Romans 8:14-39

Romans 8:14-39
Narrative Lectionary 146


14 For allI who are ledII by the SpiritIII of GodIV areV childrenVI of God. 

Notes on verse 14

I “all” = hosos. From hos (who, that, also). This is how many, as many as.
II “led” = ago. This is lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go.
III “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
IV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
V “are” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
VI “children” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.

15 For you did not receiveVII a spirit of slaveryVIII to fall back into fear,IX but you received a spirit of adoption.X

Notes on verse 15a

VII “receive” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
VIII “slavery” = douleia. 5x in NT. From douleo (to be a slave, be in bondage, to serve, obey, be devoted; it is to be a slave in a literal or figurative sense); from doulos (a servant or for a slave, enslaved; someone who belongs to someone else; could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved)); from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is slavery, bondage, or enslavement in a literal or figurative sense.
IX “fear” = phobos. From phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect.
X “adoption” = huiothesia. Related to “children” in v14. 5x in NT. From huios (see note VI above) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is making a son, adoption.

When we cry,XI “Abba!XII Father!”XIII 

Notes on verse 15b

XI “cry” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
XII “Abba” = Abba. 3x in NT. From Aramaic ab (father); corresponding to Hebrew ab (father in a literal or figurative sense – grandfather, chief, ancestor). This is abba, which means father – not a diminutive daddy.
XIII “father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.

16 it is that very Spirit bearing witness withXIV our spirit that we are childrenXV of God, 17 and if children,XVI then heirs:XVII

Notes on verses 16-17a

XIV “bearing witness with” = summartureo. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + martureo (to bear witness, testify, give evidence; to testify in a literal or figurative sense); {from martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr)}. This is to testify together with. It can also mean to corroborate.
XV “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
XVI “children” = teknon. Same as “children” in v16. See note XV above.
XVII “heirs” = kleronomos. 15x in NT. From kleros (lot, portion, heritage; that share assigned to you; also a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will); {perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread)} + the same as nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}}. This is heir, inheritor, or possessor – whether literal of figurative.

heirs of God andXVIII joint heirsXIX with Christ,XX if we in fact suffer withXXI him so that we may also be glorified withXXII him.

Notes on verse 17b

XVIII {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XIX “joint heirs” = sugkleronomos. Related to “heirs” in v17. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + kleronomos (see note XVII above). This is joint heir or participant.
XX “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
XXI “suffer with” = sumpascho. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together) + pascho (to be acted on for good or ill; often used for negative treatment; properly, feeling strong emotions – especially suffering; can also be the ability to feel suffering). This is to suffer together or sympathize. It is sharing pain. It can refer to persecution in particular.
XXII “be glorified with” = sundoxazo. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + doxazo (to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate; ascribe weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence); {from doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion)}. This is to glorify or praise together.

18 I considerXXIII that the sufferingsXXIV of this presentXXV timeXXVI

Notes on verse 18a

XXIII “consider” = logizomai. From logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is this is to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense.
XXIV “sufferings” = pathema. Related to “suffer with” in v17. 16x in NT. From pathos (passion, lust, suffering, something that happens to you, strong feelings); from pascho (see note XXI above). This is something that happens to you such as suffering, affliction, passion, or emotion. It can also be one’s capacity for deep feelings or enduring. Further, it can be hardship or pain.
XXV “present” = nun. This can mean simply now, at the present moment, or immediately. It can also mean now as the logical consequence of what has come before.
XXVI “time” = kairos. From kara (head). This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.

are not worth comparing withXXVII the gloryXXVIII about to beXXIX revealedXXX to us. 

Notes on verse 18b

XXVII “worth comparing with” = axios.  Related to “led” in v14. From ago (see note II above). This is related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward.
XXVIII “glory” = doxa. Related to “be glorified with” in v17. See note XXII above.
XXIX “about to be” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
XXX “revealed” = apokalupto. From apo (from, away from) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is properly to uncover so it means revealing something that was hidden or obstructed. It particularly refers to revealing the essence of something. This is to make plain or manifest. This is the root verb that “apocalypse” comes from.

