaps related to agkos (a bend). This is container, vessel, flask.
XII “delayed” = chronizo. 5x in NT. From chronos (time in the chronological sense, quantitative time, a duration of time). This is to take time, delay, linger.
XIII “became drowsy” = nustazo. 2x in NT. Perhaps from neuo (to nod, to signal). This is to nod, which could imply falling asleep, being drowsy, or delaying.
XIV “slept” = katheudo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + heudo (to sleep). This is to settle down to rest, to sleep, fall asleep in a literal or figurative sense.

But at midnight there wasXV a shout,XVI ‘Look!XVII Here is the bridegroom! Come out to meetXVIII him.’ 

Notes on verse 6

XV “was” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XVI “shout” = krauge. 6x in NT. From krazo (to cry out, scream, shriek; onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call; figuratively, this is means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt). This is a very emotional shout or cry generally or clamor against someone else. It can express alarm, trouble, or grief.
XVII “look” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XVIII “meet” = apantesis. Related to “meet” in v1. 3x in NT. From apantao (to meet, encounter); {from apo (from, away from) + antao (see note VII above)}. This is a friendly meeting. It can be used for receiving an official who has just arrived.

7 Then all those bridesmaids got upXIX and trimmedXX their lamps. 8 The foolish said to the wise, ‘GiveXXI us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out.’XXII 

Notes on verses 7-8

XIX “got up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XX “trimmed” = kosmeo. 10x in NT. From kosmos (order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants; literally, something that is ordered; can refer to all creation or decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and so more beautiful); perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is to order, arrange, beautify. It is more beautiful because it is properly arranged in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be used to mean trim a wick.
XXI “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XXII “going out” = sbennumi. 8x in NT. This is to quench or extinguish in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean suppress.

9 But the wise replied, ‘No! there will not be enoughXXIII for you and for us; you had betterXXIV goXXV to the dealersXXVI and buyXXVII some for yourselves.’ 

Notes on verse 9

XXIII “be enough” = arkeo. 8x in NT. This is to be content or satisfied. It can also mean to ward off.
XXIV “better” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
XXV “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XXVI “dealers” = poleo. This is to barter or sell. It can also refer to the thing that is sold.
XXVII “buy” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.

10 And while they went to buy it, the bridegroom came, and those who were readyXXVIII went with him into the wedding banquet;XXIX and the doorXXX was shut.XXXI 

11 Later the otherXXXII bridesmaids came also, saying, ‘Lord,XXXIII lord, open to us.’ 

Notes on verses 10-11

XXVIII “ready” = hetoimos. 17x in NT. From heteos (fitting, fitness). This is make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge.
XXIX “wedding banquet” = gamos. 16x in NT. This is a wedding, whether the ceremony, the feast, or the marriage itself.
XXX “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
XXXI “shut” = kleio. 16x in NT. This is to close, shut, or lock in a literal of figurative sense. Figuratively used for shutting out of the kingdom of heaven or the wedding banquet, the heavens shutting as in there is no rain, and also for heartlessness.
XXXII “other” = loipos. From leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.
XXXIII “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

12 But he replied, ‘TrulyXXXIV I tell you, I do not knowXXXV you.’ 13 Keep awakeXXXVI therefore, for you know neither the day nor the hour.XXXVII, XXXVIII

Notes on verses 12-13

XXXIV “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
XXXV “know” = eido. Related to “look” in v6. See note XVII above.
XXXVI “keep awake” = gregoreo. Related to “got up” in v7. From egeiro (see note XIX above). This is to be or stay awake, watch. Figuratively, it can be alertness or vigilance.
XXXVII “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
XXXVIII Some manuscripts add “in which the Son of Man comes.” “Man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

14 “For it is as if a man, going on a journey,XXXIX summonedXL hisXLI slavesXLII and entrustedXLIII his propertyXLIV to them; 

Notes on verse 14

XXXIX “going on a journey” = apodemeo. 6x in NT. From apodemos (to go abroad, sojourn in a foreign country); {from apo (from, away from) + demos (district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); {from deo (to tie, bind, compel, declare unlawful)}}. This is to travel abroad, be away from home. This word shares a root with “democracy” and “Nicodemus.”
XL “summoned” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
XLI “his” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
XLII “slaves” = doulos. Related to “going on a journey” in v14. Perhaps from deo (see note XXXIX above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
XLIII “entrusted” = paradidomi. Related to “give” in v8. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note XXI above). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
XLIV “property” = huparcho. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.

