Matthew 7

Matthew 7


1 “Do not judge,I so that you may not be judged. For with the judgmentII you make you will be judged, and the measureIII you giveIV will be the measure you get. 

Notes on verses 1-2

I “judge” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
II “judgment” = krima. Related to “judge” in v1. From krino (see note I above). This is judgment, sentence, verdict. Sometimes, this can have a negative sense – condemnation. It is the decision and the full force of its effect negative and positive.
III “measure” = metron. 14x in NT. This is a measure, whether of distance or volume. It can be a tool for measuring or the measure itself. Figuratively, it is that which determines what is sufficient. This is where the words “meter” and “metric” come from.
IV “give” = metreo. Related to “measure” in v2. 11x in NT. From metron (see note III above). This is to measure, estimate, apportion according to a set standard.

Why do you seeV the speckVI in your neighbor’sVII eye,VIII but do not noticeIX the logX in your own eye?

Notes on verse 3

V “see” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
VI “speck” = karphos. 6x in NT – all in this and the parallel passage in Luke 6:41-42. From karpho (to wither, dry up). This is a twig, speck, chaff, small particle. It could be a straw or wood – something that is dry and does not weigh a lot.
VII “neighbor’s” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
VIII “eye” = ophthalmos. From optanomai (to appear, be seen by). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
IX “notice” = katanoeo. 14x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + noeo (to think, understand, conceive, realize, see; one who thinks things through sufficiently to reach a conclusion or value judgment; moral reasoning.); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}. This is to consider, discern, perceive, notice, observe. It is to think through something thoroughly in order to come to a conclusion – fully concentrated thinking.
X “log” = dokos. 6x in NT– all in this and the parallel passage in Luke 6:41-42. From dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is a large beam of wood, plank, pole, log – a plank used to build a house.

 Or how can you say to your neighbor, ‘LetXI me take the speck out of your eye,’ whileXII the log is in your own eye? You hypocrite,XIII first takeXIV the log out of your own eye, and then you will see clearlyXV to take the speck out of your neighbor’s eye.

Notes on verses 4-5

XI “let” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XII {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XIII “hypocrite” = hupokrites. Related to “judge” in v1 & “judgment” in v2. 18x in NT. From hupokrinomai (to answer, pretend, respond as an actor on stage; figuratively, to lie) {from hupo (by, under, about) + krino (see note I above)}. This is literally an actor. Figuratively, it is someone playing out a role, which is to say, lying, pretending, or being a hypocrite. This is where the word “hypocrite” comes from.
XIV “take” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
XV “see clearly” = diablepo. Related to “see” in v3. 3x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + blepo (see note V above). This is to look through or see in an accurate way, with full vision or attention.

“Do not giveXVI what is holyXVII to dogs;XVIII

Notes on verse 6a

XVI “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XVII “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XVIII “dogs” = kuon. 5x in NT– do not give what is holy to dogs (Mt 7:6), dogs licked Lazarus’s wounds in the Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus (Lk 16:21), beware of the dogs who mutilate the flesh (Ph 3:2), the dog returns to its own vomit (2 Pet 2:22), and outside are the dogs and sorcerers and fornicators and murders and idolaters (Rev 22:15). This is a dog as a scavenger or, figuratively, a spiritual predator.

and do not throwXIX your pearlsXX before swine,XXI or they will trampleXXII them under foot and turnXXIII and maulXXIV you.

Notes on verse 6b

XIX “throw” = ballo. Related to “take” in v4. See note XIV above.
XX “pearls” = margarita. 9x in NT. “Borrowed from Iranian. Compare Middle Persian mwlwʾlyt’ (morwārīd) (whence Persian مروارید‎ (marvārīd)), Sogdian (marγārt), Sanskrit मञ्जरी (mañjarī), and Avestan (mərəya).” OR from margaros (a pearl oyster). This is a pearl. It is where the name “Margarite” comes from. See
XXI “swine” = choiros. 12x in NT – do not throw your pearls before swine (Mt 7:6), the Gadarene or Gerasene demoniac (Mt 8, Mk 5, and Lk 8), son who had to feed the pigs in the Parable of the Prodigal Son (Lk 15). This is a swine.
XXII “trample” = katapateo. 5x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to trample, step on. Figuratively, it is to spurn or reject.
XXIII “turn” = strepho. From trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn). This is to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one.
XXIV “maul” = rhegnumi. 7x in NT. This is to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart. Figuratively, it can be bursting into speech or song or happy emotion. It can also refer to breaking out in spasms.

“Ask,XXV and it will be given you; search,XXVI and you will find;XXVII knock,XXVIII and the door will be opened for you. For everyone who asks receives, and everyone who searches finds, and for everyone who knocks, the door will be opened. 

