Psalm 69

Psalm 69


To the leader:I according to Lilies.II Of David.III

Notes on superscript

I “leader” = natsach. Properly, something that glitters from a distance. So, something that stands out, excels, has status/standing (such as a chief musician or superintendent of Temple services). This can also mean to be permanent or enduring.
II “Lilies” = shushan. 15x in OT. Perhaps from sus (to rejoice, be glad; properly, to be bright or cheerful). This is lily, Shoshan, or Shoshannah. It could also be other flowers that look like lilies, architecture decoration in the shape of a lily, a musical tune, or trumpets due to the similar appearance. This is where the name “Susan” comes from.
III “David” = David. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”

1 SaveIV me, O God,V
    for the watersVI have come upVII to my neck.VIII

Notes on verse 1

IV “save” = yasha. To deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free.
V “God” = Elohim.
VI “waters” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
VII “come up” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
VIII “neck” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.

2 I sinkIX in deepX mire,XI
    where there is no foothold;XII

Notes on verse 2a

IX “sink” = taba. 10x in OT. This is sink, drown, settle, or fasten.
X “deep” = metsolah. 11x in OT. From the same as tsulah (root may mean to sink; ocean depths, the abyss of the sea). This is depth, bottom, or otherwise somewhere deep that is watery or muddy.
XI “mire” = yaven. 2x in OT. Perhaps from the same as yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is mire or miry, mud. It can also refer to dregs.
XII “foothold” = moomad. 1x in OT. From amad (to stand up in a literal or figurative sense; to establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy). This is literally a standing. Hence, a foothold.

I have come into deepXIII waters,
    and the floodXIV sweeps overXV me.

Notes on verse 2b

XIII “deep” = maamaqqim. 5x in OT. From amoq (to be deep in a literal or figurative sense; profound). This is depths or deep.
XIV “flood” = shibbol. 19x in OT. From the same as shobel (the train of a skirt that flows after a woman). This is an ear of grain or corn, a branch, a stream or flood. It was also a word the Gileadites used to test the fugitives in Judges 12:6.
XV “sweeps over” = shataph. This is to overflow, rinse, overwhelm, run, drown, rush, flood, cleanse, gallop, conquer.

I am wearyXVI with my crying;XVII
    my throatXVIII is parched.XIX
My eyesXX grow dimXXI
    with waitingXXII for my God.

Notes on verse 3

XVI “am weary” = yaga. This is to work, become weary, to gasp or be exhausted, to toil.
XVII “crying” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
XVIII “throat” = garon. 7x in OT. Perhaps from garah (to contend, provoke conflict, stir up strife, meddle; properly, to grate – figuratively to cause anger) OR from garar (to drag or drag off in a rough fashion, chew, sweep, destroy; to chew the cud). This is mouth, throat, head, or neck.
XIX “is parched” = charar. 11x in OT. This is to be scorched, burn, glow, dry up. Figuratively, it is to show passion.
XX “eyes” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
XXI “grow dim” = kalah. This is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed.
XXII “waiting” = yachal. This is to wait, which implies patience, hope, and trust. It can also be pained waiting.

More in number than the hairsXXIII of my headXXIV
    areXXV those who hateXXVI me without cause;XXVII

Notes on verse 4a

XXIII “hairs” = saarah. 7x in OT. From the same as sear (hair, hairy, rough); perhaps from sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, storm tossed; this is to toss in a literal or figurative sense). This is hair or hairiness.
XXIV “head” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
XXV “more…are” = rabab. 13x in OT. This is to increase, multiply, abound.
XXVI “hate” = sane. This is an enemy or foe. It is one that is hated with a personal hatred.
XXVII “without cause” = chinnam. From chen (grace, favor, kindness, beauty, precious); from chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is out of favor, so it can mean without cost, without payment, nothing, vain, or useless.

many areXXVIII those who would destroyXXIX me,
    my enemiesXXX who accuse me falsely.XXXI
What I did not stealXXXII
    must I now restore?XXXIII

Notes on verse 4b

XXVIII “many are” = atsam. This is vast, numerous, strong. It can be to close one’s eyes, to make powerful, or to break bones.
XXIX “destroy” = tsamath. 15x in OT. This is to destroy, cut off, silence, or vanish. It is to put an end to in a literal or figurative sense.
XXX “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.
XXXI “falsely” = sheqer. This is deception, lie, or disappointment. It can also be something that is vain or wrongfully.
XXXII “steal” = gazal. This is snatch, take violently, seize, tear away. It can also mean flay or rob.
XXXIII “restore” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”

O God, you knowXXXIV my folly;XXXV
    the wrongsXXXVI I have done are not hiddenXXXVII from you.