15 to oneXLV he gave five talents,XLVI to another two, to another one, to each according to his ability.XLVII Then he went away.XLVIII, XLIX 

Notes on verse 15

XLV {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XLVI “talents” = talanton. 14x in NT– all in Matthew 18 & Matthew 25 in the Parable of the Unforgiving Servant and the Parable of the Talents. Perhaps from tlao (to bear). This is a balance as an amount that is weighed to make up a talent. A talent was around 3,000 shekels. A silver talent could be exchanged for around 6,000 denarii and gold ones about thirty times more.
XLVII “ability” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
XLVIII “went away” = apodemeo. Same as “going on a journey” in v14. See note XXXIX above.
XLIX {untranslated} = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked). This is directly, soon, at once.

16 The one who had receivedL the five talents went offLI at once and tradedLII with them, and madeLIII five moreLIV talents. 

Notes on verse 16

L “received” = lambano. Same as “took” in v1. See note V above.
LI “went off” = poreuomai. Same as “go” in v9. See note XXV above.
LII “traded” = ergazomai. From ergon (work, task, action, employment). This is to work, labor, perform, toil.
LIII “made” = kerdaino. 17x in NT. From kerdos (profit, gain, advantage). This is to gain, win, or acquire. It is a word from the sphere of bartering and trading. Figuratively, it can mean trading up.
LIV “more” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).

17 In the same way, the one who had the two talents made two more talents. 18 But the one who had received the one talent went off and dugLV a hole in the ground and hidLVI his master’sLVII money.LVIII 19 After a long timeLIX the master of those slaves came and settledLX accountsLXI with them. 

Notes on verses 17-19

LV “dug” = orusso. 3x in NT. This is to dig, burrow, or excavate.
LVI “hid” = krupto. 18x in NT. This is to hide by covering, secret, hidden things. This is the root of the word “cryptography.”
LVII “master’s” = kurios. Same as “Lord” in v11. See note XXXIII above.
LVIII “money” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); from argos (shining). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.
LIX “time” = chronos. Related to “delayed” in v5. See note XII above.
LX “settled” = sunairo. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + airo (to lift up in a literal or figurative sense; to lift, carry, or raise; take away or remove; figuratively, raising the voice or level of suspense; sailing off as raising the anchor; atonement of sin as lift/remove sin). This is to take up together, which would be making a reckoning or comparing accounts. It is to settle or compute.
LXI “accounts” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

20 Then the one who had received the five talents came forward, bringingLXII five more talents, saying, ‘Master, you handed overLXIII to me five talents; see,LXIV I have made five more talents.’ 

Notes on verse 20

LXII “bringing” = prosphero. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
LXIII “handed over” = paradidomi. Same as “entrusted” in v14. See note XLIII above.
LXIV “see” = idou. Same as “look” in v6. See note XVII above.

21 His master saidLXV to him, ‘Well done,LXVI goodLXVII and trustworthyLXVIII slave; you have been trustworthy in a few things, I will putLXIX you in charge of many things; enter into the joyLXX of your master.’ 

Notes on verse 21

LXV “said” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.
LXVI “well done” = eu. 6x in NT. This is good well, well done, or rightly. It can also be a positive exclamation.
LXVII “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
LXVIII “trustworthy” = pistos. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true. It is a fullness of faith. This is the same root as the word “faith” in Greek.
LXIX “put” = kathistemi. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge, designate.
LXX “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.

22 And the one with the two talents also came forward, saying, ‘Master, you handed over to me two talents; see, I have made two more talents.’ 

23 His master said to him, ‘Well done, good and trustworthy slave; you have been trustworthy in a few things, I will put you in charge of many things; enter into the joy of your master.’ 