Notes on verses 7-8

XXV “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
XXVI “search” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
XXVII “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
XXVIII “knock” = krouo. 9x in NT. To knock, hit a door with a stick in order to enter.

Is there anyoneXXIX among you who, if your childXXX asks for bread,XXXI will giveXXXII a stone? 10 Or if the child asks for a fish,XXXIII will give a snake?XXXIV 

Notes on verses 9-10

XXIX “anyone” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XXX “child” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XXXI “bread” = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
XXXII “give” = epididomi. Related to “give” In v6. 9x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + didomi (see note XVI above). This is to give, deliver, give way, give over, surrender.
XXXIII “fish” = ichthus. This means fish. It was also an early, secret Christian symbol – the “sign of the fish.” It was short for “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior” in Greek. See
XXXIV “snake” = ophis. Related to “eye” in v3. 14x in NT. Perhaps from optanomai (see note VIII above). This is snake or serpent, often used of the devil. It is the snake as a type that is sly or cunning – someone malicious.

11 If you then, who are evil,XXXV knowXXXVI how to give goodXXXVII giftsXXXVIII to your children,XXXIX how much moreXL will your Father in heavenXLI give good things to those who ask him!

Notes on verse 11

XXXV “evil” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
XXXVI “know” = eido. Perhaps related to {untranslated} in v4. See note XII above.
XXXVII “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
XXXVIII “gifts” = doma. Related to “give” in v6 & “give” in v9. 4x in NT. From didomi (see note XVI above). This is a gift or present.
XXXIX “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
XL “more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
XLI “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

12 “In everything doXLII to others as you would haveXLIII them do to you; for this is the lawXLIV and the prophets.XLV

Notes on verse 12

XLII “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XLIII “would have” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
XLIV “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
XLV “prophets” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.

13 “Enter through the narrowXLVI gate;XLVII for the gate is wideXLVIII and the roadXLIX is easyL that leadsLI to destruction,LII

Notes on verse 13a

XLVI “narrow” = stenos. 3x in NT. Perhaps from histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is narrow, small, having obstacles close by. This is where the word “stenosis” comes from.
XLVII “gate” = pule. 10x in NT.  This is gate, large entrance to a city or a fortress. It is often used for an exit way. Figuratively, it can refer to authority and power.
XLVIII “wide” = platus. 1x in NT. Perhaps from plasso (to form, mold; to create like a potter shapes clay). This is flat, broad, wide.
XLIX “road” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
L “easy” = euruchoros. 1x in NT. From eurus (broad, wide) + chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn)}. This is broad, spacious, wide.
LI “leads” = apago. 16x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go). This is to lead away, take away, or bring. Figuratively, it can refer to being led astray or put to death.
LII “destruction” = apoleia. 18x in NT. From apollumi (to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently; to cancel or remove); {from apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination)}. This is destruction, loss, something cut off, ruin, perdition. It can be any kind of loss whether tangible, spiritual, or eternal.

and there are many who takeLIII it. 14 For the gate is narrow and the road is hardLIV that leads to life,LV and there are few who find it.

Notes on verses 13b-14

LIII “take” = eiserchomai. Same as “enter” in v13.
LIV “hard” = thlibo. 10x in NT. Perhaps from tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); from tribo (to rub or thresh). This is to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict. Figuratively, it is to oppress or afflict.
LV “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

15 “BewareLVI of false prophets,LVII who come to you in sheep’sLVIII clothingLIX but inwardly are ravenousLX wolves.LXI 

Notes on verse 15

LVI “beware” = prosecho. From pros (at, toward) + echo (have, hold, possess). This is have towards, which is to say to give something your complete attention, beware, be cautious, hold to, turn to.
LVII “false prophets” = pseudoprophetes. Related to “prophets” in v12. 11x in NT. From pseudes (false, lying, wicked); {from pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify)}} + prophetes (see note XLV above). This is a false prophet who lies about the word of the Lord.
LVIII “sheep’s” = probaton. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (to walk, to go)}}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
LIX “clothing” = enduma. 8x in NT. From enduo (to clothe, put on in a literal or figurative sense); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, within) + duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); {from duo (to sink)}}. This is clothing, especially outer robes. This is clothing as something one sinks into.
LX “ravenous” = harpax. Perhaps related to “bread” in v9. 5x in NT. From harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take); probably akin to airo (see note XXXI above). This is literally seizing, so it can refer to a robber, exortioner, or something that is ravenous.
LXI “wolves” = lukos. 6x in NT. Perhaps akin to leukos (bright, white); from luke (light). This is wolf or maybe jackal. Figuratively, it means cruel, greedy, or destructive.