Notes on verse 5

XXXIV “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XXXV “folly” = ivveleth. From the same as evil (foolish, silly). This is foolishness or silliness.
XXXVI “wrongs” = ashmah. 19x in OT. From asham (guilt, sin, wrong, or offense; a sin or guilt offering); from asham (to be guilty, suffer, be punished; to destroy, condemn, be desolate, perish). This is wrongdoing, transgression, fault, or sin. It could also be a sin offering.
XXXVII “hidden” = kachad. This is to hide or conceal or destroy. It can also refer to doing secret actions or secret speech.

Do not let those who hopeXXXVIII in you be put to shameXXXIX because of me,
    O LordXL GodXLI of hosts;XLII

Notes on verse 6a

XXXVIII “hope” = qavah. It can mean to bind or gather together, especially in the sense of twisting together. In that light, it can mean collect. Figuratively, this can mean to wait, await, expect, or tarry.
XXXIX “be put to shame” = bosh. Properly, this means to be pale, which implies shame, disappointment, or confusion.
XL “Lord” = Adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans and (in the present form) of God. It means someone who is in control.
XLI “God” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XLII “hosts” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.

do not let those who seekXLIII you be dishonoredXLIV because of me,
    O GodXLV of Israel.XLVI

Notes on verse 6b

XLIII “seek” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.
XLIV “be dishonored” = kalam. This is bearing shame, bringing dishonor or disgrace, humiliate insult, taunt, embarrass, reproach. Properly, to wound in a figurative sense.
XLV “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.
XLVI “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “God” in v1. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note V above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

It is for your sake that I have borneXLVII reproach,XLVIII
    that shameXLIX has coveredL my face.LI

Notes on verse 7

XLVII “borne” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
XLVIII “reproach” = cherpah. From charaph (to expose and so figuratively to reproach, defame, carp at, defy). This is reproach, rebuke, shame, or disgrace. It can also refer to genitals.
XLIX “shame” = kelimmah. Related to “be dishonored” in v6. From kalam (see note XLIV above). This is insult, disgrace, dishonor, humiliation, shame, or reproach.
L “covered” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
LI “face” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

I have becomeLII a strangerLIII to my kindred,LIV

Notes on verse 8a

LII “become” = hayah. Related to “God” in v6. See note XLI above.
LIII “stranger” = zur. This is one who comes from someone else – a stranger. It is one who stops for lodging. Figuratively, it can also mean profane or one who commits adultery.
LIV “kindred” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.

    an alienLV to my mother’sLVI children.LVII

Notes on verse 8b

LV “alien” = nokri. From neker (strange; to act foreign or strange; to disguise; can also be misfortune or unexpected calamity); from nakar (to recognize, examine, take notice, show, scrutinize). This is foreign, alien, stranger, extraordinary, adulteress. It is strange in many different senses – foreign, not being one’s relative, different, wonderful, relating to adultery.
LVI “mother’s” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
LVII “children” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.

It is zealLVIII for your houseLIX that has consumedLX me;
    the insultsLXI of those who insultLXII you have fallenLXIII on me.

Notes on verse 9

LVIII “zeal” = qinah. Perhaps from qana (to be jealous, zealous, envious). This is zeal, jealousy, envy, anger,  passion rivalry.
LIX “house” = bayit. Related to “children” in v8. Probably from banah (see note LVII above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
LX “consumed” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
LXI “insults” = cherpah. Same as “reproach” in v7. See note XLVIII above.
LXII “insult” = charaph. Related to “reproach” in v7. See note XLVIII above.
LXIII “fallen” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.