24 Then the one who had received the one talent also came forward, saying, ‘Master, I knewLXXI that you were a harshLXXII man, reapingLXXIII where you did not sow,LXXIV

Notes on verses 22-24a

LXXI “knew” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
LXXII “harsh” = skleros. 6x in NT. From skello (to dry) OR from the base of skelos (leg); {perhaps from skello (to parch)}. This is hard because dried, rough, difficult, fierce, harsh. It can also be stubborn or unyielding – unyieldingly hard. This is where the word “sclera” comes from.
LXXIII “reaping” = therizo. From theros (summer; the heat, which implies summer); from thero (to heat). This is to gather or harvest.
LXXIV “sow” = speiro. Probably from spao (to pull or draw like one draws a sword). This is sowing a seed or scattering. It is sowing in a literal or figurative sense.

and gatheringLXXV where you did not scatterLXXVI seed; 25 so I was afraid,LXXVII and I went and hid your talent in the ground. HereLXXVIII you have what is yours.’ 

Notes on verses 24b-25

LXXV “gathering” = sunago. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
LXXVI “scatter” = diaskorpizo. 9x in NT. From dia (through, on account of, across, thoroughly) + skorpizo (to scatter, distribute, dissipate, waste). This is to separate or disperse. Figuratively, it can be squander or waste.
LXXVII “was afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
LXXVIII “here” = idou. Same as “look” in v6. See note XVII above.

26 But his master replied, ‘You wickedLXXIX and lazyLXXX slave! You knew,LXXXI did you, that I reap where I did not sow, and gather where I did not scatter? 

Notes on verse 26

LXXIX “wicked” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
LXXX “lazy” = okneros. 3x in NT. From okneo (to delay, be slow, hesitate from doing something; figuratively, to loath); from oknos (shrinking or hesitation). This is being late because of hesitation. Figuratively, it could be reluctant or lazy, one who drags their feet or is unwilling or unprepared. Figuratively, one who is indolent, irksome, or grievous.
LXXXI “knew” = eido. Same as “know” in v6. See note XXXV above.

27 Then you oughtLXXXII to have investedLXXXIII my money with the bankers,LXXXIV and on my return I would have receivedLXXXV what was my own with interest.LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 27

LXXXII “ought” = dei. Related to “going on a journey” and “slaves” in v14. From deo (see note XXXIX above). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
LXXXIII “invested” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
LXXXIV “bankers” = trapezites. 1x in NT. From trapeza (a table – whether for eating or conducting business; literally, four feet; where the word “trapeze” comes from); {probably from tessares (four; figuratively, can mean total inclusion or universality) + peze (by foot or land) or pezos (by foot or land); {from pous (foot)}}. This is a banker, bank, or money changer.
LXXXV “received” = komizo. 10x in NT. From komeo (to tend or take care of). This is to carry, bring, recover, or recompense. It is receiving something that was lost or promised. Also, to provide for – as carrying someone out of harm’s way.
LXXXVI “interest” = tokos. 2x in NT. From tikto (to produce, bring forth, beget). This is bringing forth or birth. Figuratively, it can refer to interest or usury.

28 So takeLXXXVII the talent from him, and give it to the one with the ten talents. 29 For to all those who have, more will be given, and they will have an abundance;LXXXVIII but from those who have nothing, even what they have will be taken away. 30 As for this worthlessLXXXIX slave, throwXC him into the outer darkness,XCI where there will be weepingXCII and gnashingXCIII of teeth.’

Notes on verses 28-30

LXXXVII “take” = airo. Related to “settled” in v19. See note LX above.
LXXXVIII “have an abundance” = perisseuo. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is more than what is ordinary or necessary. It is abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond. It is super-abounding in number or quality.
LXXXIX “worthless” = achreios. 2x in NT. From a (not, without) + chreios (useful) OR from a (not, without) + derivative of chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary); {from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request)}. This is unneeded, unprofitable, unworthy. It can also mean useless.
XC “throw” = ekballo. Related to “invested” in v27. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (see note LXXXIII above). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
XCI “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
XCII “weeping” = klauthmos. 9x in NT. From klaio (to weep, lament, or sob; weeping aloud). This is weeping, lamentation, shrieks, intense pain.
XCIII “gnashing” = brugmos. 7x in NT. From brucho (to bite, grind, grate teeth – in rage or pain). This is biting, grinding, grating teeth.

31 “When the Son of Man comes in his glory,XCIV and all the angelsXCV with him, then he will sitXCVI on the throneXCVII of his glory. 

Notes on verse 31

XCIV “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
XCV “angels” = aggelos. Related to “gathering” in v24. Probably from ago (see note LXXV above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
XCVI “sit” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
XCVII “throne” = thronos. Probably from thanos (bench); from thrao (to sit). This is throne or seat – the place where the king sits. So, it is used figuratively to mean power, dominion, or a potentate. This is where the word “throne” comes form.

