John 2

John 2


On the thirdI dayII there wasIII a weddingIV

Notes on verse 1a

I “third” = tritos. From treis (three). This is third.
II “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
III “was” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
IV “wedding” = gamos. 16x in NT. This is a wedding, whether the ceremony, the feast, or the marriage itself.

in CanaV of Galilee,VI and the motherVII of JesusVIII wasIX there. 

Notes on verse 1b

V “Cana” = Kana. 4x in NT. Perhaps from Hebrew qaneh (reed, branch, measuring rod); perhaps from qanah (to get, buy, redeem, create, possess). This is Cana, meaning “reed.”
VI “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
VII “mother” = meter. This is mother in a literal or figurative sense.
VIII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
IX “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.

Jesus and his disciplesX had also been invitedXI to the wedding. When the wineXII

Notes on verses 2-3a

X “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
XI “invited” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
XII “wine” = oinos. Perhaps from Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is wine. It is where the word “oenophile” comes from.

gave out,XIII the mother of Jesus saidXIV to him, “They haveXV no wine.” 

Notes on verse 3b

XIII “gave out” = hustereo. 16x in NT– same verb used by the rich young man when he asks Jesus what do I still lack? (Mt 19:20); used in the parable of the prodigal son to describe him as impoverished (Lk 15:14); used when the wine ran out at the wedding at Cana (Jn 2:3); all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God (Rom 3:23); used in describing the body of Christ – that we give greater honor to the inferior member (1 Cor 12:24). From husteros (last, later). This is to fall behind, come late, be interior, suffer need, be left out., to fail to meet a goal.
XIV “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XV “have” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.

And Jesus said to her, “Woman,XVI what concern is that to me and to you? My hourXVII has not yet come.”XVIII 

His mother said to the servants,XIX “DoXX whatever he tellsXXI you.” 

Notes on verses 4-5

XVI “woman” = gune. Related to “was” in v1. Perhaps from ginomai (see note III above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XVII “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
XVIII “come” = heko. This is to come or arrive as at a final destination or goal. It can also mean being present in a literal or figurative sense.
XIX “servants” = diakonos. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is a servant, minister, waiter, or attendant. It is used for a person who performs a service, including religious service. This is the root of the word “deacon.”
XX “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XXI “tells” = lego. Same as “said” in v3. See note XIV above.

Now standingXXII there were sixXXIII stoneXXIV water jarsXXV for the JewishXXVI rites of purification,XXVII

Notes on verse 6a

XXII “standing” = keimai. This is to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined. It is to lie down literally or figuratively.
XXIII “six” = hex. 13x in NT. This is six. It is part of where “hexagon” comes from.
XXIV “stone” = lithinos. 3x in NT. From lithos (stone literal of figurative). This is stony or made from stone. It is used of stone jars, tablets, or idols made of stone.
XXV “water jars” = hudria. 3x in NT. From hudor (water literal or figurative); perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is a water jar or pitcher.
XXVI “Jewish” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XXVII “purification” = katharismos. 7x in NT. From katharizo (to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean; includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense); from katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying). This is cleansing or purification. It can be used in a literal, ritual, or moral sense.

each holdingXXVIII twentyXXIX or thirtyXXX gallons.XXXI 

Notes on verse 6b

XXVIII “holding” = choreo. 10x in NT. From choros (a particular space or place); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is to leave in order to make room or space. It can also be to advance, receive, accept, or make progress. Figuratively, it can also refer to being open-hearted.
XXIX “twenty” = duo. This is two or both.
XXX “thirty” = treis. Related to “third” in v1. See note I above.
XXXI “gallons” = metretes. 1x in NT. From metreo (to measure, estimate, allot according to a standard); from metron (a measure, whether of distance or volume; a tool for measuring or the measure itself; figuratively, that which determines what is sufficient). This is a measure, amphora – a measure for liquids. It is about 8.75 gallons.