10 When I humbledLXIV my soulLXV with fasting,LXVI
    they insulted me for doing so.LXVII

Notes on verse 10

LXIV “humbled” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.
LXV “soul” = nephesh. Same as “neck” in v1. See note VIII above.
LXVI “fasting” = tsom. From tsum (properly, covering one’s mouth; by extension, abstaining from food). This is fasting or a fast.
LXVII “insulted me for doing so” = hayah + charaph. Literally “that became my reproach.” Hayah is the same as “become” in v8. See note LII above. Charaph is the same as “insult” in v7. See note LXII above.

11 When I madeLXVIII sackclothLXIX my clothing,LXX
    I became a bywordLXXI to them.

Notes on verse 11

LXVIII “made” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LXIX “sackcloth” = saq. Perhaps from shaqaq (to run, rush; by implication having an appetite, seeking greedily). This is sack or sackcloth used as bags for grain and so on. Also worn during times or mourning or when seeking humility. The word “sack” in English is derived from this Semitic root.
LXX “clothing” = lebush. From labash (to wrap around, which implies clothing oneself or someone else; wrapping around in a literal or figurative way). This is clothing literally or figuratively. It can be used as a euphemism for a wife.
LXXI “byword” = mashal. From mashal (to compare, speak in a proverb or riddle – to speak in allegory or liken). This is proverb, parable, taunt, discourse, maxim, adage, poem.

12 I am the subject of gossipLXXII for those who sitLXXIII in the gate,LXXIV
    and the drunkardsLXXV make songsLXXVI about me.

Notes on verse 12

LXXII “am the subject of gossip” = siach. From siach (musing, meditation, communication, babbling, prayer, contemplation). This is to muse, meditate, complain, sing, sigh, speak, or utter.
LXXIII “sit” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
LXXIV “gate” = shaar. May be related to sha’ar (to calculate or reckon; may come from a root that means to open up or split). This is a gate, door, or other opening like a port.
LXXV “drunkards” = shathah + shekar. Shathah is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker. Shekar is from shakar (to be filled with drink, merry, tipsy; satiated in a positive sense or drunken in a negative sense; also figuratively influence). This is an alcoholic beverage – liquor, strong wine.
LXXVI “make songs” = neginah. 13x in OT. From nagan (to strike a stringed instrument, to pluck or play it). This is music, a song, a taunt, or a stringed instrument. It can also be a poem given a musical setting.

13 But as for me, my prayerLXXVII is to you, O Lord.LXXVIII
    At an acceptableLXXIX time,LXXX O God,LXXXI

Notes on verse 13a

LXXVII “prayer” = tephillah. From palal (to judge for oneself or in an official capacity; to pray or make supplication, to entreat). This is prayer or intercession. It can also be a hymn.
LXXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “God” in v6 & “become” in v8. See note XLI above.
LXXIX “acceptable” = ratson. From ratsah (to be pleased with, delight, take pleasure in, or accept with favor; to approve or consent regarding something; can be used specifically of satisfying debts or being pardoned). This is delight shown in favor, good will, something that is accepted or acceptable.
LXXX “time” = eth. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.
LXXXI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.

    in the abundanceLXXXII of your steadfast love,LXXXIII answerLXXXIV me.

Notes on verse 13b

LXXXII “abundance” = rob. Related to “more…are” in v4. From rabab (see note XXV above). This is any kind of abundance.
LXXXIII “steadfast love” = chesed. From chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here). This is favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed. When done by God to humanity, this is mercy/loving kindness. When done by humanity to God, it is piety.
LXXXIV “answer” = anah. Related to “time” in v13. See note LXXX above.

With your faithfulLXXXV helpLXXXVI 14 rescueLXXXVII me
    from sinking in the mire;LXXXVIII
let me be deliveredLXXXIX from my enemiesXC
    and from the deepXCI waters.