19 For the creationXXXI waitsXXXII with eager longingXXXIII for the revealingXXXIV of the childrenXXXV of God, 

Notes on verse 19

XXXI “creation” = ktisis. 19x in NT. From ktizo (to build, create, form, shape; God’s acts of creation); probably akin to ktaomai (to get, purchase, possess). This is creation, creature, or ordinance. It is also used for when a city is founded and creation as origin.
XXXII “waits” = apekdechomai. 8x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ekdechomai (to take or receive, expect, await; to welcome someone from your heart; focusing on the goal of waiting or the outcome); {from ek (from, from out of) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is eager awaiting or fully expecting something.
XXXIII “eager longing” = apokaradokia. Related to “time” in v18 & be glorified with” in v17 & “glory” in v18. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + kara (see note XXVI above) + dokeo (see note XXII above). This is strained expectation. It literally refers to one’s head stretching ahead, being forward thinking. So, it is eager or anxious anticipation.
XXXIV “revealing” = apokalupsis. Related to “revealed” in v18. 18x in NT. From apokalupto (see note XXX above). This is uncovering, unveiling, appearing, manifestation, or revelation. This is where the word “apocalypse” comes from.
XXXV “children” = huios. Same as “children” in v14. See note VI above.

20 for the creation was subjectedXXXVI to futility,XXXVII not of its own will,XXXVIII but by the will of the one who subjected it, in hopeXXXIX 

Notes on verse 20

XXXVI “subjected” = hupotasso. From hupo (by, under, about, under one’s authority) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to place under. So it is to subject, submit, obey, or subordinate.
XXXVII “futility” = mataiotes. 3x in NT. From mataios (vain, useless, worthless, unproductive, or purposeless; figuratively fleeting or idols); from the same as maten (in vain, aimlessly, pointless, fruitless); from mate (a folly) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); {from masso (to kneed, squeeze). This is vanity, aimlessness, emptiness, unreality, instability, futility, false religion. It can also mean moral depravity.
XXXVIII “of its own will” = hekon. 2x in NT. This is willing, unforced, voluntarily.
XXXIX “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.

21 that the creation itself will be set freeXL from its enslavementXLI to decayXLII and will obtain the freedomXLIII of the glory of the childrenXLIV of God. 

Notes on verse 21

XL “set free” = eleutheroo. 7x in NT. From eleutheros (a free person, at liberty, not a slave; properly, unshackled – figuratively, it is one who has the freedom to choose their destiny. Also, it is one who does not have obligation or liability); probably from erchomai (to come or go). This is to liberate, set free, release from bondage. It can mean to clear someone from liability. Figuratively, it is freeing someone from bondage to sin.
XLI “enslavement” = douleia. Same as “slavery” in v15. See note VIII above.
XLII “decay” = phthora. 9x in NT. From phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, perish, waste away; figuratively, moral decay). This is destruction, corruption, or something perishable. It can be spontaneous decay or corruption inflicted on another in a literal or figurative sense.
XLIII “freedom” = eleutheria. Related to “set free” in v21. 11x in NT. From eleutheros (see note XL above). This is liberty or freedom. Particularly, it would be release from slavery. It can also refer to moral freedom.
XLIV “children” = teknon. Same as “children” in v16. See note XV above.

22 We knowXLV that the wholeXLVI creation has been groaning togetherXLVII as it suffers together the pains of labor,XLVIII, XLIX 

Notes on verse 22

XLV “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
XLVI “whole” = pas. This is all or every.
XLVII “groaning together” = sustenazo. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + stenazo (to sigh deeply, complain; to express feelings that are accompanied by pressure of what comes next; it can be lament, anger, or longing); {from steno (to sigh, groan) or stenos (narrow, confined, constricted; confined because of obstacles); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast)}}. This is to moan or lament – to share calamity.
XLVIII “pains of labor” = sunodino. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + odino (to experience labor pain; figuratively, other processes that bear a similar experience); {from odin (severe agony, a snare, the pain from childbirth; figuratively, pain and difficulty that comes from ushering in something new); related to odune pain, distress, or anguish, whether physical or mental; from duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); from duo (to sink)}. This is suffer pain together. Literally, it refers to labor pains. Figuratively, it is sympathy that anticipates an end to the suffering in question.
XLIX {untranslated} = achri + ho + nun. Literally, “until the present.” Nun is the same as “present” in v18. See note XXV above.