Jesus said to them, “FillXXXII the jars with water.”XXXIII And they filled them up to the brim.XXXIV 

Notes on verse 7

XXXII “fill” = gemizo. 8x in NT. From gemo (to be full, swell, at capacity, actions taken to fulfill a goal). This is to fill up or load, be swamped as a boat with water.
XXXIII “water” = hudor. Related to “water jars” in v6. See note XXV above.
XXXIV “brim” = ano. 9x in NT. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew). This is literally up, upward, to the brim. Figuratively, it can refer to things above, i.e. of the heavens.

He said to them, “Now draw some out,XXXV and takeXXXVI it to the person in charge of the banquet.”XXXVII So they took it. 

Notes on verse 8

XXXV “draw…out” = antleo. 4x in NT– all in the wedding at Cana (John 2) & the Samaritan woman at the well (John 4). From antlos (ship’s hold; waste water in a ship’s hold). This is to bail out, draw water from a well with a bucket or pitcher.
XXXVI “take” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXVII “person in charge of the banquet” = architriklinos. Related to “third” in v1 & “thirty” in v6. 3x in NT. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + triklinos (a dining area with three couches used for eating); {from treis (see note I above) + klino (to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear; to bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee)}. This is chief steward or master of ceremonies at a banquet.

When the person in charge tastedXXXVIII the water that had becomeXXXIX wine and did not knowXL where it cameXLI from (though the servants who had drawn the water knew),

Notes on verse 9a

XXXVIII “tasted” = geuomai. 15x in NT. This is to taste, which implies eating. It can be used figuratively to mean experience, whether positively or negatively.
XXXIX “become” = ginomai. Same as “was” in v1. See note III above.
XL “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
XLI “came” = eimi. Same as “was” in v1. See note IX above.

that person calledXLII the bridegroomXLIII 10 and said to him, “EveryoneXLIV servesXLV

Notes on verses 9b-10a

XLII “called” = phoneo. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
XLIII “bridegroom” = numphios. 16x in NT. From numphe (bride, daughter-in-law, young wife, or young woman); perhaps from nupto (to put on a veil as a bride does – in Latin nupto means simply to marry); related to numphon (the room where the marriage bed is). This is bridegroom in a literal or figurative sense.
XLIV “everyone” = pas + anthropos. Pas is all or every. Anthropos is probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XLV “serves” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.

the goodXLVI wine firstXLVII and then the inferiorXLVIII wine after the guests have become drunk.XLIX But you have keptL the good wine until now.” 

Notes on verse 10b

XLVI “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
XLVII “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
XLVIII “inferior” = elasson. 4x in NT. This is smaller, worse, younger, lesser quality.
XLIX “become drunk” = methuo. 6x in NT. From methu (wine) OR from methe (drunkenness, an intoxicant). This is to drink freely, be drunk.
L “kept” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used f iguratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.

11 Jesus did this, the firstLI of his signs,LII in Cana of Galilee and revealedLIII his glory,LIV and his disciples believedLV in him.

Notes on verse 11

LI “first” = arche. Related to “person in charge of the banquet” in v8. From archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (see note XXXVII above). Properly, this is what is first. In a temporal sense, that is beginning or origin. It can also refer to the one who ranks first, i.e. king or ruler. So, it can also be magistrate, power, or principality. It can be used more generally for what is preeminent.
LII “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
LIII “revealed” = phaneroo. Related to “called” in v9. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (see note XLII above); from the same as phaino (see note XLII above). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
LIV “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
LV “believed” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

12 After this he went downLVI to CapernaumLVII with his mother, his brothers,LVIII and his disciples, and they remainedLIX there a fewLX days.

Notes on verse 12

LVI “went down” = katabaino. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (to walk, go). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
LVII “Capernaum” = Kapernaoum. 16x in NT. From Hebrew kaphar (village with walls); {from the same as kephir (a young lion, village); from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel)} + Nachum (Nahum, “comfortable”); {from nacham (a strong breath or sigh; to be sorry, to pity, console, comfort, or repent; also to comfort oneself with thoughts of vengeance)}. This is Capernaum, meaning “Nahum’s village.”
LVIII “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
LIX “remained” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
LX “a few” = ou + polus. Literally, “not many.” Polus is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.