32 All the nationsXCVIII will be gathered before him, and he will separateXCIX people one from another as a shepherdC separates the sheepCI from the goats,CII 

Notes on verse 32

XCVIII “nations” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XCIX “separate” = aphorizo. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + horizo (to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined; literally, this is setting horizons); {from the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary)}. This is to set off by a boundary – to divide, separate, exclude. It can also mean ostracize or keep aloof.
C “shepherd” = poimen. 18x in NT. This is shepherd or pastor – one who protects. It is also used figuratively to mean ruler. 
CI “sheep” = probaton. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (to walk, to go)}}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
CII “goats” = eriphos. 2x in NT– here and in Luke 15:29 as the goat that the elder son wants for a party in the parable of the prodigal son. Perhaps from the same as erion (wool); from eiros (wool). This comes from the root in the sense of hairiness – a kid or male goat.

33 and he will putCIII theCIV sheep at his right handCV and the goatsCVI at the left.CVII 

Notes on verse 33

CIII “put” = histemi. Related to “put” in v21. See note LXIX above.
CIV {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note XLV above.
CV “right hand” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
CVI “goats” = eriphion. Related to “gaots” in v32. 1x in NT. From eriphos (see note CII above). This is little goat young goat.
CVII “left” = euonumos. Related to “knew” in v24. 9x in NT. From eu (good, well rightly) + onoma (name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation; thought to include something of the essence of the person and not separate from the person); {may be from ginosko (see note LXXI above)}. This is literally well-named or of a good name. It refers to the left or left side.

34 Then the kingCVIII will say to those at his right hand, ‘Come,CIX you that are blessedCX by my Father, inheritCXI the kingdom preparedCXII for you from the foundationCXIII of the world;CXIV 

Notes on verse 34

CVIII “king” = basileus. Related to “kingdom” in v1 & “sheep” in v32. See note I above.
CIX “come” = deute. 12x in NT. From deuro (come here, hither, hence, now, until now). This is come, follow – as an exclamatory mood.
CX “blessed” = eulogeo. Related to “accounts” in v19. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (see note LXI above). Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
CXI “inherit” = kleronomeo. 18x in NT. From kleronomos (heir); {from kleros (lot, portion, heritage; that share assigned to you; also a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will); {perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread)} + the same as nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}}. This is to acquire or get by inheriting.
CXII “prepared” = hetoimazo. Related to “ready” in v10. From hetoimos (see note XXVIII above). This is to prepare or provide.
CXIII “foundation” = katabole. Related to “invested” in v27 & “throw” in v30. 11x in NT. From kataballo (to cast down, lay prostate, set a foundation); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + ballo (see note LXXXIII above)}. This is a foundation or a plan for one – setting the foundation according to the plans. Figuratively, it can be the beginning of something, sowing, or conception.
CXIV “world” = kosmos. Related to “trimmed” in v7 & “received” in v27. Probably from komizo (see note XX above). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

35 for I was hungryCXV and you gave me food,CXVI I was thirstyCXVII and you gave me something to drink,CXVIII I was a strangerCXIX and you welcomedCXX me, 

Notes on verse 35

CXV “was hungry” = peinao. Related to “wicked” in v26. From peina (hunger); related to penomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (see note LXXIX above). This is to hunger, be needy, or desire earnestly. It can be being famished in a definitive sense or in comparison to someone or something else. Figuratively, this means to crave.
CXVI “food” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
CXVII “was thirsty” = dipsao. 16x in NT. From dipsa (thirst); from dipsos (thirst). This is thirst in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean keenly desire.
CXVIII “gave…something to drink” = potizo. 15x in NT. From potos (drink or for drinking) OR from pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is to give to drink, water, furnish, irrigate, or feed.
CXIX “stranger” = xenos. 14x in NT– including 5x in Matthew 25 of the judgment of the nations “I was a stranger and you welcomed me.” This is foreign or foreigner, an alien or guest. It could also be something new, novel, or strange. This is where the word “xenophobia” comes from.
CXX “welcomed” = sunago. Same as “gathering” in v24. See note LXXV above.

36 I was nakedCXXI and you gave me clothing,CXXII I was sickCXXIII and you took care ofCXXIV me, I was in prisonCXXV and you visited me.’ 