23 and not onlyL the creation, but we ourselves, who haveLI the first fruitsLII of the Spirit,

Notes on verse 23a

L “only” = monon. From monos (alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate); from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is merely, only, simply, sole. It can also imply alone.
LI “have” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
LII “first fruits” = aparche. 8x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + arche (origin, beginning, rule; can refer to the power of a magistrate or a king; it is the first thing as being the starting point or the most important); {from archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power)}. This is first fruit or gift. It is the beginning of sacrifice – so the first crops of the season. It is also used figuratively of early converts in a specific location.

groanLIII inwardly while we wait for adoption, the redemptionLIV of our bodies.LV 

Notes on verse 23b

LIII “groan” = stenazo. Related to “groaning together” in v22. 6x in NT. See note XLVII above.
LIV “redemption” = apolutrosis. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + lutroo (to redeem, liberate, release because ransom was paid in full; figuratively, returning something or someone to their rightful owner) [from lutron (ransom, the money used to free slaves; also a sacrifice of expiation; figurative for atonement); from luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld)]. This is redemption, deliverance, or release particularly with the notion of ransom paid – a buying back what had been lost.
LV “bodies” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.

24 For in hope we were saved.LVI Now hope that is seenLVII is not hope, for who hopes forLVIII what one already sees? 25 But if we hope for what we do not see, we wait for it with patience.LIX

Notes on verses 24-25

LVI “saved” = sozo. Related to “bodies” in v23. See note LV above.
LVII “seen” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
LVIII “hopes for” = elpizo. Related to “hope” in v20. From elpis (see note XXXIX above). This is to expect, trust, hope for, or to wait in an active way.
LIX “patience” = hupomone. Related to “only” in v23. From hupo (by, under, about) + meno (see note L above). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, and waiting in hope.

26 Likewise the Spirit helpsLX us in our weakness,LXI for we do not know how to prayLXII as we ought,LXIII

Notes on verse 26a

LX “helps” = sunantilambanomai. Related to “receive” in v15. 2x in NT – here and in Luke 10:40 when Martha asks Jesus to tell Mary “to help me.” From sun (with, together with) + antilambano (to grab, help, claim in a manner that corresponds to what is needed); {from anti (opposite, instead of, against) + lambano (see note VII above)}. This is to claim a share of, cooperate, assist in something one is vested in. It can also be giving the precise aid that is needed in the situation.
LXI “weakness” = astheneia. From asthenes (without strength, sick, deprivation; weak in a moral or physical sense); {From a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is weakness, frailty, illness, suffering, or calamity. It is any kind of sickness or injury that includes weakness or diminishes your ability to enjoy or accomplish what you would choose.
LXII “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
LXIII “ought” = dei. Related to “slavery” in v15. From deo (see note VIII above). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.

but that very Spirit intercedesLXIV with groaningsLXV too deep for words.LXVI 

Notes on verse 26b

LXIV “intercedes” = huperentugchano. 1x in NT. From huper (by, under, under the authority of another) + entugchano (to encounter, appeal, please, chance upon, confer with, to meet someone in order to consult with them); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + tugchano (root means to become ready; to hit, meet, happen, obtain, chance, perhaps; properly, to hit the mark or be spot on; the opposite of the Greek word for sin hamartano, which literally means to miss the mark); {perhaps from tucho (to make ready, bring about)}}. This is to intercede, to grant benefit.
LXV “groanings” = stenagmos. Related to “groaning together” in v22 & “groan” in v23. 2x in NT. From stenazo (see note XLVII above). This is groaning or sighing, particularly because of a situation that is bringing a lot of pressure.
LXVI “too deep for words” = alaletos. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + laleo (to talk, say, preach); {from lalos (talkative)}. This is inexpressible, unspeakable, something that causes a loss for words.

27 And God, who searchesLXVII hearts,LXVIII knows what is the mindLXIX of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedesLXX for the saintsLXXI according to the will of God.