Notes on verses 13c-14

LXXXV “faithful” = emet. From aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This is firmness or stability. Figuratively, it is faithfulness, truth, or trustworthiness. This is the same root that “amen” comes from.
LXXXVI “help” = yesha. Related to “save” in v1. From yasha (see note IV above). This is salvation, deliverance, rescue, safety, welfare, liberty.
LXXXVII “rescue” = natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder.
LXXXVIII “mire” = tit. 13x in OT. Root perhaps means being sticky. This is mud, clay, or mire. Figuratively, it can refer to calamity.
LXXXIX “delivered” = natsal. Same as “rescue” in v14. See note LXXXVII above.
XC “enemies” = sane. Same as “hate” in v4. See note XXVI above.
XCI “deep” = maamaqqim. Same as “deep” in v2. See note XIII above.

15 Do not let the floodXCII sweep over me,
    or the deepXCIII swallow me up,XCIV
    or the PitXCV closeXCVI its mouthXCVII over me.

Notes on verse 15

XCII {untranslated} = mayim. Same as “waters” in v1. See note VI above.
XCIII “deep” = metsolah. Same as “deep” in v2. See note X above.
XCIV “swallow…up” = bala. This is to swallow, engulf, cover, or destroy.
XCV “Pit” = beer. From baar (to make plain; to dig; can also mean to engrave or figuratively to explain). This is a well or pit.
XCVI “close” = atar. 1x in OT. This is to shut up or bind.
XCVII “mouth” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.

16 Answer me, O Lord,XCVIII for your steadfast love is good;XCIX
    according to your abundant mercy,C turnCI to me.

Notes on verse 16

XCVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v13. See note LXXVIII above.
XCIX “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
C “mercy” = racham. From the same as rechem (womb); from racham (to love, have compassion, have mercy); from racham (compassion, tender love, womb, compassion; the womb as that which cherishes the fetus). This is compassion, mercy, or tender love.
CI “turn” = panah. Related to “face” in v7. See note LI above.

17 Do not hideCII your face from your servant,CIII
    for I am in distressCIV—make hasteCV to answer me.

Notes on verse 17

CII “hide” = sathar. This is hide, conceal, or be absent. It is hiding because something is covered – used in a literal or figurative sense.
CIII “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
CIV “am in distress” = tsarar. This is to bind, restrict, narrow, be cramped, an adversary.
CV “make haste” = maher. 18x in OT. From mahar (being liquid, which implies flowing; so, hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense). This is speedy, quickly, soon, suddenly, or at once.

18 Draw nearCVI to me,CVII redeemCVIII me,
    set me freeCIX because of my enemies.

Notes on verse 18

CVI “draw near” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
CVII “me” = nephesh. Same as “neck” in v1. See note VIII above.
CVIII “redeem” = gaal. This is to redeem someone or something according to kinship laws. So, it could be acting on a relative’s behalf to buy back their property, to marry one’s brother’s widow, etc. This could be more briefly translated as to redeem, acts as kinsman, or purchase. As a noun, it could be deliverer or avenger.
CIX “set…free” = padah. This is to sever, which is to say to ransom. To secure someone’s release (by paying their debt to free them from slavery) and thus redeem, rescue, deliver, preserve. Can also be the redemption price.

19 You know the insults I receive,
    and my shameCX and dishonor;CXI
    my foesCXII are all known toCXIII you.

Notes on verse 19

CX “shame” = bosheth. Related to “be put to shame” in v6. From bosh (see note XXXIX above). This is shame as a feeling and a thing that creates shame. It can also mean humiliation, confusion, or be used specifically for an idol.
CXI “dishonor” = kelimmah. Same as “shame” in v7. See note XLIX above.
CXII “foes” = tsarar. Same as “am in distress” in v17. See note CIV above.
CXIII “to” = neged. From nagad (to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain). This is in front of, opposite to. It can refer to a counterpart or partner, one corresponding to or in the sight of.

20 Insults have brokenCXIV my heart,CXV
    so that I am in despair.CXVI

Notes on verse 20a

CXIV “broken” = shabar. This is break, collapse, destroy, break in pieces, tear. It is bursting in a literal or figurative sense.
CXV “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
CXVI “am in despair” = nush. 1x in OT. This is to be heavy, sick, or distressed.

I lookedCXVII for pity,CXVIII but there was none;
    and for comforters,CXIX but I foundCXX none.