13 The PassoverLXI of the Jews was near,LXII and Jesus went upLXIII to Jerusalem.LXIV 

Notes on verse 13

LXI “Passover” = Pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”
LXII “near” = eggus. Perhaps from agcho (to squeeze). This is nearby or near in time.
LXIII “went up” = anabaino. Related to “went down” in v12. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (see note LVI above)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
LXIV “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

14 In the templeLXV he foundLXVI people sellingLXVII cattle,LXVIII

Notes on verse 14a

LXV “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.
LXVI “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXVII “selling” = poleo. This is to barter or sell. It can also refer to the thing that is sold.
LXVIII “cattle” = bous. 8x in NT. Perhaps from bosko (to feed or pasture a flock; figuratively, to nourish spiritually) This is a cow, ox, or bull.

sheep,LXIX and dovesLXX and the money changersLXXI seatedLXXII at their tables. 

Notes on verse 14b

LXIX “sheep” = probaton. Related to “went down” in v12 & “went up” in v13. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (see note LXIII above)}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
LXX “doves” = peristera. 10x in NT. This is dove or pigeon.
LXXI “money changers” = kermatistes. 1x in NT. From kerma (a slice, clipping, coin); from keiro (to cut off, shear like hair). This is someone who handles money.
LXXII “seated” = kathemai. Related to “day” in v1. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (see note II above). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.

15 MakingLXXIII a whipLXXIV of cords,LXXV

Notes on verse 15a

LXXIII “making” = poieo. Same as “do” in v5. See note XX above.
LXXIV “whip” = phragellion. 1x in NT. From phragelloo (to whip or scourge – a whipping as a punishment given in public); from Latin flagellum (a whip); from flagrum (to whip or scourge); from Proto-Indo-European bhlag- (to strike). This is a whip or lash used to punish in public. See
LXXV “cords” = schonion. 2x in NT– the whip Jesus makes to cleans the Temple in John 2:15 & the ropes of the boat in Acts 27:32. From schoinos (a rush plant). This is a cord or rope that is twined from rushes.

he droveLXXVI allLXXVII of them out of the temple, with the sheep and the cattle. He also poured outLXXVIII the coinsLXXIX

Notes on verse 15b

LXXVI “drove” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVII “all” = pas. Same as “everyone” in v10. See note XLIV above.
LXXVIII “poured out” = ekcheo. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (to pour). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.
LXXIX “coins” = kerma. Related to “money changers” in v14. 1x in NT. See note LXXI above.

of the money changersLXXX and overturnedLXXXI their tables.LXXXII 

Notes on verse 15c

LXXX “money changers” = kollubistes. 3x in NT. From kollubos (a small coin); probably related to kollourion (a salve or poultice for the eye); see kollurion (bread roll or a poultice for the eye in that shape); {probably from kollix (bread roll) or kollao (to glue together; joining, spending time with, or being intimately connected to; can be used for marriage, joining the church, clinging, or adhering to something; can also be used medically for uniting wounds); {from kolla (glue)}}. This is one who deals in coins – a money changer who exchanged Gentile currency for Jewish.
LXXXI “overturned” = anatrepo. 3x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); {from trepo (to turn)}. This is to overturn, overthrow, destroy, or upset. It is overturn in a literal or figurative sense – including upset as in bother.
LXXXII “tables” = trapeza. 15x in NT. Probably from tessares (four; figuratively, can mean total inclusion or universality) + peze (by foot or land) or pezos (by foot or land); {from pous (foot)}. This is a table – whether for eating or conducting business. Literally, four feet. This is where the word “trapeze” comes from.