Notes on verse 27

LXVII “searches” = ereunao. 6x in NT. From eraunao (to search or examine); perhaps from ereo (to say, tell, speak, mean, command); perhaps from rheo (to say, speak of, command). This is to seek or examine. Figuratively, it can mean to investigate or desire to know.
LXVIII “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
LXIX “mind” = phronema. 4x in NT. From phroneo (to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action); from phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is thought, purpose, mindset, inner perspective. It can also mean acting on gut insight.
LXX “intercedes” = entugchano. Related to “intercedes” in v26. 5x in NT. See note LXIV above.
LXXI “saints” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.

28 We know that all thingsLXXII work togetherLXXIII for goodLXXIV

Notes on verse 28a

LXXII “all things” = pas. Same as “whole” in v22. See note XLVI above.
LXXIII “work together” = sunergeo. 5x in NT. From sunergos (co-worker, associate, helper, co-laborer or one’s companion during labor); {from sun (with, together with) + ergon (work, task, deed, labor, effort) {from ergo (to work, accomplish, do)}}. This is to work together, help in labor, be a co-worker, to cooperate. This root is where “synergy” comes from.
LXXIV “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.

for those who loveLXXV God, who are calledLXXVI according to his purpose.LXXVII

Notes on verse 28b

LXXV “love” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
LXXVI “called” = kletos. 11x in NT. From the same as klesis (calling, invitation); from kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is the called, invited, calling. Used in the NT as God’s calling.
LXXVII “purpose” = prothesis. Related to “adoption” in v15. 12x in NT. From protithemi (to set before, purpose, plan, determine, put in a public display); {from pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior) + tithemi (see note X above)}. This is a setting forth – a proposal, predetermination, purpose. It can also mean something that is sacred or consecrated so it can be used for the showbread or sacred bread.

29 For those whom he foreknewLXXVIII he also predestinedLXXIX to be conformedLXXX

Notes on verse 29a

LXXVIII “foreknew” = proginosko. 5x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to know ahead of time, foresee, or ordain.
LXXIX “predestined” = proorizo. 6x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior) + horizo (to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined; literally, this is setting horizons); {from the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary)}. This is to predetermine, to set limits or boundaries in advance. Figuratively, it is foreordain or predestine.
LXXX “conformed” = summorphos. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + morphe (form, shape, external appearance; an appearance that embodies inner essence; figuratively, the nature of something); {perhaps from meros (a part or share, portion); {from meiromai (to get one’s allotment or portion)}. This is similar or conformed to. It is behavior that mirrors inner essence. It is jointly formed.

to the imageLXXXI of his Son,LXXXII in order that he might be the firstbornLXXXIII within a large family.LXXXIV 

Notes on verse 29b

LXXXI “image” = eikon. From eiko (resemble, be like) OR perhaps related to eiko (to submit, give way, be weak, yield). This is a likeness such as an image, statue, or other representation. It implies a prototype that is being mirrored – a replication rather than a shadow. It can be an image in a figurative sense as well. This is where the word “icon” comes from.
LXXXII “Son” = huios. Same as “children” in v14. See note VI above.
LXXXIII “firstborn” = prototokos. Related to “children” in v16. 8x in NT. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); {from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier)} + tikto (see note XV above). This is firstborn or oldest. Figuratively, it can also mean pre-eminent.
LXXXIV “within a large family” = en + polus + adelphos. Literally, “among many brothers.” Polus is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent. Adelphos is from a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

30 And those whom he predestined he also called,LXXXV and those whom he calledLXXXVI he also justified,LXXXVII and those whom he justified he also glorified.LXXXVIII

Notes on verse 30

LXXXV “called” = kaleo. Related to “called” in v28. See note LXXVI above.
LXXXVI “called” = kaleo. Same as “called” in v30. See note LXXXV above.
LXXXVII “justified” = dikaioo. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is to be righteous, plead the cause of, justify, acquit. Properly, it is being approved, particularly carrying the weight of a legal judgment. It is upright, render just, or innocent.
LXXXVIII “glorified” = doxazo. Related to “be glorified with” in v17 & “glory” in v18 & “eager longing” in v19. See note XXII above.