16 You will knowLXII them by their fruits.LXIII Are grapesLXIV gatheredLXV from thorns,LXVI or figs from thistles?LXVII 

Notes on verse 16

LXII “know” = epiginosko. Related to “notice” in v3. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (see note IX above). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.
LXIII “fruits” = karpos. Related to “ravenous” in v15. Perhaps from harpazo (see note LX above). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.
LXIV “grapes” = staphule. 3x in NT. Perhaps from the base of stephanos (something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland; properly, the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win; symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek); stepho (to twine, encircle). This is grape or a cluster of grapes as twined together.
LXV “gathered” = sullego. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is to gather up or gather together.
LXVI “thorns” = akantha. 14x in NT. From akmen (even now, still yet); from the same as akmazo (ripe, to be vigorous); from akme (point, edge); related to ake (a point). This is thorn or thorn bush.
LXVII “thistles” = tribolos. Related to “take” in v4 & “throw” in v6. 2x in NT. From treis (three) + belos (missile, arrow); {from ballo (see note XIV above)}. This is a defensive instrument used in battle with three prongs to block the enemy – a caltrop. It was used by analogy for a thorny plant like a thistle or brier.

17 In the same way, every good tree bearsLXVIII goodLXIX fruit, but the badLXX tree bears badLXXI fruit. 

Notes on verse 17

LXVIII “bears” = poieo. Same as “do” in v12. See note XLII above.
LXIX “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
LXX “bad” = sapros. 8x in NT. From sepo (to putrefy, cause to rot; figuratively, to perish or to make something corrupt). This is rotten, worthless, corrupt, bad, or unwholesome. It is rotten and hence of poor quality and hence not good for use and so worthless in a literal and figurative (moral) sense. This is someone who previously embodied a virtue, but has fallen into sin.
LXXI “bad” = poneros. Same as “evil” in v11. See note XXXV above.

18 A goodLXXII tree cannot bear badLXXIII fruit, nor can a badLXXIV tree bear goodLXXV fruit. 

Notes on verse 18

LXXII “good” = agathos. Same as “good” in v11. See note XXXVII above.
LXXIII “bad” = poneros. Same as “evil” in v11. See note XXXV above.
LXXIV “bad” = sapros. Same as “bad” in v17. See note LXX above.
LXXV “good” = kalos. Same as “good” in v17. See note LXIX above.

19 Every tree that does not bear goodLXXVI fruit is cut downLXXVII and thrown into the fire.LXXVIII 20 Thus you will knowLXXIX them by their fruits.

Notes on verses 19-20

LXXVI “good” = kalos. Same as “good” in v17. See note LXIX above.
LXXVII “cut down” = ekkopto. 10x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is to cut off, down, out, or away. It can also mean to remove, prevent, hinder, or frustrate.
LXXVIII “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.
LXXIX “know” = epiginosko. Same as “know” in v16. See note LXII above.

21 “Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord,LXXX Lord,’ will enter the kingdomLXXXI of heaven, but only the one who does the willLXXXII of my Father in heaven. 

Notes on verse 21

LXXX “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
LXXXI “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
LXXXII “will” = thelema. Related to “would have” in v12. From thelo (see note XLIII above). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.

22 On that day many will say to me, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesyLXXXIII in your name,LXXXIV and cast outLXXXV demonsLXXXVI in your name, and do many deeds of powerLXXXVII in your name?’ 

Notes on verse 22

LXXXIII “prophesy” = propheteuo. Related to “prophets” in v12 & “false prophets” in v15. From prophetes (see note XLV above). This is to prophesy, foretell.
LXXXIV “name” = onoma. Perhaps related to “notice” in v3 & “Know” in v16. Perhaps from ginosko (see note IX above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
LXXXV “cast out” = ekballo. Same as “take” in v4. See note XIV above.
LXXXVI “demons” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.
LXXXVII “deeds of power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.

23 Then I will declareLXXXVIII to them, ‘I never knewLXXXIX you; go awayXC from me, you evildoers.’XCI

Notes on verse 23

LXXXVIII “declare” = homologeo. Related to “gathered” in v16 & “says” in v21. From homologos (of one mind); {from homos (the same) + lego (see note LXV above)}. This is to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate. It can mean to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse.
LXXXIX “knew” = ginosko. Related to “notice” in 3 & “know” in v16 & perhaps related to “name” in v22. See note IX above.
XC “go away” = apochoreo. Related to “easy” in v13. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + choreo (to make space, receive, have room for, progress, depart so as to make room; figuratively, living open-heartedly); {from choros (a particular space or place); from chora (see note L above)}. This is to depart or withdraw.
XCI “evildoers” = ergazomai + ho + anomia. Literally “those working lawlessness.” Ergazomai is from ergon (work, task, action, employment). This is to work, labor, perform, toil. Anomia is related to “law” in v12. 15x in NT. From anomos (literally without law; could refer to someone who disregards authority or one who is not under the law (i.e. a Gentile); lawless, wicked, or a transgressor); {from a (not, without) + nomos (see note XLIV above)}}. This is lawlessness, disobedience, without law, violation. It is disregarding the law whether human or God’s law, including the harmful impact.