Notes on verse 20b

CXVII “looked” = qavah. Same as “hope” in v6. See note XXXVIII above.
CXVIII “pity” = nud. This is to nod, waver, wander, flee, show grief, disappear. It can be nodding the head as a sign of sympathy or consolation. It could also be tossing one’s head to show contempt or to taunt.
CXIX “comforters” = nacham. Properly, this is a strong breath or a sigh. This can be to be sorry, to pity, console. Comfort, or repent. But, one can also comfort oneself with less righteous thoughts, so this can also mean to avenge oneself.
CXX “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.

21 They gaveCXXI me poisonCXXII for food,CXXIII

Notes on verse 21a

CXXI “gave” = natan. Same as “made” in v11. See note LXVIII above.
CXXII “poison” = rosh. Related to “head” in v4. 12x in OT. From rosh (see note XXIV above). This is venom, poison, bitterness. It could be a plant or a serpent’s venom.
CXXIII “food” = baruth. 1x in OT. From barah (to eat, choose, make clear). This is food or meat.

    and for my thirstCXXIV they gave me vinegarCXXV to drink.CXXVI

Notes on verse 21b

CXXIV “thirst” = tsama. 17x in OT. From tsame (to thirst in a literal or figurative sense). This is thirst in a literal or figurative sense. It could also refer to dry ground.
CXXV “vinegar” = chomets. 6x in OT. From chamets (to be or taste sour, fermented, harsh; also dyed or of a dazzling color). This is vinegar.
CXXVI “drink” = shaqah. This is to give water to, to cause to drink – to irrigate, drown. It can be used for watering plants or giving water to flocks.

22 Let their tableCXXVII be a trapCXXVIII forCXXIX them,
    a snareCXXX for their allies.CXXXI

Notes on verse 22

CXXVII “table” = shulchan. Perhaps from shalach (to send, send for, forsake). This is a table or meal.
CXXVIII “trap” = pach. From pachach (to trap, lay a net). This is a snare or bird trap. It can also refer to a sheet of metal hammered into a thin plate.
CXXIX “for” = paneh. Same as “face” in v7. See note LI above.
CXXX “snare” = moqesh. From yaqosh (ensnare, lay bait, lure, trapper; to snare literally or figuratively). This is bait, barb, snare, trap; a noose or hook to trap animals in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXI “allies” = shalom. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).

23 Let their eyes be darkenedCXXXII so that they cannot see,CXXXIII
    and make their loinsCXXXIV trembleCXXXV continually.CXXXVI

Notes on verse 23

CXXXII “be darkened” = chashak. 18x in OT. This is to be or become dark. It can also mean to dim or hide.
CXXXIII “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
CXXXIV “loins” = mothen. This is the waist, slender, or small of back. It can also refer to the loins when in plural.
CXXXV “tremble” = maad. 6x in OT. This is to slip, totter, shake, or waver.
CXXXVI “continually” = tamid. May come from a word that means to stretch. This word means an indefinite period of time. So, it could be regular or daily. It could also be constantly, continually, always, or perpetually.

24 Pour outCXXXVII your indignationCXXXVIII upon them,
    and let your burningCXXXIX angerCXL overtakeCXLI them.

Notes on verse 24

CXXXVII “pour out” = shaphak. This is to pour out, gust, or slip. It can be to pour as blood, a drink offering, or molten metal. It can also mean to create a mound. Figuratively, it can refer to killing, or spending money.
CXXXVIII “indignation” = zaam. From zaam (properly, foaming at the mouth and so being enraged or angry; to curse or denounce). This is indignation, anger, fury. Also used of God’s anger at sin.
CXXXIX “burning” = charon. From charah (to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn; figuratively a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy). This is burning anger, fierceness, or wrathfulness.
CXL “anger” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
CXLI “overtake” = nasag. This is to reach in a literal or figurative sense. It is to overtake, catch, or be able to.

25 May their campCXLII be a desolation;CXLIII
    let no one live in their tents.CXLIV

Notes on verse 25

CXLII “camp” = tirah. 7x in OT. This is a wall, row, habitation, encampment. It could also be a fortress or castle.
CXLIII “desolation” = shamem. This is to stun or become numb. It can also mean to devastate or be appalled. Can also mean to be amazed or astonished.
CXLIV “tents” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.