31 What then are we to sayLXXXIX about these things? If God is for us, who is against us? 32 He whoXC did not withholdXCI his ownXCII Son

Notes on verses 31-32a

LXXXIX “say” = ereo. Related to “searches” in v27. See note LXVII above.
XC {untranslated} = ge. 16x in NT. This is a particle of emphasis – indeed, besides, doubtless, yet, at least.
XCI “withhold” = pheidomai. 10x in NT. This is to spare, refrain, or to treat with leniency.
XCII “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).

but gave him upXCIII for allXCIV of us, how will he not with him also giveXCV us everythingXCVI else? 

Notes on verse 32b

XCIII “gave…up” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
XCIV “all” = pas. Same as “whole” in v22. See note XLVI above.
XCV “give” = charizomai. From charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to extend grace or favor, to grant forgiveness, to pardon or rescue.
XCVI “everything” = pas. Same as “whole” in v22. See note XLVI above.

33 Who will bring any chargeXCVII against God’s elect?XCVIII It is God who justifies. 34 Who is to condemn?XCIX

Notes on verses 33-34a

XCVII “bring…charge” = egkaleo. Related to “called” in v28 & “called” in v30. 7x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kaleo (see note LXXVI above). This is to accuse. It can be to level a demand or request a debt to be paid.
XCVIII “elect” = eklektos. Related to “consider” in v18. From eklego (to choose, select, elect); {from ek (from, from out of) + lego (see note XXIII above)}. This is to select or choose. It is making a personal choice – a favorite.
XCIX “condemn” = katakrino. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn. This is a decisive judgment of guilt. It can also be to damn someone.

It is ChristC who died,CI or rather,CII

Notes on verse 34b

C {untranslated} = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CI “died” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
CII “rather” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.

who was raised,CIII, CIV who is also at the right handCV of God, who also intercedesCVI for us. 

Notes on verse 34c

CIII “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
CIV {untranslated} = ek + nekros. Literally, “from the dead.” Nekros is perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
CV “right hand” = dexios. Related to “waits” in v19. Perhaps from dechomai (see note XXXII above). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
CVI “intercedes” = entugchano. Same as “intercedes” in v27. See note LXX above.

35 Who will separateCVII us from the loveCVIII of Christ? Will afflictionCIX

Notes on verse 35a

CVII “separate” = chorizo. 13x in NT. From choris (apart from, separate from); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). Properly, this is to separate or create space. It can be literal as divide, depart, or withdraw. It can be figurative in reference to divorce.
CVIII “love” = agape. Related to “love” in v28. From agapao (see note LXXV above). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
CIX “affliction” = thlipsis. From thlibo (to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict; figuratively to oppress or afflict). This is pressure that hems us in – used often of internal pressure that makes us feel like we have no other options and are confined or restricted. So, this is persecution, affliction, trouble, distress, and anguish. There is a different word, stenoxoria, that refers to external pressure that we feel from what’s going on.

or distressCX or persecutionCXI or famineCXII

Notes on verse 35b

CX “distress” = stenochoria. Related to “groaning together” in v22 & “groan” in v23 & “sighs” in v26 & “separate” in v35. 4x in NT. From stenos (see note XLVII above) + chora (see note CVII above). This is a narrow space – used figuratively for a difficulty coming from external pressure. It is distress, difficulty, or anguish.
CXI “persecution” = diogmos. 10x in NT. From dioko to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight). This is chase, pursuit, or persecution. It is hunting someone like an animal.
CXII “famine” = limos. 12x in NT. Probably from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is hunger, famine, or lacking.

or nakednessCXIII or perilCXIV or sword?CXV 

Notes on verse 35c

CXIII “nakedness” = gumnotes. 3x in NT. From gumnos (naked; generally, not completely clothed i.e. only wearing the undergarment and not the complete attire for going out; rarely, completely naked; naked in a literal or figurative sense – open, bare, ill-clad). This is nakedness or exposure – whether total nakedness or naked as compared to others.
CXIV “peril” = kindunos. 9x in NT – here & 8x in 2 Corinthians 11:26. This is danger, peril, or risk.
CXV “sword” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.