16 He told those who were selling the doves, “TakeLXXXIII these things out of here! Stop making my Father’sLXXXIV houseLXXXV a marketplace!”LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 16

LXXXIII “take” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
LXXXIV “Father’s” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
LXXXV “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
LXXXVI “marketplace” = oikos + emporion. Literally, “a house of trade.” Oikos is the same as “house” in v16. See note LXXXV above. Emporion is 1x in NT. From emporos (merchant or trader; one who travels by ship or more broadly one journeying); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + the base of poreuomai (to go, travel, journey; transportation something from one place to another; focuses on the personal meaning given to getting to the destination); {from poros (passageway, ford)}}. This is a market, a place of business or trading. It is also share as root with “emporium.”

17 His disciples rememberedLXXXVII that it was written,LXXXVIII “ZealLXXXIX for your house will consumeXC me.” 

Notes on verse 17

LXXXVII “remembered” = mimnesko. Related to “remained” in v12. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (see note LIX above). This is to remind or remember. It is memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful of. It is not incidentally or accidentally remembering.
LXXXVIII “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
LXXXIX “zeal” = zelos. 16x in NT– 6x in a positive sense (zeal for God) & 10x in a negative sense (jealousy/strife). Perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is eagerness or zeal on the one hand or rivalry and jealousy on the other. The verb is meant to echo the sound of boiling water and so it depicts burning emotion that bubbles over. So, burning anger or burning love.
XC “consume” = katesthio. 15x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + esthio (to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust). This is to eat up, to consume totally so that there is nothing left. It can also be to annoy, injure, or squander.

18 The Jews then said to him, “What sign can you showXCI us for doing this?” 

19 Jesus answered them, “DestroyXCII this temple,XCIII and in threeXCIV days I will raise it up.”XCV 

Notes on verses 18-19

XCI “show” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.
XCII “destroy” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.
XCIII “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
XCIV “three” = treis. Same as “thirty” in v6. See note XXX above.
XCV “raise…up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.

20 The Jews then said, “This temple has been under constructionXCVI for fortyXCVII-six years,XCVIII and will you raise it up in three days?” 21 But he was speaking of the temple of his body.XCIX 

Notes on verses 20-21

XCVI “been under construction” = oikodomeo. Related to “house” in v16.  From oikos (see note LXXXV above) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
XCVII “forty” = tessarakonta. Related to “tables” in v15. From tessares (see note LXXXII above). This is forty. Figuratively, it alludes to a time of trial or a long interval.
XCVIII “years” = etos. This is year or age.
XCIX “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.

22 After he was raised from the dead,C his disciples remembered that he had said this, and they believed the scriptureCI and the wordCII that Jesus had spoken.

Notes on verse 22

C “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
CI “scripture” = graphe. Related to “written” in v17. From grapho (see note LXXXVIII above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
CII “word” = logos. Related to “said” in v13. From lego (see note XIV above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

23 When he was in Jerusalem during the Passover festival,CIII manyCIV believed in his nameCV because they sawCVI the signs that he was doing. 24 But Jesus on his part would not entrustCVII himself to them, because he knewCVIII all people 

Notes on verses 23-24

CIII “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
CIV “many” = polus. Same as “a few” in v12. See note LX above.
CV “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
CVI “saw” = theoreo. Related to “kept” in v10. See note L above.
CVII “entrust” = pisteuo. Same as “believed” in v11. See note LV above.
CVIII “knew” = ginosko. Related to “name” in v23. See note CV above.

25 and neededCIX no one to testifyCX about anyone,CXI for he himself knewCXII what was in everyone.

Notes on verse 25

CIX “needed” = chreia + echo. Chreia is from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution. Echo is the same as “have” in v3. See note XV above.
CX “testify” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
CXI “anyone” = anthropos. Same as “everyone” in v10. See note XLIV above.
CXII “knew” = ginosko. Same as “knew” in v24. See note CVIII above.

Image credit: “The Wedding of Cana” by James Ensor, 1913.

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