26 For they persecuteCXLV those whom you have struck down,CXLVI
    and those whom you have wounded,CXLVII they attackCXLVIII still more.CXLIX

Notes on verse 26

CXLV “persecute” = radaph. This is to chase after, pursue, hunt, or persecute. It is running after someone or something, generally with hostile motives.
CXLVI “struck down” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
CXLVII “wounded” = makob. 16x in OT. From kaab (being in pain, be sad, grieve, spoil, mar). This is pain, sorrow, or suffering. It can be anguish or affliction.
CXLVIII “attack” = chalal. From chalal (to pierce, to wound; figuratively, making someone or something profane or breaking your word; to begin as though one opened a wedge; to eat something as a common thing). This is to pierce, profane or pollute. It can also refer to slain or deadly.
CXLIX {untranslated} = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.

27 AddCL guiltCLI to their guilt;
    may they haveCLII no acquittalCLIII from you.

Notes on verse 27

CL “add” = natan. Same as “made” in v11. See note LXVIII above.
CLI “guilt” = avon. Perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.
CLII “have” = bo. Same as “come up” in v1. See note VII above.
CLIII “acquittal” = tsedaqah. From the same as tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity). This is righteousness, justice, righteous acts, and moral virtue.

28 Let them be blottedCLIV out of the bookCLV of the living;CLVI
    let them not be enrolledCLVII among the righteous.CLVIII

Notes on verse 28

CLIV “blotted” = machah. This is to rub, which implies to erase. It can also be making something smooth with grease or oil. So, this could we wipe out, blot out, or destroy. Also, to touch or reach.
CLV “book” = sepher. Related to {untranslated} in v26. See note CXLIX above.
CLVI “living” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
CLVII “enrolled” = kathab. This is to write, decree, describe, record.
CLVIII “righteous” = tsaddiq. Related to “acquittal” in v27. From the same as tsedeq (see note CLIII above). This is just, innocent, righteous, righteous one, or lawful.

29 But I am lowlyCLIX and in pain;CLX
    let your salvation,CLXI O God,CLXII protectCLXIII me.

Notes on verse 29

CLIX “I am lowly” = ani + ani. In Hebrew, it is “wa’ani ani.” The first ani is I or myself. The second ani is from anah (to be bowed down; humility or being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed; literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance). This is humble, lowly, poor, or afflicted.
CLX “pain” = kaab. Related to “wounded” in v26. 8x in NT. See note CXLVII above.
CLXI “salvation” = yeshuah. Related to “save” in v1 & “help” in v13. From yasha (see note IV above). This is salvation, deliverance, health, victory, prosperity.
CLXII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.
CLXIII “protect” = sagab. This is to raise, lifted, high, set secure on high, excellent, or strong. It is inaccessibly high in a literal and figurative sense. It implies something that is safe and, therefore, something that is strong.

30 I will praiseCLXIV the nameCLXV of GodCLXVI with a song;
    I will magnifyCLXVII him with thanksgiving.CLXVIII

Notes on verse 30

CLXIV “praise” = halal. This is to be clear – it originally referred to a sound, then a color. It was to shine and then make a show or boast then to rave. In a causative sense it came to mean celebrate, give glory, sing praise, or be worth of praise. Because of the celebratory nature of the word, it could also mean to give in marriage. This is where Hallelujah comes from.
CLXV “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
CLXVI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.
CLXVII “magnify” = gadal. This is to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing.
CLXVIII “thanksgiving” = todah. From yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise, to give thanks, or make a confession); from yad (hand, ability, power; hand in a literal sense; what one can do or the means by which one does it). This is properly extending one’s hand, which implies affirmation and adoration. It can be a song of thanksgiving, a choir of thanksgiving, confession, or praise. It can also be a thank offering.