36 As it is written,CXVI

“For your sake we are being killedCXVII allCXVIII dayCXIX long;

Notes on verse 36a

CXVI “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
CXVII “killed” = thanatoo. Related to “died” in v34. 11x in NT. From thanatos (death, whether literal or spiritual; also something fatal); from thnesko (see note CI above). This is to kill in a literal or figurative sense – subdue, mortify, be apart from.
CXVIII “all” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CXIX “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.

    we are accountedCXX as sheepCXXI to be slaughtered.”CXXII

Notes on verse 36b

CXX “accounted” = logizomai. Same as “consider” in v18. See note XXIII above.
CXXI “sheep” = probaton. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (to walk, to go)}}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
CXXII “slaughtered” = sphage. 3x in NT. From sphazo (to slay, butcher an animal to eat or for sacrifice, slaughter, maim through violence). This is butchery of meat, whether for sacrifice or for food. It can also be used of slaughter and sacrifice more generally and figuratively of people, meaning destruction.

37 No, in allCXXIII these things we are more than victoriousCXXIV through him who loved us. 38 For I am convincedCXXV

Notes on verses 37-38a

CXXIII “all” = pas. Same as “whole” in v22. See note XLVI above.
CXXIV “are more than victorious” = hupernikao. 1x in NT. From huper (over, above, beyond) + nikao (to have victory, overcome, conquer, or prevail; implies a victory that follows a battle; root is part of “Nicodemus’s” name and it is also the root where Nike comes from); {from nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful)}. This is to prevail mightily, to surpass what a conqueror can do, to win a decisive victory.
CXXV “convinced” = peitho. This is to have confidence, to urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust. It is the root from which the Greek word for faith is drawn (pistis).

that neitherCXXVI death,CXXVII nor life,CXXVIII nor angels,CXXIX nor rulers,CXXX

Notes on verse 38b

CXXVI “neither” = oute. From ou (not, no) + te (and, even, also). This is and not. It can imply not even.
CXXVII “death” = thanatos. Related to “died” in v34 & “killed” in v36. See note CXVII above.
CXXVIII “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
CXXIX “angels” = aggelos. Related to “led” in v14 & “worth comparing to” in v18. Probably from ago (see note II above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
CXXX “rulers” = arche. Related to “first fruits” in v23. From archomai (see note LII above). Properly, this is what is first. In a temporal sense, that is beginning or origin. It can also refer to the one who ranks first, i.e. king or ruler. So, it can also be magistrate, power, or principality. It can be used more generally for what is preeminent.

nor things present,CXXXI nor things to come,CXXXII nor powers,CXXXIII 

Notes on verse 38c

CXXXI “things present” = enistemi. Related to “groaning together” in v22 & “groan” in v23 & “sighs” in v26 & “distress” in v35. 7x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by with, among) + histemi (see note XLVII above). This is literally to place in or be at hand. Thus, it is to be present or the things that are present. It can also be something that is impending or instant.
CXXXII “things to come” = mello. Same as “about to be” in v18. See note XXIX above.
CXXXIII “powers” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.

39 nor height,CXXXIV nor depth,CXXXV nor anything elseCXXXVI in all creation

Notes on verse 39a

CXXXIV “height” = hupsoma. 2x in NT. From hupsoo (to elevate in a literal or figurative sense; to raise up or set something in a high place or to exalt or make something great); from hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is something that is lifted up. So, it could be height, barrier, or bulwark. It could also be a lofty thing or elevated place – altitude, presumption.
CXXXV “depth” = bathos. Related to “sheep” in v36. 8x in NT. From bathus (deep in a literal or figurative sense); from the same root as basis (step, foot); from baino (see note CXXI above). This is depth, fullness, profundity, or immensity. This is where the term “bathysphere” comes from, but not the English word “bath.”
CXXXVI “else” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.

will be ableCXXXVII to separate us from the love of God in Christ JesusCXXXVIII our Lord.CXXXIX

Notes on verse 39b

CXXXVII “be able” = dunamai. Related to “powers” in v38. See note CXXXIII above.
CXXXVIII “Jesus” = Iesous. Same as {untranslated} in v34. See note C above.
CXXXIX “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

Image credit: “Tossed by the Wind” by Emily Carr, 1939.

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