Notes on verse 36

CXXI “naked” = gumnos. 15x in NT. This is naked. Generally, it refers to someone who is not completely clothed i.e. only wearing the undergarment and not the complete attire for going out. Rarely, it can mean completely naked. It can be naked in a literal or figurative sense – open, bare, ill-clad. This is where “gymnasium” comes from.
CXXII “gave…clothing” = periballo. Related to “invested” in v27 & “throw” in v30 & “foundation” in v34. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ballo (see note LXXXIII above). This is to thrown around, clothe, array, put on.
CXXIII “was sick” = astheneo. From asthenes (not having strength or weak in a moral sense; sick); {from a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is sick, feeble, languishing, impotent. Can also refer to moral weakness.
CXXIV “took care of” = episkeptomai. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + the base of skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully); perhaps related to skapto (to dig or excavate)}. This is to look at, look out for, see, select, visit.
CXXV “prison” = phulake. From phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).

37 Then the righteousCXXVI will answer him, ‘Lord, when was it that we sawCXXVII you hungry and gave you food,CXXVIII or thirsty and gave you something to drink? 38 And when was it that we saw you a stranger and welcomed you, or naked and gave you clothing? 39 And when was it that we saw you sick or in prison and visited you?’ 

Notes on verses 37-39

CXXVI “righteous” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
CXXVII “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
CXXVIII “gave…food” = trepho. 9x in NT. Perhaps from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation). This is to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse. Properly, it is to enlarge through proper nourishment.

40 And the king will answer them, ‘Truly I tell you, just as you did it to one of the leastCXXIX of these who are members of my family,CXXX you did it to me.’ 41 Then he will say to those at his left hand, ‘You that are accursed,CXXXI departCXXXII from me

Notes on verses 40-41a

CXXIX “least” = elachistos. 13x in NT. From elachus (short); used as a superlative for mikros (small). This is smallest or littlest in the sense of size, amount, rank, dignity, and so on.
CXXX “members of…family” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
CXXXI “are accursed” = kataraomai. Related to “settled” in v19 & “take” in v28. 6x in NT. From katara (curse, accursed; a curse as penalty); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + ara (prayer, curse, imprecation; a pray for evil); {probably from airo (see note LX above)}}. This is to curse, execrate, doom.
CXXXII “depart” = poreuomai. Same as “go” in v9. See note XXV above.

into the eternalCXXXIII fireCXXXIV prepared for the devilCXXXV and his angels; 42 for I was hungry and you gave me no food, I was thirsty and you gave me nothing to drink, 43 I was a stranger and you did not welcome me, naked and you did not give me clothing, sickCXXXVI and in prison and you did not visit me.’ 

Notes on verses 41b-43

CXXXIII “eternal” = aionios. From aion (an age, length of time). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
CXXXIV “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.
CXXXV “devil” = diabolos. Related to “invested” in v27 & “throw” in v30 & “foundation” in v34 & “gave…clothing” in v36. From diaballo (laying a charge against someone, generally with hostility; literally, to thrust through or cast back and forth– used for slandering, accusing, or gossiping; whether or not the sentiment is true, it is spread with negative intention); {from dia (through, across, because of, thoroughly) + ballo (see note LXXXIII above)}. This is a properly a slanderer or someone who accuses falsely – criticizing unfairly with the intent to cause harm or damage character. This can also mean backbiter or malicious gossip. Also, the Slanderer, the Devil.
CXXXVI “sick” = asthenes. Related to “was sick” in v36. See note CXXIII above.

44 Then they also will answer, ‘Lord, when was it that we saw you hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison, and did not take care ofCXXXVII you?’ 

45 Then he will answer them, ‘Truly I tell you, just as you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to me.’ 46 And these will go away into eternal punishment,CXXXVIII but the righteous into eternal life.”CXXXIX

Notes on verses 44-46

CXXXVII “take care of” = diakoneo. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); {perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute); {related to dio (put to flight)}}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.
CXXXVIII “punishment” = kolasis. 2x in NT. From kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked, dwarf). This is punishment, correction, torment. It may include a sense of deprivation – a punishment that corresponds individually.
CXXXIX “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

Image credit: “Separation of Sheep and Goats” – a reproduction of a 6th century Byzantine mosaic.

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