31 This will pleaseCLXIX the LordCLXX more than an oxCLXXI

Notes on verse 31a

CLXIX “will please” = yatab. This is to be good or pleasing, joyful. It can also mean doing good in an ethical sense or be beautiful, happy, successful, or right.
CLXX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v13. See note LXXVIII above.
CLXXI “ox” = shor. Perhaps from shur (to travel, turn, journey; travelling like a prostitute or a merchant). This is bull, ox, head of cattle, cow.

    or a bullCLXXII with hornsCLXXIII and hoofs.CLXXIV

Notes on verse 31b

CLXXII “bull” = par. Perhaps related to parar (to break, defeat, frustrate, caste off, clean, cease). This is a young bull or ox.
CLXXIII “horns” = qaran. 4x in OT – used 3x of Moses’s face shining upon coming from the presence of God. From qeren (horn or hill; a flask or cornet, ivory, altar corner, mountain peak, or figuratively power). This is something that gives off rays – it could be to shine or refer to horns. As horns, it could mean to gore.
CLXXIV “hoofs” = paras. 14x in OT. To break in two, divide, to have hoofs (as divided feet). This is breaking in pieces, but it is generally not referring to violence. So, this would be to split, distribute, or share. This is the root verb that “Pharisee” comes from since they were separated or separatists to pursue lives of purity.

32 Let the oppressedCLXXV see it and be glad;CLXXVI
    you who seekCLXXVII God,CLXXVIII let your hearts revive.CLXXIX

Notes on verse 32

CLXXV “oppressed” = anav. Related to “lowly” in v29. From anah (see note CLIX above). This is poor, needy, afflicted as well as humble or meek.
CLXXVI “be glad” = samach. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to brighten up in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXVII “seek” = darash. This is seek, ask, inquire, care for. Generally it means following in pursuit or following as part of a search, which implies seeking or asking. Also used specially to mean worship.
CLXXVIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.
CLXXIX “revive” = chayah. Related to “living” in v28. See note CLVI above.

33 For the LordCLXXX hearsCLXXXI the needy,CLXXXII
    and does not despiseCLXXXIII his own that are in bonds.CLXXXIV

Notes on verse 33

CLXXX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v13. See note LXXVIII above.
CLXXXI “hears” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
CLXXXII “needy” = ebyon. From abah (to consent, obey, want, yield, accept). This is needy, poor, beggar. Someone who is wanting.
CLXXXIII “despise” = bazah. This is to despise, hold in contempt, disesteem, or a person who is vile.
CLXXXIV “in bonds” = asir. 12x in OT. From asar (to tie, yoke, bind, or fasten; can mean to harness an animal, to join in fighting a battle, or to imprison someone). This is a prisoner or captive. It can also refer to a slave or someone otherwise bound.

34 Let heavenCLXXXV and earthCLXXXVI praise him,
    the seasCLXXXVII and everything that movesCLXXXVIII in them.

Notes on verse 34

CLXXXV “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
CLXXXVI “earth” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
CLXXXVII “seas” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.
CLXXXVIII “moves” = ramas. 17x in OT. This is gliding swiftly, moving with quick steps or crawling. It is to swarm or prowl or move about.

35 For GodCLXXXIX will save ZionCXC
    and rebuildCXCI the citiesCXCII of Judah;CXCIII
and his servants shall live there and possessCXCIV it;

Notes on verse 35

CLXXXIX “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note V above.
CXC “Zion” = tsiyyon. Related to tsyiyyun (signpost, monument); from tsavah (to charge someone, to command, order); from the same as tsiyyah (dryness drought); from a root meaning parched as desert, dry land. Zion can refer to a mountain in Jerusalem as well as another name for Jerusalem itself or the people.
CXCI “rebuild” = banah. Related to “children” in v8 & “house” in v9. See note LVII above.
CXCII “cities” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
CXCIII “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
CXCIV “possess” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.

36     the childrenCXCV of his servants shall inheritCXCVI it,
    and those who loveCXCVII his name shall liveCXCVIII in it.

Notes on verse 36

CXCV “children” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
CXCVI “inherit” = nachal. From nachalah (properly something that was inherited; can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate; can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion). This is to gain as a possession, divide for inheritance. Also, to occupy for any reason.
CXCVII “love” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
CXCVIII “live” = shakan. This is to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently. It can mean abide or continue. “Mishkan,” taken from this verb, is the Hebrew word for the Tabernacle (as a place where God abided).

Image credit: “Saint Peter’s Rescue from the Lake Galilee” by Herbert Boeckl at the Church of the Assumption in Maria Saal, Austria, 1925.

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