24 “Everyone then who hearsXCII these wordsXCIII of mine and actsXCIV on them

Notes on verse 24a

XCII “hears” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XCIII “words” = logos. Related to “gathered” in v16 & “says” in v21 & “declare” in v23. From lego (see note LXV above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XCIV “acts” = poieo. Same as “do” in v12. See note XLII above.

will be likeXCV a wiseXCVI manXCVII who builtXCVIII his houseXCIX on rock.C 

Notes on verse 24b

XCV “be like” = homoioo. 15x in NT. From homoios (similar to, resembling, like); from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is to compare, liken, resemble, become similar.
XCVI “wise” = phronimos. 14x in NT. From phroneo (to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action); from phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is wise in a practical sense, prudent, or sensible. It bis savvy, rooted in our own point of view, thoughtful. It can also mean conceited.
XCVII “man” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XCVIII “built” = oikodomeo. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
XCIX “house” = oikia. Related to “built” in v24. From oikos (see note XCVIII above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
C “rock” = petra. 15x in NT. This is large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff. It can also be cave or stony ground.

25 The rainCI fell, the floodsCII came, and the windsCIII blewCIV and beatCV on that house, but it did not fall,CVI because it had been foundedCVII on rock. 

Notes on verse 25

CI “rain” = broche. 2x in NT. From brecho (to rain, moisten, shower). This is a heavy rain.
CII “floods” = potamos. 17x in NT. From pino (to drink). This is a river, brook, or water. It can also be a riverbed flowing with heavy rain or melted snow (like an arroyo).
CIII “winds” = anemos. From aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is wind or a gust of air. It can also be used figuratively for empty doctrines.
CIV “blew” = pneo. 7x in NT. This is to breathe or to blow as a breeze.
CV “beat” = prospipto. 8x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to fall on or fall before. It can be a violent attack, bowing before, or beat against.
CVI “fall” = pipto. Related to “beat” in v25. See note CV above.
CVII “founded” = themelioo. 5x in NT. From themelios (related to a foundation); from tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is laying a foundation, grounded, setting a basis. Literally, it can be to erect. Figuratively, it can be to consolidate or settle.

26 And everyone who hears these words of mine and does not act on them will be like a foolishCVIII man who built his house on sand.CIX 27 The rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and beatCX against that house, and it fell—and great was its fall!”CXI

Notes on verses 26-27

CVIII “foolish” = moros. 12x in NT. This is foolish, dull, stupid. It is something lacking an edge so figuratively it refers to someone who has a loose grasp of reality or whose understanding is dull. It is someone who acts as though they have not brain.
CIX “sand” = ammos. 5x in NT. From psammos (sand). This is sand or sandy ground.
CX “beat” = proskopto. Related to “cut down” in v19. 8x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kopto (see note LXXVII above). This is to kick against, stumble, strike, beat on, surge against like water does, or take offense. It is to trip up in a literal or figurative sense.
CXI “fall” = ptosis. Related to “beat” and “fall” in v25. 2x in NT. From pipto (see note CV above). This is a falling or ruin.

28 Now when JesusCXII had finishedCXIII saying these things,CXIV

Notes on verse 28a

CXII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CXIII “finished” = teleo. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end.
CXIV “things” = logos. Same as “words” in v24. See note XCIII above.

the crowds were astoundedCXV at his teaching,CXVI 29 for he taughtCXVII them as one having authority,CXVIII and not as their scribes.CXIX

Notes on verses 28b-29

CXV “astounded” = ekplesso. 13x in NT. From ek (out, out of) + plesso (to pound, strike, flatten; figuratively, cause a calamity). This is to strike with panic, astonish shock. It is a moment that shakes someone from their senses and leaves them dumbfounded or at a loss.
CXVI “teaching” = didache. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teaching or doctrine.
CXVII “taught” = didasko. Related to “teaching” in v28. See note CXVI above.
CXVIII “authority” = exousia. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
CXIX “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.

Image credit: “Wadi Rum” by Joe (CmdrGravy), 2014.

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